Srínawésin: Lexicon of Verb Roots and Thesaurus

Srínawésin: Lexicon of Verb Roots and Thesaurus

Author: Madeline Palmer

MS Date: 04-06-2013

FL Date: 05-01-2013

FL Number: FL-000014-00

Citation: Palmer, Madeline. 2013. Srínawésin: Lexicon of
Verb Roots and Thesaurus. In Srínawésin:
The Language of the Kindred: A Grammar
and Lexicon of the Northern Latitudinal
Dialect of the Dragon Tongue.
FL-000014-00, Fiat Lingua, . Web. 01 May 2013.

Copyright: © 2013 Madeline Palmer. This work is licensed

under a Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Fiat Lingua is produced and maintained by the Language Creation Society (LCS). For more information
about the LCS, visit http://www.conlang.org/

Srínawésin
The Language of the Kindred:
A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the
Northern Latitudinal Dialect
of the Dragon Tongue

Based on notes written by Howard T. Davis

And

Organized and Adapted by Madeline Palmer

A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

Section I: Introduction…………………………………………………….…..……………………………………………………………….3
1.1. Constructing a Dictionary of Srínawésin………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.2. How to Use this Lexicon………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
1.3. A Note of the Derivation of Srínawésin’s Terms for Draconic Phenotypes………………………………4

Section II: Lexicon of Verb Roots…………………………………………..……………………………………………………………10
H…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
I…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
Ł……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14
N……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
QS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
QX…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
R…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
S……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21
SH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
SY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
Š……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
X…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
TH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
TS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34
U…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
W………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….37
Y…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

Section III: Thesaurus of Noun-Verb Roots According to Class…………………………….………..……………………40
3.1. Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………40
Class I Kindred……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..40
Class II Predators…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41
Class III Large Prey……………………………………………………………………………………………………….42
Class IV Small Prey………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
Class V Aquatic…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….43
Class VI Inedible…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
Class VII Celestial………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
Class VIII Aerial…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46
Class IX Animate………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47
Class X Inanimate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………50
Class XI Dead……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52
Class XII Components…………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Class XIII Varia/Unknown…………………………………………………………………………………………..54
Multi-Classed Roots………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Section IV: Thesaurus of True-Verbs According to Usage……………………………………………………………………60
4.1 Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
Aerial & Celestial Phenomena……………………………………………………………………………………….60
Animal Descriptors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….60

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A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

Color and Temperature Terms……………………………………………………………………………………….61
Emotions and Thoughts…………………………………………………………………………………………………61
Environmental Conditions…………………………………………………………………………………………….63
Flying Maneuvers and Actions……………………………………………………………………………………….63
General Descriptors and Actions…………………………………………………………………………………….63
Hunting, Stalking and Avoiding…………………………………………………………………………………….65
Killing, Dying and Eating………………………………………………………………………………………………67
Living Patterns & Actions……………………………………………………………………………………………..68
Motion, Travel and Positioning……………………………………………………………………………………..70
Non-Specific Actions……………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
Personal Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………………72
Relationships (Between Dragons)…………………………………………………………………………………..73
Speaking, Talking and Sounds………………………………………………………………………………………..75
Songs and Poetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….75

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A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

Section I:
Introduction

1.1. Constructing a Dictionary of Srínawésin
Constructing a lexicon of verbal roots of the draconic language from Davis’ notes presents a series
of challenges which might be impossible to surmount without the help of a knowledgeable speaker of the
language, however I shall do my best. As noted in my work on the grammar of Srínawésin, the basis of all
words in Srínawésin are verb roots. A single root has a general meaning related to it and various specific
meanings (true-verbs, noun-verbs in the various classes, adjectives, adverbs) are derived from it in a
specific pattern. While all words subsequently derived from a single root have similar meanings, the
precise semantic meaning of a root in its various derivations are not all identical, as are the grammatical
ways in which it is expressed. Because of this a normal dictionary of terms is extremely difficult to
formulate, so I present a lexicon of verb-roots and the various derivations taken from the single root listed
below. The root is written in bold with all capitals (for example SIHÁ-) with the various Intransitive,
Transitive and Reflexive verbal meanings listed below. After the verbal section the various noun-verbs
with their corresponding classes are listed and finally the meanings ascribed to the root when it is used in
an adjectival or adverbial meaning.

Everything in this lexicon is derived from two sources: the lexicon written down by Howard Davis
himself (although in a slightly different format then that given below) and words used in the dialogues and
notes in Davis’ work which he did not give verb root definitions and their derivations. Because of this, not
all the verb roots given below are complete, i.e. they do not give the way in which the root is derived into
true-verbs, noun-verbs, adjectives and so on, but give only a single definition either verbal, noun, adjective
or the like. Unfortunately I cannot flush out the derivations of roots to which Davis did not write down in
his notes (he apparently did not have enough time to finish a complete lexicon or simply didn’t feel it was
needed and because he knew them already) and until I can access one of his more helpful subjects to assist
me, I doubt I can finish this lexicon and all the derivations of the verb roots listed. However, if Davis or
anyone else who has contact with the Shúna is out there and willing I would dearly love to finish this
section and I would welcome any assistance!

Additionally, not all roots in Srínawésin have noun, adjectival, adverbial, or reflexive usages. Most
do, but not all and while they might be used in these ways, they are not explicitly used in this way in Davis’
notes, so I cannot guarantee their usage in actual speech. The following lexicon is not exhaustive and does
not represent a complete list of draconic words, only those found within Davis’ notes. There are
approximately one thousand words in this lexicon but it is important to remember that each root can be
derived many different ways into various parts of speech through the rules of the language. Each root could
hypothetically be derived into eighteen separate words (intransitive, transitive, and reflexive verbs; an
adjectival verb and adverb and the thirteen separate classes inherent in the language) this means while there
are about a thousand words in this lexicon they can be hypothetically be used 13,000 ways. And these are
just the main words Davis wrote down in his notes, which indicates the impressive flexibility and
responsiveness the Dragon Tongue has to whatever situation and need its speakers might face. And since
this is but a small sampling of one particular dialect of the language (not including terms in Deep Draconic
or Aquatic languages) the task facing anyone who might want to write down every verb root of Srínawésin
is similar to a person who might want to write down every human word in existence. An unlikely feat to
achieve by any stretch of the imagination.

This lexicon is divided up into four sections; the introduction you are currently reading, the lexicon
of verb-roots, which is the sum total of all the verb-roots I could find in Davis’ notes; the thesaurus of noun-
verb roots, which lists all the noun-verbal roots according to their class; and the thesaurus of true-verb
roots, which lists verbs according to semantic similarity, hunting, eating, living actions and so on.

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A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

1.2. How to Use this Lexicon
The dragon tongue has a vast and complex system of words which refer to relationships between
dragons. One result of this is that a word will refer to another dragon as either the speaker’s relationship,
the listener’s relation (if the listener is an enemy or unknown) or the listener’s relationship (if the listener is
an ally or at least a non-enemy). This system is noted with “(my)” before the translation when referring to
the speaker’s relation, “(your)” if the listener (ally or non-enemy) has the relationship and “(your)” if the
listener (enemy or stranger) has the relationship. Although this seems very complex, it allows for quick,
concise, exact speech, a virtue dragons value greatly when they have a desire to speak at all.

Roots are classed in parenthesis behind the English definition, such as SŁÁHIN- ‘minnow, small fish’
(V), indicating that to use the root słáhin- to mean a minnow it must be in Class V Aquatic. Many words
may be placed in multiple classes depending on their usage and are marked as (‡) to show they may appear
in multiple classes. For instance SRANÍ- ‘innards, guts’ (‡) can appear as –sraníš ‘dragon’s guts,’ –sraníth
‘dead guts, a corpse’s innards.’ Virtually all words which involve living creatures and parts of living
creatures (Classes I through VI, IX and sometimes XII or XIII) may appear in Class XI Dead and are not
specially marked. However, many words have precise semantic meanings when they are placed in a
particular class, such as HÁQSÁ- means ‘ghost’ when in Class VI, ‘shade-producing clouds’ when in Class
VIII and ‘shade, shadow’ when in Class XII and in these cases the derivations are included in the
definition of the verb-root. When the procreative gender of a root is relevant (primarily for prey animals
of various types and the Shúna themselves) it is indicated with the symbols (♀) for female and (♂) for
male.

All words which carry an Intentional Voice are indicated by ‘†’ in the translation. All others are
considered to be Unintentional in voice. Verb roots which have Inherent Objects or Inherent Subjects are
marked with •. Roots which have a wholly different singular or plural root are marked with ‘◊’ while those
which have a singular and plural form which does take the plural suffixes is marked as (◊) and those which
have three separate roots for each of the numbers is marked ◊◊◊. Roots with uncertain usage, gender or
precise meaning are bracketed by ( ). Sounds which are onomatopoeic (words which “sound like” what
they refer to such as splash, slash, rip and boom in English) are marked with (On.). Roots which are
pejorative or slightly so are marked with #. I have followed Howard’s methodology in placing words
beginning with sh and sy separately from the rest of the s-words because they represent separate
pronunciations (however this convention is only followed when these sounds begin the word). The sound x
is placed after s, sh, and sy because it closer to these sounds, so does not follow w as in the standard English
alphabet and following Davis’ methodology I have placed sh and sy as separate categories.

1.2. A Note of the Derivation of Srínawésin’s Terms for Draconic Phenotypes
Howard Davis did not give very much information on the past history of Srínawésin’s various
dialects, although he did not do so through simple oversight but because the nature of the problem
precluded any definitive discussions of the matter. He managed to learn simple relationships as shown in
§1.4.2. Dialects and the History of Srínawésin above but the simple fact that his informants did not really
care about the past history of their language and that the challenge involved many draconic generations of
history made it virtually impossible to discern the relationships of draconic languages with any certainty
for someone with a scant eighty-or-so years a human has.

Despite this fact he did manage to tease one interesting aspect of the history of Srínawésin out from
Black Honey and Stargazer in particular, namely the historical derivation of the Dragon Tongue’s
terminology for its own speakers. As noted above the biggest similarity that the Shúna have with each
other is their vast differences in their shapes and environments, but like the various dialects of Srínawésin
these can be placed into broad categories of relative similarity. Although dragons do not seem to possess
the human need to organize everything in their purview into nice, tidy little categories, they too organize
the way that they look at themselves into simplistic categories which appear to be common throughout the

4

A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

draconic linguistic community. I hesitate to call these “races” because this implies some form of heredity
and as noted above in §1.3.1. Physical Characteristics dragons can alter themselves radically in a single
generation so any concept of “race” as heredity must be discarded. Davis himself called these types races
but I prefer the term phenotype which specifies the bodily shape rather then implying that anything beyond
simple “dragon-ness” is passed from parents to hatchlings through the generations.

This section covers two areas, the various draconic phenotypes and the interesting history of
Srínawésin’s terms for these phenotypes. “Phenotype” is a rather broad category which actually involves
three separate categories; body shape, elemental characteristic, and preferred environment. Body Type is a
fairly obvious term, it describes their morphological characteristics such as number (or lack) of limbs and
other features. Elemental Characteristic involves the type of connection a dragon often possesses with the
various elements of the natural world, fire, ice, water etc. This characteristic usually involves the various
types of terrible things the dragon can breathe out to kill those who offend it and is often related to the
Preferred Environment of the Sihá in question. Fiery dragons typically prefer hot areas, icy Sihá prefer colder
areas and so on, although this is a slight simplification because the Shúna are virtually immune to most
environmental conditions and so can be found anywhere they want to live. Who is going to stop them?

The various draconic phenotypes are called many things through many human cultures and across
the long millennia that dragons and humans have interacted with one another but for simplicities sake I
will use the common European terms where applicable and various often used cultural terms when the
European terminology falls short. The various phenotypes and basic descriptions are given below, but it is
important to remember that despite their cultural names these phenotypes may be found anywhere in the
world:1

Body Types
Amphiptère: This rather rare type is essentially a dragon with a serpentine body and large wings
without any form of legs of any kind. Although the name is obviously French in origin, I would
hazard to guess that the Amphiptère is similar if not synonymous with the Coatl below. Howard
knew at least one, possibly two Amphiptères, Dribbler and Bone Digger and Bloody Face believed
that the legendary Sun Catcher was also of this type.
Coatl: This word apparently comes from the Aztec word ‘serpent’ and is most commonly known
from the name Quetzalcoatl or ‘Feathered Serpent.’ I would surmise that this type is synonymous
with the Amphiptère above and is just a regional variety but there is a great deal of agreement
among humans that Coatls have feathers rather then scales (or at least feathery scales). I cannot say
if this is true or not as Davis knew no Coatls, nor did any of his informants. When asked if such a
Sihá existed, Angry Face simply snorted a ring of smoke and said “Wúx…” (‘Possibly…’) and then
went to sleep.
Cosmic: Neither Howard or any of the Shúna he knew had ever met a Shúna of this type, which
for lack of a better term I call “cosmic.” I use this term because they often appear as vastly powerful
and dangerous monsters in mythology, often as the opponents of gods or demigods. I cite the
mythological dragons Jormunganðr (Norse), Tiâmat (Sumerian), Azhi Dahaka (Persian) and Typhon
(Greek) as primary examples of this type. Dragons prefer to use the root šáthí- or ‘Elder’ and the
few that Moonchild and Bloody Face heard of apparently live up to my term cosmic as they were
huge and capable of vast destruction when angered. Luckily this seems to happen very rarely.
Heraldic: This type is the basic type of “European” dragon, and essentially this type has a long neck
and tail, four legs and two large wings used for flight. Many of Howard’s informants were of this
type, including Moonchild, Bloody Face, Black Honey, Stargazer, Obsidian Claw, Frost Song and

1 These types are taken primarily from The Enchanted World: Dragons, Alexandria, Virginia, Time Life Books, 1984, pages 32-33,
although many appear to be a matter of “common-knowledge” throughout many writings applying to dragons.

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A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

others. This type is called the Heraldic Dragon because it is the classical image used in European
Heraldry for dragons (such as the Welsh flag and others).2
Guivre: Another French-derived name (they appear to have some difficulty with dragons for a long
time), the Guivre is often referred to as a Worm or Wurm in Germanic literature and is just that: a
Sihá without any legs or wings whatsoever. Although these Shúna lack grasping paws they are still
extremely adept at using their mouths and tails when necessary and are just as deadly as their
limbed cousins. Howard’s main informers of this type were Twisted Smoke, Charred Oak and
Ghost Song.
Lindworm: This rare type of dragon is serpent-like but has a pair of arm-like limbs without back
legs. This type falls in between the Wyvern and Guivres and is fairly rare according to Davis. He
knew no Lindworms personally but noted that he believed that White Eye was one.
Wingless Heraldic: These Shúna are usually referred to as “Asiatic” or “Chinese” dragons although
this is an absurd name when dealing with creatures that have been around before Homo Sapiens or
Homo Erectus even came to China. To put is simply: this type is not defined by living in China or
even Asia because for most of draconic history these did not exist. Wingless Heraldic dragons are
long and serpentine with four legs but—as you can imagine—do not have wings. Despite what
Chinese legend says these Kindred do not apparently fly despite their lack of wings, and are quite
land-bound.
Wyvern: Wyverns are fairly common and well-known draconic types and have a body shape more
akin to a bat then the Heraldic types. Essentially they have a serpentine body, two back legs (which
function as grasping claws) and two arm-like wings which they can fly with great power and
maneuverability. Rotten Teeth, Dawnglow, Slit Belly, Under the Claw and Mist Stalker were all
wyvernic Kindred.

Elemental Characteristic
The elemental characteristics a dragon might have (and the terrible way you might die if you anger
one) are varied but usually involve several main types, usually fire, ice, poison3 and stone. Fiery
types usually breathe incredibly hot flame and enjoy living in hot areas, icy dragons are freezing to
the touch and their breath is viciously cold liquid similar to liquid nitrogen and is as lethal as the
hottest flame, and much, much more painful. Poisonous Shúna can breathe out deadly vapors which
burn and kill anything unfortunate enough to touch the nasty stuff like a combination of
hydrochloric acid and VX Nerve Gas and this deadly mist can hang in the air for hours after it
leaves the dragon’s mouth, flowing like water to the lowest point in the ground and killing any
animal, insect or plant there. Stone dragons usually do not possess any type of lethal breath
(although some are of the fire-type) but prefer to live deep in the earth and in dark caves rarely seen
or dreamed of buy humans. These type all speak the Deep Draconic form of Srínawésin and are
rarely seen even by their own kindred much less then by humans.

Preferred Environment
Davis summed up this category into two nice types: aquatic dragons and everything else. Aquatic
types live most if not all their lives under water and usually speak a form of Oceanic or Inlandic
form of Srínawésin although they often speak other varieties as well. All the other types can
essentially live wherever they desire as they are rarely bothered by heat, cold, humidity or climate
and most can live indefinitely even underwater if they should so choose.

2 Slater, Stephen, The Complete Book of Heraldry: An International History of Heraldry and Its Contemporary Uses, London, England,
Lorenz Books, 2002, pages 92-93 and 189
3 Obviously poison is not one of the classical elemental types of earth, air, fire and water but for lack of a better term Elemental
Characteristics still is a functional name.

6

A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

These categories of phenotypes are broad and basic and it is important to note that they can be
combined in many different ways. Both Bloody Face and Moonchild were Heraldic and fiery dragons who
lived in a mild climate (England) alongside Frost Song who was Heraldic and icy. A Sihá could be an
Amphiptère and poisonous or a Guivre and icy or many other combinations thereof. Although a Sihá can
be almost any combination of these types it should be noted that Aquatic dragons obviously rarely have
wings and usually do not breathe fire of any type and a large number of Guivres tend to be poisonous, often
coated in a thick lair of poison which burns to the touch.4

As noted above, the Kindred also describe themselves according to bodily type although they

obviously use different terminology. The Srínawésin terms used to describe body-types is given below:

Srínawésin (Singular)
šinhá-
(šinhá-)
šáthí-
xinhá-
xrushá-
tsírhá-
łerhá-
sreshá-

Srínawésin (Plural)
šínna-
(šínna-)5
šáthíwé-
xínna-
xrúsna-
tsírna-
łérna-
srésna-

English
Amphiptère
Coatl
Cosmic
Heraldic
Guivre
Lindworm
Wingless Heraldic
Wyvern

There are three interesting things about this list. Firstly, while most roots that have a singular and a
plural form that bear no resemblance to one another the two types of roots above (with the obvious
exception of šáthí-) obviously share a connection. Secondly, the singular roots all end in the syllable –há
and thirdly all the plural roots end in the syllable –na and have voicing on the first syllable of the root.
Being a trained linguist Davis noticed this the moment he compiled the above list and asked Black Honey
about it. Although it took him some time to pry enough non-evasive answers from the rather “rude in a
friendly way” Sihá, he eventually came to the conclusion that the etymology of these roots is complex and
comes from a joining of two separate roots.

He believed that in Proto-Latitudinal form of Srínawésin there was an original root word which
described each phenotype in some way which then had the word sihá- ‘dragon, those who are alike or
kindred to me’ appended to it as below:

*šin?+sihá-
*(šin?+sihá-)
*xin?+sihá-
*xrus?+sihá-
*tsír?+sihá-
*łer?+sihá-
*sres?+sihá-

Amphiptère
Coatl
Heraldic
Guivre
Lindworm
Wingless Heraldic
Wyvern

Later in Srínawésin’s history these forms were shortened by the removal of the syllable si from sihá-

and compacted with the original descriptive root to form:

4 Another reason no other animal hunts the Kindred!
5 These terms are identical with one another which is why I suspect that the Coatl is a subclass of the Amphiptère rather then its
own type.

7

A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

*šin?+sihá-
=
*(šin?+sihá-) =
*xin?+sihá-
=
*xrus?+sihá- =
=
*tsír?+sihá-
*łer?+sihá-
=
*sres?+sihá- =

šinhá
(šinhá)
xinhá
xrushá
tsírhá
łerhá
sreshá

Amphiptère
Coatl
Heraldic
Guivre
Lindworm
Wingless Heraldic
Wyvern

Apparently the final vowel of the original root was lost in this process along with the syllable si
from sihá. This process would also explain the plural forms if they were formed from the original
descriptive root plus the plural root shúna- ‘dragons, those who are alike or kindred to me’ as below:

*šin?+shúna-
*(šin?+shúna-)
*xin?+shúna-
*xrus?+shúna-
*tsír?+shúna-
*łer?+shúna-
*sres?+shúna-

Amphiptère
Coatl
Heraldic
Guivre
Lindworm
Wingless Heraldic
Wyvern

The collapse of the original descriptive root with the term shúna- probably happened in parallel with
that of sihá- but since the vowel in the first syllable of shúna- is voiced it most likely caused voicing to the
first syllable of the original root forming:

*šin?+shúna- =
*šin?+shúna- =
*xin?+shúna- =
*xrus?+shúna- =
*tsír?+shúna- =
*łer?+shúna- =
*sres?+shúna- =

šínna-
šínna-
xínna-
xrúsna-
tsírna-
łérna-
srésna-

Amphiptère
Coatl
Heraldic
Guivre
Lindworm
Wingless Heraldic
Wyvern

Bloody Face later informed Howard when he asked about it specifically that these terms were
virtually identical in the Artic dialect of Srínawésin but not in the Tropical dialect, leading Howard to
hypothesize that Artic and Northern Latitudinal were more closely related to one another then to the
Tropical variety, giving the relationship chart of Srínawésin’s languages as below rather then as noted in
§1.4.2. Dialects and the History of Srínawésin above:

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A Lexicon & Thesaurus of the Dragon Tongue

I have no direct evidence to back up Howard’s assertion but as it makes good linguistic sense I
would imagine that he is broadly correct but without access to his sources I cannot say more. It is an
interesting look into the pre-(human)-history of Srínawésin although given the draconic lifespan is so long
the time periods involved in any linguistic change would be enormous.

9

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Section II:
Lexicon of Verb Roots

H

•HÁHÍ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to look for a particular mate,
to try and convince a friend
to become a mate
to be looking for a mate

†a dragon looking for a mate (both

genders (I)

†an animal looking for a mate (‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

hopeful, desirous
longingly, piningly

•HAHÍN-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be a boundary marker
to set up a boundary marker
between another territory
(direct object)
to set up general boundary
markers

a boundary marker, mark, sign of

possession (XII)

as

Adjective:

separated, possessed by a
dragon
hunting
territory
in a set-aside fashion
to sing beautifully, †nightingale
(VI)
◊HAŁA(Ł)- (singular form is tsúrí-)

Adverb:

HÁŁA-

a

Intran. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be tiny pebbles or gravel

tiny pebbles, little stones, gravel (IX,

X)
Adjective:

Adverb:

crunchy, loud, difficult to
move over silently
crunchingly, loudly
to burst out, to free, to open up
steam, boiling water, hot springs
(IX)
again, once more, also (typically
adverbial)

HÁŁÁTH-
HÁŁI-

HAŁIN-

HÁŁRÍ-

◊HAŁÚTH-

•HANA-
HANÁTH-

HÁNÍ-

HANRÁ-

HANRÍ-

HÁNRÚ-

HANSÁ-

HÁNSÉ-
HANSÍ-
HÁNSU-

HÁNU-
HANXE-

HÁQSA-

to appear, to emerge from, to
originate from, original place (‡)
cedar tree (singular form is xnesyi-)
(IX)
male sex organs, penis, phallus (‡)
unsure, uncertain, cautious creature
(‡)
love, desire, want, hope for, hunger
for (XII), a creature which wants
something or which is desired (‡)
to yawn, to open the mouth very
wide, opened mouth of a creature
(‡)
to check up on, to look in on, to
things are
to see how
visit,
(principally between two Sihá)
aerial conditions between a large
pocket of high pressure (clear
weather) and low pressure (cloudy,
rainy weather) (VIII)
open, clear skies with few clouds
(VIII), apparent, clear
new, surprising, astonishing
stress, worry, excitement (IX, XII)
to scrape the scales off a fish, fish
scales (usually plural) (V, XII)
golden, goldish (color) (XII)
truth, veracity
dragon, trustworthy dragon (I)

truthful

(VII),

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to leap, to jump about
to make another to leap
to be a female deer

†female deer (III)
†toad, little leaper (VI)

Adjective:

Adverb:

a female deer’s smell, deer-
like smell
jumpy, ducking,
running in a zigzag

leaping,

HÁQSÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to be shaded
to shade from heat or light

10

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to sit in the shade or hide
from the light

ghost, dark thing (VI)
thin clouds, diaphanous clouds (VIII)
shade, shadow (XII)

Adjective:

Adverb:

shaded, shadowy, slightly
dark or misty, damp
without enthusiasm, slowly,
sluggishly

HÁQSRU-
HAQSÚN-

HAQXÍ-

HÁQXÍ-
•HARÁ-
HÁRÁ-
HARI-
HÁRÍ-

HARSU-

HÁRTHA-

#HARÚ-

HASA-
◊HASNÉ-

HAŠE-
HÁSÚ-
◊HÁŠÍ-

HAŠŁA-
HAŠŁÍ-

HÁŠRÚ-
HAŠWA-
HÁŠÉ-
HASHA-

HASHÚ-

HÁSNI-

marrow of bone (‡)
to think, to believe, to give credit
to, to care about
to be purple in color, a thing which
is purple (‡)
hoof (‡)
†(your) father (I)
†mammoth (♂) (III)
†Uranus (VII)
scar, scarred over flesh (alternate of
hushí-) (XII)
appears to be (usually in adverbial
form)
†a predator waiting patiently for
just the right moment to strike (‡),
to wait patiently to strike, to wait
with a purpose
tough or particularly disgusting fat,
gristle, blubber (‡)
“empty” root, pronoun root (‡)
hip, hip bone, pelvis (plural is rišu-)
(‡)
to turn around, to whirl around
flint (X)
print, track, mark left in the ground
by a foot but without any traceable
smells left by the animal which left
it (plural form of šuhun-) (‡)
dry riverbed (X, XI)
a broken chunk of bone imbedded
in meat or flesh (XI, XII)
blackberry, brambles (IX)
†comet (VII)
heaven, sky (unreachable) (VII)
weather, atmospheric conditions
(VIII)
to wrench something open widely
(corpse, tree), wide, open thing (‡)
raspberry (IX)

11

HÁŠIN-

HÁŠU-
HAXA-

HÁXÉ-

HAXÍ-
HAXŁA-

HAXŁÁ-

HÁXU-

scales, skin, coating of something
(undifferentiated) (‡)
tip of the tail (‡)
top of a mountain, tip, highest
reaches of a mountain (X)
to bristle, to appear to be larger, to
make an attempt at intimidation
to be tired, to be wearied
sand, dirt (always innumerable)
(IX, X)
to wear away, to wear down to
erode (probably related to haxła-)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to lay down on the ground,
to be in a hallow, to be a
lake of water
to place in depressed ground
to lay down in a hallow

mist laying in a hollow (VIII)
standing water, small lake, pool, little

puddle (IX)

hollow, depression (X)

Adjective:

Adverb:

down,

laying
drooping
lethargically

laying,

HAXÚ-
HAXYÉ-
HATHÁ-
HÁTHA-

HÁTSÉ-
HATSI-
HAWA-

lava (IX)
†goldfish (V)
anger, fury (IX)
deep, a location beneath, the ground
beneath one, below (direction) (X,
‡)
†youngling, adolescent dragon (I)
holly-tree (IX)

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be a female goat

†large prehistoric animal of unknown

type (III)
†goat (♀) (III, IV)

Adjective:

smell like a female goat,
female goatishness

HAWÁ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to be meaty shreds, to be
torn or rent
to rend, to slash, to rip into
meaty shreds
to be torn up, to slash
oneself

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Noun-Verb:
meat (‡)
depths of the earth (stone-meat) (X)

Adjective:
Adverb:

Adjective:

meaty, ripped up, slashed,

HÍNETH-

Adverb:

smell like meat
slicing,
a
with
motion or manner

cutting

HINŁÍ-

†fish (in a river, lake or sea) (V)

fishy, fish-smelling
lashing side-to-side
to sequester, to hole up, to dig into
a location to wait
a muddy river, stream, creek or
rivulet (IX)
broken dragon egg (XI), hatched,
†waning moon (VII)
†bull, cow (♂) (III)
sound of rain (On.) (VIII)
glacial pool of water (IX)
to mate, to copulate (non draconic)
(‡)
plant that grows on a vine (IX)
vein of ore in the stone (X)
flakes of stone or another material,
chips of something (‡)
thirst, desire for water, creature
which is thirsty, drought caused by
intense heat wave (compare with
rathu-) (‡, VIII)
gust of wind, puff of wind (VIII)
mountain trail, trail through hills
or foothills (X)

HÍNTSE-

HIRA-
HÍRÍ-
HÍRŁA-
•HÍRSE-

HIRÚ-
HISRE-
HÍSHI-

HÍSHÍ-

HÍSA-
HISYÁ-

HÍŠÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to be heard, to be audible
to hear, to listen to
to be listening, to listen to
oneself

Noun-Verb:
ear (‡)
sound under water (V)
sound (VIII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

loud, audible
audibly

HÍŠIN-

HÍŠRÍ-

HIŠRU-

HÍXÉ-

lowlands, low area where the tide
might come in (IX, X)
cover, to hide behind while hunting
(‡)
to mark trees with horns or antlers,
trees marked by horns or antlers
(IX, XI)
foolish actions which cause harm
(usually to oneself, which is of
course the only thing which really
matters), †a dragon or animal
which by its foolish actions causes
itself harm (‡)

#HAWÉ-

HAYÁ-

HÁYI-
◊HEŁÁ-

HÉŁÁ-

HEŁÁTH-

HÉNÁ-

HENE-
HÉQXU-
HERI-
HÉRŁU-
HESA-

HESRÁ-

HESHÍ-
HESHÚ-

HÉXU-
HEŠI-
HÉTSÁ-

HÉYA-
HEYUN-
HÍŁÁ-
HÍNA-
HÍNE-

a confused creature (‡), confusion,
confused, to confuse
to wash, to bathe in water, to play
in the water, †a bathing creature (‡)
wasteland, barren lands (X, XI)
fords in a river (singular form is
qsúqsí-) (IX, X)
tributary river (similar to húran- or
a vein or artery of water) (IX)
a forest with too much cover to see
prey from the air (IX)
(†)barnacle (V, XI (considered to
be like a plant))
sandstone (X)
to feel déjà vu, to feel strange
moss on a stone (IX, XI)
†polar bear (II)
to coat, to cover something in
something liquid or dusty, a film,
or coating of something on the skin
(IX)
volcanic stone, pumice (although
usually the black variety (X)
†swan (VI)
clawful (pebbles which fill up a
claw (X)), numerical classifier of
enumerated item’s class (‡)
rainbow (VIII)
to interrupt, to butt in
clear, mirror-like lake with a lot of
glare (IX, XI)
†moose (♀) (III)
†grasshopper (VI)
small, rocky island (X)
to roll over (aerial maneuver)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to move back and forth
to make to swim away or
towards oneself or another
to swim (by moving tail
back and forth), to be a fish

12

HÍXIN-
HÍXRÚ-

HÍTSÁ-
HÍYA-

HIYU-

HÚŁE-

HUŁU-
HUNA-

HUNHA-
HÚNI-
#HUNŁÚ-

HUNQSE-
•HÚNQSÉ-
HÚNU-

HÚQSA-

HÚQXE-

HUQSU-

HÚRA-
HÚRÁ-

HÚRAN-

HÚRÉ-

HÚRŁÁ-

HÚRNA-
HURQSÁ-

HÚRQSÍ-

HÚRSA-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

rare

storm

(usually

feminine

†chicken (VI)
debris after a
innumerable) (XI, XII)
good, pleasant, nice (‡)
to startle awake, †a creature which
is startled awake (‡)
to pick at, to scratch at in an
attempt to pull something out or
off
cat-nap, little sleep, a nap (XII),
lightly-sleeping creature (‡)
beach, edge of the water (IX, X)
“empty”
very
pronoun root (found primarily in
Artic Latitudinal but sometimes
found in Northern Latitudinal as
well) (‡)
deep and wide lake (IX, X)
†ptarmigan (VI)
sick, sickly, infirm, weak, sickly
creature (‡)
†rat, mouse (VI)
spikes along a dragon’s back (I)
to sing a specific melody, a melody
(On.?) (VIII)
white, brightly white (XII), white
ash (XI), white thing (‡)
to catch midair, to grab onto prey
midair
a sheer drop of a mountain face,
sheer stone drop (X)
thunder (VIII)
to spill, to gush out, to spill out
over something (relatively small in
nature vs. shaxún- ‘flood’), spilled
liquid such as blood or bile (IX, XI)
to cut a vein or artery, a vein or
artery (see héłá- as well) (‡)
†worm, earthworm (alternate term
from xánra-) (VI)
water dripping over stone, water
dripping in a cave (IX)
anus (‡)
hole in the ice (used by seals as a
breathing hole (IX)
trunk (of a tree or torso of an
animal or dragon) (‡)
to need or require

HÚRSÁ-

HURTHÁ-

HÚRTSA-
HURÚ-
HÚRÚ-

•HURÚN-

◊HÚRÚN-

#HUSA-

HÚSA-
HÚSÁ-
HÚSHA-

HUSHI-

HUSHÍ-

HUSŁÉ-
HÚSŁÉ-

HUSNA-
HÚSRU-
•HUSU-

HÚSÚ-
HUSÚN-

ornery

to be grimy, to be covered in mud
and rotting muck, †a creature
covered in grime and rotting muck
(‡)
curve of the earth seen from high
up (while flying) (X), atmospheric
disturbance caused by the curve of
the earth (VIII)
to grind, to grate
left side, left direction (‡)
combative,
difficult,
creature (mostly non-Shúna) (‡)
to forbid, to exclude, forbidden,
excluded place (to listener but not
to another) (X, XII)
to be brave, to lack fear, bravery,
lack of fear (VII), †brave creatures
(‡) (singular form is syénsú-)
to be ridiculous, to be utterly
thing
foolish, (†)a creature or
which is ridiculous and utterly
foolish (‡)
thorny bushes (IX)
echo (usually plural) (VIII)
long duration,
(rarely used) (VIII, XII)
open ground in a forest, forested
but without much brush to impede
movement (and without cover)
(IX)
scar, old wound (‡), †Aldebaran
(star in Taurus) (VII)
leaves on the ground (XI)
fullerite
formed
(glass
lightning striking sand) (X)
to go, to leave behind
†magpie (VI)
whispering of the wind through
reeds, grass, leaves (On.) (VIII)
icicle (IX)

extended wait

from

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be winding, sinuous, of
an indirect manner
to plot against…
to plot, to plan

†demon, monster, devil (VI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

untrustworthy
in a ugly way, fiendishly

13

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

◊HÚSYÚ-

HUŠU-
HÚŠU-
HUSWA-

HÚXHÁ-

HUXŁI-

HUTSA-

◊HUTSÁ-

HÚTSÚ-

HÚTSU-
HUXÉ-

splotchy

sounds while

to dream, to move around and
make
sleeping,
†dreams (VII), creatures which are
dreaming (‡) (singular form is
syesá-)
†horse (♀) (III)
†trusted enemy (unpossessed) (?)
spotted,
dappled,
(shadows & sunlight) (IX, XII)
to chortle, to laugh, a laugh or
chortle,
amusement
(VIII)
knot in bone caused by an old
injury which healed (IX, IX, XII)
to strike back, to get vengeance
upon, to hit back, vengeance (XII)
honeysuckle plant (plural form is
yisi-) (IX)
bark (of a dog, seal etc.) (On.) (‡,
VIII)
skull (‡)

sound of

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be forked, to be split
to spear with horns, to kill
with horns, to maul
to be a male deer

†male deer, buck (III)
†horned fish (V)
†horned beetle, bug (VI)
forks of lightning, horns of lightning

(VIII)

sloughed off antlers (XI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

spiky, horny, spined
in a split way, unplanned,
without a purpose
salt, salty water (X, IX)
long distance, far away (‡)

HUXRÍ-
HÚWE-

ŁAHÚ-
ŁAŁA-
ŁAŁIN-
ŁANIN-

•ŁANŠU-

ŁARA-
#ŁARI-
◊ŁARÍ-

ŁARSE-
ŁASE-
ŁASHÍN-
ŁÁŠÁ-

ŁÁŠI-
•ŁASU-
ŁATSE-
ŁATSÍ-

ŁATSIŠ-
#ŁAYÚ-
ŁÉŁATH-

ŁENA-
ŁÉQXÍN-

•◊ŁERHÁ-

•◊ŁÉRNA-

ŁERQSU-
ŁÉRSÍ-

I

ÍTSIN-

ravine, gully (mostly sharp-walled)
(X)

ŁESHU-

Ł

ŁAHÉ-

to be sneaky or suspicious, ††a
questionable or suspicious dragon

ŁEYA-

ŁÉYÁ-

14

(I), †a sneaky or slinking creature
(‡)
berry (IX, XII)
seedling (IX)
flowers, blossoms (IX)
to remain, to stay behind, to leave
something behind, left over object
(‡)
for a ♂ animal to sweat, sweat of a
♂ animal (‡)
†cat, big cat, predatory cat (II, IV)
weak, not strong, wounded (‡)
willow tree (plural form is sasi-)
(IX)
†a dwarf (?) (VI)
upwind (direction) (‡)
scotch broom plant (IX)
to kill, slay, destroy, rip up (no
mention of eating)
shoal, shore (IX, X, XII)
†herd of prey animals (III, IV)
to find, successfully search for
to be bored, to bore, †a bored
creature (‡)
lower left back (direction) (‡)
poison, bitterness, venom, bile (‡)
dry air, dry season, summer (?)
(VIII)
pancreas (‡)
to leap up, to take off with a
running start
†a Wingless Heraldic form of
dragon (plural form is łérna-) (I)
†a Wingless Heraldic form of
dragon (singular form is łerhá-) (I)
to be curious, probing
onto
to
to heap onto
something else,
something else (as opposed to yuxi-
which implies just a pile or heap
but not explicitly on
top of
something else)
plainly,
obviously
somewhat
(similar to qsér but considered to be
non-insulting, usually in adverbial
form)
to hunt by scent alone, a creature
hunting by scent alone (‡)
gills of a fish or shark (V, XII)

something

pile

up

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to place, to put a thing down
to sit, to prop oneself up

ŁÍHI-

ŁÍHU-
#ŁÍŁA-

ŁIŁU-
ŁINTSA-
ŁÍRÁ-

to sing a lullaby, to croon softly,
lullaby, crooning soft song (VIII)
to ask, to query, a question (VIII)
to be incautious about where one
defecates and urinates, uncaring,
incautious, an incautious creature
(‡)
opal stone (X)
rowan tree (IX)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

difficult,

clashing,
problematic
to be hostile (towards me,
implicit object)
to be my enemy

#†(my) enemy, proven foe (I)
†competition animal for similar food

resources (II)

Adjective:
Adverb:

hostile, problematic
hostilely

ŁÍSHÉ-

ŁISHU-
ŁÍSHU-

ŁISÚ-

ŁIŠA-

•ŁIŠÁ-

to spread out into the ground, roots
of a tree (IX, XI, XII)
pussy willow (IX)
pine needles (usually plural) (IX,
XII)
to be very, very hot, a thing which
is visibly hot (visual) (‡)
to be interested in something, to be
interesting,
interesting
†an
creature, interesting thing (‡)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be a hunting territory of
someone
to search for a hunting
territory
to have a hunting territory
(unspecified ownership)

hunting territory (general, no specified

ownership) (XII)
to warn, a warning (VIII)
sloped hill, hill with a gentle or
gradual slope (X)
permafrost, layer of frozen ground
which never melts (X)
sulfur (X)

ŁÍXNÁ-
ŁUHÚ-

ŁÚQXÚ-

ŁURÉ-
ŁUSA-

Intran. V:

sit up, set in a place

15

location, place, definite location (X, ‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

sitting, placed
in a situated manner

ŁUSÍ-

to
respect or admire,
admiration, (love?) (VII)

respect,

N

to catch something but have it
struggle loose, to struggle loose
from a predator’s grasp
to sneeze, to snort, expulsion of air
or sneeze (VIII)
a lake which water flows into but
(apparently) not out of (IX)
†Spica (star in the constellation of
Virgo) (VII), blue-white, blue as
well as white
to string something, string, line,
group of items strung on a line
(usually plural unless referring to
the string in totality) (‡)
spray, foam, sea foam (IX)
little twig, tiny branch (IX, XI,
XII) (plural is sušun-)
fishrun, the time of year where fish
swim upstream to mate, †fish on a
run up a river (V, X, XII)
to fall, to collapse, to dive onto
(†) clam (V, IX because it is
considered semi-plantlike)
to roar, a roar (On.) (VIII), ††a
roaring creature (‡)
elder tree (IX)
grass, field, clearing, meadow (‡)
creek, little stream, rivulet, dried up
little stream (IX, XI)
to be unalike, to be different, to be
dissimilar, †an animal unlike others
(‡)
†reindeer (♀) (III)
to be bald and devoid of hair or
trees, †a creature which is bald or
balding (‡)
gemstone, gem (X)

NAHAŁ-

NÁHÍN-

NAHU-

NAHUN-

NAŁÍ-

NÁQXE-
◊NAQXÍ-

NARA-

NÁRA-
NARÁ-

NÁRÁ-

NARATH-
NARHA-
NÁRHU-

NÁRÍ-

NÁRIN-
NÁRQSA-

NARSÍ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

NARSÚ-

NASA-
NÁSA-
NAŠA-
NAŠIN-

NAŠIR-
NÁSRÍ-
NAXÍ-
NÁXU-
NAXUŁ-

NATSA-
NAWE-

NÉHÁ-
NEŁNI-

NÉŁSÁ-
•◊NÉŁU-

NÉNYI-
NEWÁ-

NÍHÁ-
◊NÍŁSA-

NÍRU-
NÍSHU-
NÍŠÁ-
NIŠNÁ-

NUNA-

sick, rotting tree which is still alive
but might fall over (IX)
†water skimmer (insect) (VI)
directly up (direction) (‡)
sorta, kinda, a little bit
brown, the color brown, brown
object/being (‡)
fur, hair (‡)
upper left back (direction) (‡)
unused prey trail (XI, ‡)
gamey taste in flesh (‡)
desert, deserted land, barren (XI,
X)
cool, soothing, cool object (‡)
false trail (left by either predator or
game) (‡)
†male giant (?) (♂) (VI)6
to be kind and generous, †a kind
and generous creature (‡)
to make worse, to worsen
shed scales (?) (singular form is
yátsín-) (XI)
limestone (X)
to dip, to move slowly downward,
to slip down
to curl up, to roll oneself up
to lie, a lie (VIII), a liar (‡), a
deceitful happening, a trick (XII)
(plural form is wašra-)
to inadvertently startle an animal
tibia bone (‡)
oil (IX), oil of an animal (‡), oily
to shake water off, to shake oneself
to get water off

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be the wind, to blow
to blow on, to take away
breath (with qsi)
to breathe, to gasp

breath (‡)
spirit, ghostly thing (VI)
fate (celestial winds) (VII)
wind, breeze (VIII)

Adjective:

breezily, breathy

NUSU-
NÚSHE-

†crawdad (V, VI)
a crack in a rock face (X, XII)

6 See the note on ríná- about this root

NUSYE-
•NUŠÁ-

†woodpecker (VI)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to make into my hatch-
sister
to be my hatch-sister

†(my) hatch-sister

Adjective:

sisterly to me
†unexpected guest
to hunting
territory (neutral intent) (I), (†)
unexpected happening or thing (‡)
large, unmoving, long lasting ice
sheet (X, XI)
dragon’s forepaw, forefoot, “hand”
(I)

QS

truly old, beyond all

ancient,
remembrance (‡)
to wait, to wait for, expectant or
waiting creature (‡)
†whale (undifferentiated gender or
species) (V)

•NUXE-

NUWA-

NYARE-

QSÁHI-

QSÁHE-

QSÁHÚN-

•QSÁŁÉ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to make into (your) hatch-
brother
to be (your) hatch-brother

†(your) hatch-brother (I)

Adjective:

brotherly

QSANA-
QSÁNI-

to slosh, to splash water or liquid

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be changeable, alterable
to change, to make different
to change, to alter, to be
changed

†Moon (VII)
a single moon’s duration, a month,
from the dark of the moon to the
next dark of the moon (XII)

Adjective:

Adverb:

changeable, shifting, moon-
like
shiftingly, shifty

†ants (singular form is qxarín-)
(VI)
†turtle (IV, V)

◊QSÁNŁA-

QSÁQSA-
QSÁQSÁ-

16

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Noun-Verb:

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to flock together, to fly
through the air in a mass
to flock in attack, to swarm
another and attack
in a
group
to be a crow, to flock in a
group

Noun-Verb:

†crow (VI)

Adjective:

Adverb:

crowy, in a flocky manner,
crow-like smell
in a group in the air

QSAQXE-
QSÁRHU-
QSÁSÍ-

•QSASHI-

◊QSÁSHI-

QSÁTHI-

†goose (VI)
†thrush (VI)
†a nightmare, a terrible dream,
frightening thing while sleeping,
waking up scared, to dream a
nightmare (VII)
to try and lose one’s scent by
crossing a river or stream, a trail
where an animal tried to lose its
trail by crossing a river or stream to
disrupt the smell, †an animal who
tried to lose its trail by crossing a
river or stream (‡)
†wizards/sorcerers? (singular form
is xyéhí-) (IV)7

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be hidden, stashed away
to consume, to eat, to place
into (the stomach)
to be hidden, in a dark place,
to be eaten, to eat oneself

stomach (‡)
cave, hole (X)
wound in a dead animal (XI)
container, hole, “bag” (XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

hidden, stashed away
secretly
†hawk, eagle (II, VI)

QSATSE-
#QSÁWERÁ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to

to bother,

to pester,
hassle, to disrupt
to worry oneself, to hassle
oneself, to be a færie or
goblin

7 See the note on xyéhí- below.

17

†færie, goblin, elf, little spirit or sprite

(‡)
Adjective:
Adverb:

annoying, problematic
difficult, problematic

QSAWÍN-
QSEHAR-
◊◊◊QSÉRE-

QSÉRNA-
QSÉRU-

†walrus (♂) (III, V)
†fox (II, IV)
†gnat, to buzz around annoyingly,
to fly dartingly without a pattern
(plural form is słátsú-, innumerable
form is qxuhan-) (VI)
nipple (‡)

to smell, to be odorous
to smell, to taste
to make oneself smelly

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:
nose (‡)
tip of a tree, treetop(s) (IX)
headland, promontory (nose of land)

(X)

the tip of an unknown thing, “tip of

the iceberg” (XIII)
smelly
noticeable
obvious, apparent

Adjective:

Adverb:

(non-pejorative),

QSEQSÉ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be snowy
to cover in snow, to powder
with snow
to hide among the snow

hundreds of falling meteors in a swarm

(VII)

falling snow (VIII)
snow on the ground (IX)

Adjective:

snowy

QSÍHÍ-

QSÍHÚ-
QSÍNQXE-
•QSÍNRA-

QSÍRTSE-

QSÍSA-
QSŁÁN(E)-

to be orange-yellow, a thing which
is orange-yellow (‡)
to toss, to throw
updraft of wind (VIII)
cower, cover up, to hide behind
cover from a predator
cancerous, cancer, †a creature with
cancer (‡)
to tip, to push over
to stare
attention, †intent creature (‡)

intently, to pay close

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

statically charged clouds (thunder
clouds which are forming) (VIII)
to sing a song with a traditional
melody but different lyrics, a song
with a
traditional melody but
differing lyrics (VIII)

QSŁAHU-

•QSŁÁRU-

•QSŁÁŠU-

to hunt for something
to be hunting

†hunting dragon (I)
†predator (II)
†animal hunting another (but non-

predatory?) (‡)
stalking
“huntingly,” “stalkingly”

Adjective:
Adverb:

QSUWÍN-
QSWÁTSA-

QSWÍŠÍ-

heather (bush) (IX)
tundra, large cold land without
trees (X, XI)
†wood boring insects (VI)

QX

(non-gendered or
†clutch-mates
possessed) (inherently plural but
there appears to be no singular
form) (I)
mudflat (IX, X)
down, fuzz, soft feathers (usually
plural) (XII, ‡)
†ant, antlike insect (plural form is
qsánła-) (VI)

•◊QXAHA-

QXAŁRÍ-
QXÁNU-

•◊QXARÍN-

QXÁTSI-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to be a bone
to de-bone, to rip out the
bones
to break one’s bone

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:
bone (‡)
bones of the mountain, deep stone (X)
dead bones, remains (XI)
bony, bleached

Adjective:

•QXÁXA-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to make into (my) hatch-
brother
to be (my) hatch-brother

†(my) hatch-brother
brotherly

Adjective:

QXÉHA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be seared, burnt
to burn, to sear with flame
to be burnt

†the Sun on a hot day (VII)
heat, hot weather (VIII)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be next to something next
to another
to make another (your)
neighbor’s neighbor
to be
neighbor

(your) neighbor’s

†(your) neighbor’s neighbor (I)

Adjective:

somewhat distant

QSŁÁWU-

QSŁÁYÁ-
QSŁIRÁ-

QSNANÍ-
QSÚHÁ-

•◊QSÚŁA-

•QSUNRÍ-
◊QSÚQSÍ-

QSÚQSU-
QSÚRÉ-

QSUSÉ-

forest with various mixed trees
(IX)
pawpads of a mammal (‡)
oak tree, oak wood, oak branch (IX,
XII)
†pheasant (VI)
to chew, to worry (to chew upon
jawbone and
incessantly), lower
teeth (‡)
dragon’s wing (plural form
syéthu) (I), to fly
†prey of a Blood Hunt (I)
ford in a river (plural form is hełá-)
(IX, X)
thick, brush covered meadow (X)
†newborn calf of any prey animal
(III, IV)

is

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be raining
(undifferentiated strength)
to be rained upon
to go out in the rain, to sit in
the rain

†Northern Lights (euphemism) (VII)
rain, falling water from the sky (VIII)
waterfall, splashing water (IX)

Adjective:
Adverb:

rainy, splashy
in a rain-like way

QSUWÉ-

Intran. V:

towards

to move
a
destination (a river hunting
for the sea)

18

fire, flame (IX)

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Adjective:
Adverb:

fiery, burning, furious
vicious, angry, flaming with

Adjective:
Adverb:

anger

QXEHÍ-
◊QXÉRE-
QXÉŁÁ-
QXÉNÁ-

QXENÍ-

QXÉNRA-

QXEQSI-
QXÉQSÍ-
QXEQXÍ-
QXESUN-
QXESHA-
QXÉSHA-
◊QXEŠÍ-
QXÉYÉ-

†reindeer (♂) (III)
elm trees (singular is tsurí-)
lip (‡)
a sound echoing through a valley or
in the mountains (thunder, loud
noise) (VIII)
decoy trail, decoy (‡), to decoy, to
lead astray
†narwhal whale (undifferentiated
gender) (V)
moor (X)
†puffin (VI)
fern (IX)
ivy, crawling ivy (IX)
wet, dripping, wet thing (‡)
arm, limb, leg (‡)
kidneys (singular is sašni- (‡)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be open, to open up
to open, to bring out
to hatch, to be a hatchling

†hatchling, child, youngling, child (‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

opened, young, new
openly, newly

QXÉYU-
QXÍNÍ-
QXÍQSE-
QXÍRSU-

QXÍSNA-

QXÍXA-
QXÍTSÚ-

hollow of land (X)
swamp, swampy land (IX, X)
rolling hills, plains, prairie (X)
to hesitate, to pause (at the edge of
a meadow or important action and
implies timidity in both cases)
to push, to force, to make another
do
fork in the river or stream (IX)

Refl. V:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to make noise
to speak to, to address, to
talk to, to speak towards
to be audible, to be making
noise (focus on making the sound rather
then being heard which is implied with
híšá-)
Noun-Verb:

tongue (‡)
peninsula (tongue of land) (X)

19

to be audible (the voice)
audibly, loudly (in regards

to one’s voice)

QXŁAHÍ-
QXŁÁYU-
◊QXŁÉYA-
QXŁÍRÍ-

QXNÁHU-
QXNARÍ-
#QXNAYU-

†elk (♀) (III)
pollywog (VI, V)
aspen tree (plural is tsíršu-) (IX)
cave pool, pool of water in a cave
(IX)
†ancient giant sloth (III)
tail feathers of a bird or hawk (‡)
to be a coward, to be a weakling,
coward, weakling (‡)

(#QXNÉ(HI)-) see also (#SNUHA-)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

and

be

bothersome

to
troubling
to annoy another, to insult
to be annoying,
insulting

to be

†a bothersome Kindred (I)
†human, chatterer anything which
speaks but is not of the Kindred
(♀/♂?) (‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

obstruction,

insulting, troubling
insulting, troubling
stop,
halt, wait,
difficult thing or creature (‡)
to sink ones teeth into flesh and
pull
hail,
innumerable) (VIII, IX)

hailstones

(usually

QXNÍŁA-

QXNUHÉ-

QXRÍNA-

to

fly

QXÚHU-
QXÚNAX-
QXURA-

◊◊◊QXUHAN- †innumerable gnats, to buzz around
annoyingly,
dartingly
without a pattern (singular form is
qsére-, plural form is słátsú-) (VI)
honey, sweet (IX)
hollow tree (IX, XI)
general name for small animals and
rodent (IV, VI)
†robin (bird) (VI), robin’s egg (a
“piece of a robin) (XII)
to trap, to entrap, to back into a
corner
stalagmite (X)
to be weak after hibernating,
weakness after hibernation, †a
creature weak from hibernation (‡)
quartz (X), pearl (XI)

QXUXI-
QXÚTHRA-

QXÚSHÚ-

QXUXE-

QXÚTSÚ-
QXUYE-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Intran. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to move over the moon at
night (dust, clouds)
to be a bat

†bat (usually

in

the

innumerable

number) (II)

smattering of clouds moving over the

moon at night (VIII)
bat guano, dead bats (XI)

QXWÉNA-
QXWÉNÁ-
#QXYÁXE-

shale, crumbling stone (X)
†crane (VI)
†goblin (?) (specifically) (VI)

R

big, great, extremely, very, much, a
large creature or item (‡)
calm, still air (VIII)
to make, to create, to think, to
formulate
stump of a tree (XI)
halo around the moon or sun (VII,
VIII)
for stones to tumble down a slope,
mountain or hill, broken groups of
from a hill or
stone
fallen
(usually
mountainside
innumerable) (X)
death, to die, to be dead, dead thing
(XI)

RAHA-

RAHÍ-
RÁHÍN-

RÁHÚ-
RAŁÁ-

RÁŁA-

RANA-

•RÁNA-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to urinate upon (only from a
male)
to urinate (only a male)

male’s urine (‡)
stale male’s urine (old) (XI)

Adjective:

to smell like male’s urine

RANÍ-
RÁNÍ-

RANTHÍŁ-

RANÚ-

RAQXE-
•RAQXÍ-

horns of a dragon (I)
to lower one’s head and threaten to
charge with horns bared,
to
threaten
standing stone (left by a glacier or
other geologic event?) (X)
to drive towards (hunting), driver
(hunting term) (I-II)
boulder, large stone (X)
to turn, to make a turn while
flying, to bank

20

RÁRA-

RASÁ-
RARU-
RÁSU-

RÁSÚŁ-

RÁSHÁ-
RASHE-
RÁSHU-
◊RAŠI-

RATHA-

RÁTHA-

RATHU-

RÉHA-

REHE-

RÉNA-

REQXA-

REQXE-

◊◊◊RÉRŁÁ-

RESHÚ-

RESYÁ-

RÉSYU-
RESYÚ-
RETSÉ-

Ribcage,

(‡),

†The

ribcage
Constellation of Cassiopeia (?)
dewlap (XII, ‡)
metal (undifferentiated) (X)
to be important and meaningful,
dear one (term of endearment
amongst mated Sihá) (I)
to be important, meaningful, vital,
great, central, vital concept (XII),
important individual or creature (‡)
forward, in front of (‡)
muddy pool, puddle (IX)
thigh, meat of the thigh (‡)
slivers of wood, tiny pieces of wood
(singular is swahú-) (XI, XII)
alone, singular, by oneself, by itself,
a thing or creature alone (‡)
stiffness, soreness, dull pain (as
opposed to a sharp pain) (IX, XII)
drought caused by changing aerial
currents
unusual weather
or
patterns
(compare with híshí-)
(VIII)
to be burning with heat, to be
bright with heat (visual), a thing
which is bright with heat (‡)
bark of a tree (usually possessed in
some fashion) (IX)
loamy earth, rotting material (X,
XI)
†small fish living in a small pool of
water (V)
to strike with the tail, to sting with
the tail, stinger on the end of a
dragon’s tail (vs. hášu-) (I, XII)
†beetle
(singular
innumerable plural is wéša-) (VI)
to make
to
something move back and forth
quickly
a thermal of air, a warm current of
air to glide upon (VIII), to glide on
a thermal current
†snipe, shore bird (VI)
beak, bill (of a bird) (VI, XII)
hyperbole, to be too loquacious and
talkative,
too many words, †a
creature which is full of hyperbole
and is too talkative (‡)

shiver,

xátha-,

stir,

to

is

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:

RETSÍ-
RÍHÁN-
RIHU-

RINA-

◊RÍNA-

RÍNÁ-
RINE-

RÍNHA-

RÍNŁE-

RISA-

jagged, ragged, pointed
obsidian (dead lava) (XI, X)
little, small, tiny, small creature or
item (‡)
to decide, to plan, to formulate a
plan of action, mind, thoughts
(VIII)
steps, footfalls, vibrations in the
ground or earthquakes (singular
form is srúrna-) (‡)
†female giant (?) (♀) (VI)8
flash of
meteor strike, nova?) (VII, VIII)
to swim against the current, †fish
swimming against the current (V)
booming,
(alternative word
(VIII)

light (fire, explosion,

crashing
for

sound
thunder)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to bite, to slay with one’s
teeth
to nibble on oneself

tooth, teeth (‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

sharp, saw-toothed, toothy
angrily, viciously

RÍSU-
RISÍN-

RIŠA-
◊RIŠU-

RÍXU-
RITHA-

•RÍTHÍ-
•RITSŁÁ-

disposition,

to gulp or drink deeply
language,
body
unspoken communication (‡)
mistletoe (IX)
hip, hip bones, pelvis (singular is
hasné-) (‡)
to skewer, to impale
to hide, to cover up, to move
something over oneself in order to
hide
hard (raining) (On.))

Intran. V:

to be next to, to be near

8 This word is recorded only once in Davis’ notes along
with the similar word néhá- ‘male giant’ in a conversation
between Davis and Bloody Face. In the conversation,
Howard mentioned to Bloody Face that he was considering
going over to America to try and learn more about the Artic
dialect of Srínawésin and Bloody Face replied with a snort
“Over where the rínaréshá and néháréshá live? Beware of
those creatures.” Davis translates the words as “female
giants” and “male giants” respectively but did not elaborate
any further a strange oversight for a man so obsessively
meticulous.

to make another into (my)
neighbor
to be (my) neighbor

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

†(my) neighbor (neither friend nor

foe) (I)

Adjective:
Adverb:

neighboring, nearby
closely

#RIXNÁ-
RÍYÁ-
RUNÁ-
RÚNA-
RÚNÁ-
RÚNHA-

RUQSA-
RÚRÍN-
RUSHÉ-
RUSU-
RÚSÚ-

RUTHU-
RÚWA-

SÁHÁTH-
SÁHE-
SAHÍ-
•SÁHI-
SÁHÍN-

•SÁHUN-

SAŁATH-
SÁŁU-
SANHÍ-

SÁNHÍ-
SANHU-

nasty, terrible tasting, awful (‡, VI)
forget-me-not (flower) (IX)
marble (X)
†a marmot (?) (IV)
mountain (large) (X)
deep, bottomless, very deep, abyssal
(‡)
a burp, expulsion of air (VIII)
ice (IX)
madrona tree (?) (IX)
only, but, just9
†whistling creature or dragon (‡),
singing bird (VI), whistling sound
(VIII)
river flowing beneath ice (IX)
to fake dead, to play dead, †an
animal faking dead to avoid real
death (‡)

S

(undifferentiated

island, isle (X, XII)
†badger (♂) (IV)
moss, low hanging (IX)
†(your) mate (♂) (I)
forbidden, not allowed, to make
impossible to cross over
†(my)
child
gender) (I)
moth (VI)
log floating in the water (XI)
particularly delicious or succulent
fat (‡)
low laying ground, depression (X)
to sun oneself, to sit in the sun
while holding out the wings to
catch the rays, †a creature sunning
itself (I-IV, VI), a place to sun
oneself (X)

9 Another form of ‘only, but, just’ appears in tsérin-

21

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

annoying, troubling, bothersome,
difficult, to bother, to annoy (fairly
rude) (‡)
to catch a fleeting smell or scent, a
fleeting smell (VIII)

#SÁNSÁ-

SANSÚ-

SANU-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

looking for a location (river
moving towards the sea)
to search for, to look for, to
find
to think about oneself, to
search one’s mind

Noun-Verb:

†(my) eye (I)

Adjective:
Adverb:

found, discovered
in a searching way

SÁNU-

SÁNYA-

SARA-
◊SARÁ-

SARHÁ-
SÁRHÁ-

SARÚ-

•SÁRXA-
◊SASI-

#•SASHIN-
SASRÁ-

SASRU-

SAŠNE-
◊SAŠNI-
SAŠRÍ-

SÁTHIN-

SÁTSÁ-

•SAYA-

all,

†everyone,

everything,
everything (‡)
to undercut (a river eroding a
riverbank
riverbank), undercut
(IX)
†leech (V, VI)
†ewe, sheep (♀) (plural is tsethú-)
(IV)
†a hydra, a multi-headed dragon (I)
dusk (VIII), covering the eyes,
cover something which is glowing
wise, wisdom, one who is wise,
intelligence (does not necessarily
denote age) (‡)
†(my) mate (♀)
plural form of #łari- ‘willow tree’
(IX)
(my) untrustworthy neighbor (I)
avalanche (either snow or stone)
(IX)
to shake, to shake off water, to
shake something until another falls
out
down, fuzz (‡)
kidney (plural is qxeší-) (‡)
cloven hoof, animal with a cloven
hoof (XII, III, IV)
edge, boundary
(X)
†ancient canine-bear (♂), possibly
now for male dogs/wolves (II, III,
IV)

(non-territorial)

to turn into (my) friend
to be (my) friend

SAYÚ-

SERA-
SÉRÁ-
SERŁÁ-

SESU-
SEŠU-
SEŠA-

SEŠE-
SEŠÉ-

SÉŠI-
SEWE-
SÉYU-

†(my) friend, ally, proven companion

(I)
Adjective:
Adverb:

friendly, trustworthy
trustworthily

do

to step down on with force, to hold
something down with the foot or
claw, to crush by stepping on, to
feel crushed and dismal
to crawl, †centipede (VI)
muck, grime (IX)
to charge into something recklessly,
to
without
something
considering options or results, †a
foolish creature (‡)
sickly, spotted leaves (IX, XI, XII)
little river, creek, stream (IX)
a wave, ripple of water (alternate
form of sihin-) (IX), to wave, to
move back and forth in the wind or
water
alder tree (IX)
sandbar on a riverbank (IX due its
changeable nature, X)
pine tree (IX)
frost, rime, thin frost (IX)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to flow (as a river flows)
to pour out, to make water
flow from, to make blood
flow from
to run along the ground, to
slither like a serpent

river, moving water, flowing water,

stream, creek (IX)

Adjective:

Adverb:

like flowing water, watery,
riverine
river-like
(plural form is SHÚNA-)

•◊SIHÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be similar
to make another thing like
another
to be a dragon, to make
oneself the same

22

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

†dragon (undifferentiated race and

SŁÁHÍN-

relationship) (I)
†group of animals (‡)
†swarm of insects, bugs, frogs (VI)
bunch of stones, rocks (X)
group of dead animals or Kindred (XI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

alike, in a similar manner
in an alike way

•SÍHÁ-
SIHIN-

SÍŁA-
SÍNA-

SINÍ-

SINTHÚ-
SÍRE-

SÍRHE-

SÍRTSE-

†(my) mate (♂) (I)
a ripple of water (alternate term to
seša-) (IX)
lily, lily plant, lily blossom (IX)
to chase into a dead end without
escape
to hunt by hearing alone, an animal
which hunts by hearing alone (I, II,
V)
†partridge (VI)
to squat or hunker down (to urinate
or defecate?)
to flutter, to flap, to beat ones
wings

SŁAHU-
SŁÁHU-
SŁÁŁ(Á)-
SŁAŁU-
SŁAN(E)-

SŁÁN(RA)-
SŁARU-

SŁÁRU-
SŁARÚ-
SŁÁRÚ-

SŁASWE-
SŁATSÉ-

◊◊◊SŁÁTSÚ-

SŁÁ(YA)-

taste/smell, delicious,

†Sirius (VII), alternating colors,
alternating
flat rocks, a field of flat rocks (X)
†adult, grown-up (draconic) (I)
thumb, gripping digit (‡, XII)
bladder (XII, ‡)
succulent
wonderful, mouth watering (‡)
lack of prey, no prey, without prey
to swoop down and grab from the
air and lift off again
bluebell plant (IX)
a shuddering breath (VII)
waves of heat coming off the
ground or in the air (VIII)
hillock, little hill, tiny hill (X)
†sibling, hatch-mate (unpossessed
and non-gendered, generic) (I)
†gnats, to buzz around annoyingly,
to fly dartingly without a pattern
(singular
qsére-,
form
innumerable form is qxuhan-) (VI)

is

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be near but not really all
that near,
the same
in
general vicinity
to make
distant neighbor
to be (my)
neighbor

far distant

into (my)

far

†(my) far distant neighbor (I)

Adjective:

somewhat close but not
really, to be sorta near
to choke, to gasp, to gurgle on blood
craw (‡)
†rams, sheep (singular is sišin-) (♂)
(III)
very still and reflective water (IX),
reflection on the water (XIII)
to deny, to refuse
†(my) trusted enemy (?)
ocean, vast expanse of water
(without being able to see the other
side) (IX)
to be funny, to be amusing, †a
funny or amusing creature (‡)
†minnow, little fish (V)

SISNE-
SIŠÍ-
◊SŁAXÍ-

SÍXI-

SITHA-
SÍTHÍ-
SÍTHRA-

SÍYA-

SŁÁHIN-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

stone

(a
to be bloody
covered with blood)
to cut, to make bloody, to
tear
to make oneself bloody

blood (‡)
†Aldebaran (star in Taurus) (VII)
tree sap, plant sap (plant blood) (IX)
pool of blood, dead blood (XI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

bloodily, bloodied, bloody
bloodily, viciously

SŁEŁÉ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be en masse, to swarm
to swam another thing and
bite it
to be a mosquito, to swarm
in a group

†mosquito, biting insects (usually in
the innumerable number) (VI)
swarming/biting
in a great mass

Adjective:
Adverb:

SŁÉ(NA)-
SŁÉXU-

†crouching, ready to spring (I, II)

23

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be full (clouds full of rain,
hole full of water)
to impregnate, to fill up
to be pregnant, to be full
with eggs

•SŁIŠI-

SŁÚHA-

†mother (any dragon’s) (I)
†mother creature (‡)
dead egg (XI)
an egg (no particular ownership) (XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

full, pregnant
difficultly, with difficulty

SŁETHÍ-

SŁEWA-
SŁÉWÁ-

•SŁÉYU-

SŁÍHI-
SŁÍHÍ-

SŁÍ(HU)-
SŁIN(E)-

cut up, mauled, savaged, creature
which is ripped up (‡)
neck (undifferentiated) (‡)
awe-inspiring,
entrancing,
amazing, to entrance, an awe-
inspiring thing (‡)
†Predator of the Blood Hunt, the
hunter in a vengeance-hunt (I)
clay, river clay (X)
to be infrared in color, a thing
which is infrared in color (‡)
†rooster (VI)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to be slow
to think about something, to
be cautious towards
to be thoughtful, to ponder
upon oneself, to be self-
conscious, to make oneself
slow

Noun-Verb:

†acquaintance

draconic
(general
relationship without indication of
friendliness or truculence) (I)

†cautious hunter (II)
†cautious animal (‡)

Adjective:
Adverb:

cautiously, carefully, slow
cautiously, slowly

SŁINI-

SŁÍQSA-

◊SŁÍSYA-

SŁÍSYÍ-

to snooze, to doze (implies a light
sleep)
to be extremely icy and cold, to be
burning cold, a thing which is
burning cold (‡)
thin clouds in streaks (singular
form is xúnra-) (VIII)
to attack without provocation

ghosts,

strange

(visually
to

to sing a song with traditional
lyrics but with varying melodies, a
song with traditional lyrics but
varying melodies (VIII)
and
to
penetrate
understand
intellectually),
deeply, to see past appearances, †a
very wise dragon (and one not to be
trifled with)
to fly very silently, to approach
prey very quietly on the wing, †a
creature which approaches its prey
very quietly while flying (‡)
(†)phantoms,
sounds (singular is sreyú-) (VIII)
to sniff about, to search for scents
to bite and hang on while shaking
one’s head from side to side
glow, dim light, emanating light
from a forest fire or the dawn
(VIII)
face (‡)
saltwater iceberg (IX)
to walk briskly and quickly, a fast
walk or march
snow covered forest where prey
show up well (IX)
to wake up from hibernation, to get
up after a very long sleep, †a
creature (dragon) which has woken
up after hibernation (‡)
rose hip (plant) (IX, XI)

SŁUSÍ-

◊SŁÚŠÉ-

SŁUSYÍ-
SNAHÉ-

SNÁHU-

SNARE-
SNARHÉ-
SNÁSŁA-

SNÉ(RÍ)-

SNÉSHA-

SNÉYA-
SNEYÉ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

divided, split between two
locations
to divide, to separate
to face a difficult choice or
situation (to split oneself)

boundary between hunting territories

(XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

divided, separated
separately
vicious downdraft (VIII)
cracks in stone or wood, crack in a
cliff face, mountain pass (?)
saliva (‡)
glacier (IX)
†human (♂/♀?) (‡)

SNE(YU)-
SNIHA-

SNÍRNA-
SNÍŠA-
(#SNUHA-)

24

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SNÚHI-

SNUQSE-

•SNÚRAN-
SNÚSU-
SRÁHA-

SRAHÍN-
#•SRAŁA-
SRANÍ-
◊SRÁQXE-

SRASÍN-

SRÁYI-
◊SREHA-
SREHU-
•SRÉHU-

to draw air in, to suck air in, to
breathe in
boom, explosion, sudden and loud
noise (VIII)
heart of a prey animal (‡)
dwelling, lair, home (X, XII)
movement, to be alive, to go, to
travel, life, ch’i, ki (‡)
fruits, fruit (IX)
†difficult, troublesome Sihá (I)
guts, innards (‡)
†crab,
lobster,
(plural form is wašún-) (V)
submerge, to force beneath the
water, to dive from the surface of
the water beneath it, to pull down
beneath the water
to knock out, to make unconscious
thighbone (plural is swísún-) (‡)
†smelt (V)

anthropoid

sea

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to pour out of a hole or
depression
to push out, to force out, to
force to defecate
to shit, to take a shit (to shit
oneself)

dragon shit (I)
shit, feces (‡)
shooting star (star-shit) (VII)
old, dried out shit (XI)

Adjective:

SRÉNA-

SRENÚ-
SRÉQSA-

SRÉRA-
•◊SRESHÁ-

•◊SRÉSNA-

◊SRÉŠA-

SREŠU-

SREXÚ-

shitty (non-pejorative)
to bruise, to lightly wound, a bruise
(XII)
†(my enemy’s friend) (I)
willow-the-wisp, ghostlight from a
swamp (VIII, IX)
chest (‡)
†a Wyvern dragon (plural form is
srésna-) (I)
†a Wyvern dragon (singular form
is sreshá-) (I)
tidal pools (singular form is tseshá-)
(IX)
too much, too greatly, too great a
quantity
adverbial),
(typically
(†)too much of a type of thing (‡)
flipper, fin (‡)

knee, knee joint (XII, ‡)
to lurk in the shadows, to lurk in
darkness while hunting
†firefly (VI)
to wander aimlessly, †an aimlessly
wandering individual (‡)
slush, really wet snow, mushy
snow (IX)
yew tree (IX)
(†)phantom, ghost, strange sound
(plural is słúšé-) (VIII)
walnut, walnut tree (XII, IX)
word, speech, talking (root of
Srínawésin) (VIII)
to pull, to haul, to drag along the
ground
†swallow (bird) (VI)
winding cave (X)
†pig, boar (♂) (IV)
hawthorn (IX)
†fat animal, overweight animal (‡)
to shrink, to shy away, to submit
to scrape, to scratch something off
of something else
to flatten out on the ground, to
make a sleeping place, to stretch
out on the ground
basalt stone (X)
†elk (♂) (III)
diehria (XI, ‡)
chance, opportunity, possibility
(VII)
†sorcerer, wizard
gendered)
generally considered to be VI)
to recall, to remember, to think
back to
legend, story, ancient tale (VIII)
†caterpillar (VI)
†kingfisher (II, VI)
to step, to make the ground shake,
footfall, step, vibration in the earth,
earthquake, ground-shake (plural
form is rína- and there is some
evidence that this term was used
for dinosaurs or
earth-
shakers”) (‡)
†louse (VI)

non-
(various classes but

“the

((?)

SRÉTHE-
SRÉTSI-

SRETSU-
SRÉTSU-

SRÉTSÚ-

SRÉWÚ-
◊SREYÚ-

SRÍHU-
SRÍNA-

SRÍNÁ-

SRÍNTHE-
SRÍNU-
SRÍXU-
SRÍŁA-
SRÍRE-
SRÍSA-
SRÍXE-

SRÍTSA-

SRÍTSU-
SRIYU-
SRÍYU-
SRUHI-

SRÚNA-

SRÚNÁ-

SRÚNSA-
SRUQSÍ-
SRUQXÍ-
◊SRÚRNA-

SRÚSYE-

25

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SRÚSYU-

SRUŠA-
SRUTHA-
SRUTHÉ-

SUHA-

•SÚHU-

SUHUN-

SUŁA-
SUŁUTH-
SUŁÚTH-

#SÚNÁ-

a reflection on the water (IX), false
image, an idiot (someone who dives
after false images) (‡)
(†)thing, object, item (+ Class) (‡)
†rabbit, bunny (♂) (IV)
to land on (while attacking), to
crush prey while landing on it
to be hunched, to be balled up, to be
hunchbacked, †a hunched creature
(‡)
to dive out of the sun on an animal
on the ground, hawk (II), dragon
which dives onto an animal from
out of the sun
†song
bird
species) (VI)
choice, decision (XII)
†snake, serpent (VI)
†swift, sharp, darting, darting thing
(‡),†planet (swift celestial thing)
(VII)

(undifferentiated

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to organize, to interfere
to organize oneself, to worry
oneself to death

†gods, mighty spirits (VII)
†ghost, spirit (VI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

organized, orderly
ordered manner

SÚNHÉ-
SUNHÍ-
SUNRI-

SUNÚTH-

SÚRUTH-
•SÚRÚTH-
SUSA-

SÚSÉ-

SUSHI-
SUSHÍ-
SUSHÚ-
SUSÍ-

lure, to draw

liver (‡)
sinew, tendons (‡)
to
in, to draw
something closer (to kill or pounce
on it)
for a blizzard to blow, blizzard,
snowstorm (compare with xarhu-)
(VIII)
udder (‡)
wing, to fly (non-draconic) (‡)
double, pair, “two” (‡), Rigel (star
in Orion)
†a growling creature (‡), to growl,
to growl at, to warn off
breastbone (‡)
to dive steeply and very fast
massive stone, big boulder (X)
backwards, back, behind (‡)

26

SUSRÚN-

SUSÚ-
SÚSÚŁ-
SUSUN-

SUŠU-
◊SUŠUN-

SÚTHUN-
SUTSÉ-

SWÁHA-
SWAHAN-

◊SWAHÚ-

SWÁNE-

SWÁNSA-
SWASI-

SWATHÍ-

SWÁTHÍ-

SWÉHÉ-
SWEHÍ-

SWÉRÍ-
SWESA-
SWÉTHA-
SWÉTSÍ-

SWÉTSU-
SWÍNA-

SWIRI-
◊SWÍSÚN-
SWIXŁÁ-

•SWITH(Í)-

edge of an object (‡), edge of stone,
precipice or cliff’s edge (X)
ash tree (IX)
silt (usually innumerable) (X, IX)
for a ♀ animal to sweat, sweat of a
♀ animal (‡)
feet, to walk (‡)
little twigs, tiny branches (IX, XI,
XII) (singular is naqxí-)
upper right back (direction) (‡)
dorsal fin of a fish, †whale, dolphin
(V, XII)
fish eggs (V)
submerged sandbar (IX due to its
changeable nature, X)
sliver of wood, tiny piece of wood
(plural is raši-) (XI, XII)
riverbank (IX as it is changeable, X
when one wishes to focus on
location)
to pass to, to give to
thick, piled up, billowing clouds
(generally plural) (VIII)
to be ultraviolet in color, a thing
which is ultraviolet (‡)
explore, look around, looking for
nothing in particular
song, tune, poem (VIII)
red, the color red (XII), the planet
Mars (VII)
consequence, result (XII)
underground river (IX)
†rabbit, bunny (♀) (IV)
trail made out of crushed plants,
crushed plants which make a trail
(IX), old trail of crushed plants
(XI)
broken, torn, busted
to be messed up, to be chaotic and
jumbled
†seagull, seabird (VI)
thighbones (singular is sreha-) (‡)
to suck, to draw out, to suck poison
out
here, right here, where I am
(direction) (‡)

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SHAHÚ-

SHAŁE-

#SHANA-

SHANÁ-

SHANSHI-

SHÁNYÁ-

SHAQSE-
SHÁRÁ-

SHÁSE-
SHÁS(NU)-

SHASÚ-
#•SHASWÁ-

SHAŠA-
SHAŠI-

SH

deer

terrible,

to have

surprised,

astonished,

to possess,

(undifferentiated

†young
gender) (IV)
to own,
(alienable only)
evil, bad, unpleasant,
inedible (‡)
surprise,
startled
staccato, rapid and sharp sounds (of
prey moving through bushes while
sounds?)
running and making
(VIII)
to dip, to lap, dunk into, reach into
the water
†wasps (usually innumerable) (VI)
to dislike, to not desire, to want to
be away from
hillock, little hill (X)
pain, hurt, woe, hurt creature,
damaged item (‡)
to chase, to run after
†enemy,
(undifferentiated ownership) (I)
(hollow) bird bones (‡)
(usually
prints
possessed in some way, referring to
the species which left them) (IX)

opponent

snow

the

in

•SHÁTHUN- name, to be called, to be addressed

SHAXÚN-

◊SHÁTSÁ-

SHAYA-

SHAWÍ-
SHENÍ-

SHÉQXÁ-

is

form

xúxu-)

(VIII)
flood, dramatic flush of water,
rushing waves (IX)
bunch of eggs, clutch of eggs
(‡,
(singular
typically draconic)
a thin cut, a slit (‡), to split bones
or flesh open, to slash open, to
disembowel
to be melancholy and listlessness
“ocean” clouds (very damp and
quickly moving) (VIII)
for something to happen which
usually does not, something or (†)
someone to usually not have a
particular
or
tendency but which does at the
time spoken of (contrast with the
term wéri-) (‡)

characteristic

SHEQXU-
•SHÉQXU-

SHERA-
◊SHÉRYA-

SHEŠÍ-

SHEŠU-

SHÉŠU-

SHETSÍ-
SHÉXU-
SHÉXÚ-

•SHEYA-
SHEYÁ-

SHÉYAŁ-
SHINSU-

SHINU-
SHÍNYA-

SHÍN(YÍ)-

SHISHÍ-
SHÍSHÍ-

SHIWÁ-
SHÍWE-
◊SHIYE-

SHIYI-
•◊SHÚNA-

27

to

to

lift

planet

struggle

(undifferentiated

to bite off, to remove with the teeth
to chant with a pulsing rhythm, a
chant with a pulsing rhythm (VIII)
isthmus or neck of land (X)
to mourn, to feel sadness over death
(0f a mate or friend), mourning
(VIII), †a mourning creature (‡)
(plural form is syarí-)
to
strain,
something up
to be surprised at a rustle in the
bushes or in the forest, to be
startled by a rustling sound, an
unexpected rustle of the bushes
(VIII)
madness, insanity, †mad creature
(VII),
(‡),†retrograde
terrible weather (VIII), unruly
thing (‡)
yarrow plant (IX)
incline, slope (X)
†ally,
friend
ownership) (I)
to slay (one Kindred upon another)
to be apart, to be not together (no
mention of distance), two things
apart (‡)
acid, acidic liquid (IX)
to sprinkle, to cover with dust or
water, spots or flecks (‡, but usually
XII)
to attack as a pair or group
to stalk, to move quietly, to creep
up on silently, a stalking creature
(‡)
arc, hook, claw (non-draconic),
arching, crescent moon (‡)
†blue whale (V)
to lead astray, to go in the wrong
direction (by travel only, does not
imply wrongness or incorrectness
in general)
algae (IX)
tin, tinnish stone (X)
hoarfrost (singular form weša-)
(IX)
†stork (VI)
†dragons (plural form of the root
sihá-) (I)

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SHÚNÉ-
SHÚNU-

SHÚRA-

SHURÉ-
SHUSU-
SHÚSYI-
SHUXU-

#SYANU-
SYÁRÚ-
SYÁHU-

SYÁQXÍ-
◊SYARÍ-

SYAŠÉ-
SYASHÉ-
SYASYÁ-
SYÁWE-
SYEHÚ-

◊SYÉNSÚ-

•SYEQSU-

#SYERÁ-

(◊)SYERU-

◊SYESÁ-

SYESHE-

the act of mating

†seal (♀) (V, IV)
to mate,
(draconic)
“falling mist,” extremely light rain
(VIII)
lung (‡)
cold weather, temperature (VIII)
loamy, dark, wet earth (X)
to spit, to vomit out

SY

†impatient fool, impatience (‡)
†salmon (V)
bright, brightly, bright thing (‡),
bright celestial object (euphemism
for both the Sun and Moon when
the Stars when
plural
and
innumerable (VII)),
full moon
(VII)
shoulder blade (‡)
to mourn, to feel sadness over death
(0f a mate or friend), mourning
(VIII), †mourning creatures (‡)
(singular form is shérya-)
†slug (IV)
haunch, back leg, thigh (‡)
†goat (♂) (IV)
†sparrow, sparrow-like bird (VI)
†Mars (VII), to loop, to move in a
loop, to make a hoop
to be brave, to lack fear, bravery,
lack of fear (VII), †a brave creature
(‡) (plural form is húrún-)
to be broken (a creature’s limb or
body-part), an animal’s broken
limb (‡)
to be excitable, excited, jittery,
fidgeting, †a fidgeting creature (‡)
vines, ivy, to creep, to climb up
steadily (singular form is šnaya-)
(IX)
to dream, to move around and
make sounds while sleeping, †a
dream (VII), †a creature which is
dreaming (‡) (plural form is húsyú-)
for a large piece of ice to fall off of
a glacier and into the sea, the sound

SYEXI-

of ice falling off a glacier (VIII), an
iceberg (IX)
sprouts which come up after a fire,
to sprout up after a fire (IX)

•◊SYÉTHU- wings (of a dragon) (singular form

†a

creature which

is qsúła-) (I), to fly
†salamander (V, VI)
to hibernate, to sleep a very long
time,
is
hibernating (‡)
to discard, to toss away, to throw
out or leave something behind,
sloughed off skin, shed skin (XI)
to be
empty,
(euphemism for hunger)
†mink (gender?) (IV)
to inspect feces, to look at fecal
matter
†to draw a circle, a circle (shape),
round, roundish, circular

to be hollow

Š

to dream weirdly or strangely, a
weird or strange dream during
hibernation or sleep (VII)
reason, business, purpose, deal, to
do (XII)
maple tree (IX)
†goshawk (II, VI)
valley, indent in the mountains (X,
XII)
to avoid, doing things in such a
way that one avoids someone or
something, †a creature which is
avoiding something (‡)
to divine,
assume or guess about the future
spot, patch of something (‡)
to swim with one’s feet, swim like
a duck, †duck (alternate word from
TSÚTSÍ-) (IV)
†dove (IV)
jaw, bones of the mouth, jawbone
(‡)
†caribou (♂) (III)
†osprey (II, VI)

to prognosticate,

to

SYEWÍ-
SYISHÍN-

SYUŁRA-

SYURA-

SYÚTSA-
SYUTHÍ-

SYÚWA-

ŠAHE-

ŠÁHÍN-

ŠAHU-
ŠAHÚN-
ŠÁŁA-

ŠAŁSU-

ŠANHE-

ŠANI-
•ŠÁNU-

ŠÁNÚ-
ŠARÁN-

ŠASRA-
ŠÁQSI-
•ŠÁQSÚ-

Intran. V:

to be (my hunting territory)

28

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Trans. V:

Noun-Verb:

to claim a hunting territory
(inherent object)

(my) hunting territory (X, XII)

•ŠAQSÚN- ant-hill (VI), “city” (a human village

or establishment) (‡)

†Orion Nebula (VII)

ŠÁQXÉ-
ŠATHA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to cloud over, to get cloudy
to cover up, to cloud another
thing
to be cloudy, to be in the
mist

cloud (usually

in the

innumerable

number) (VIII)
dew on the ground (IX)

Adjective:

Adverb:

misty, mysterious, difficult
to see, hidden
mysteriously

ŠÁTHA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to be black
to make black, to blacken, to
make dusty with charcoal
to be black to oneself, to
make oneself black, to dust
oneself with coal

Noun-Verb:

†coal-head, idiot (I)
coal, charcoal, burnt wood (XI)

Adjective:
Adverb:

black, dark, dusty
mysterious, darkly, dustily

#•ŠATHE-
ŠATHÉ-

•ŠATHÍ-

ŠÁTHÍ-

†uninvited, unwelcome guest (I)
to hunt together, to hunt in concert
with another, to hunt as a pack
flee from a hunter, run away from a
predator

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to teach, to explain, to make
wiser
to be old, to be wise

†elder dragon, old, wise one (I)

Adjective:
Adverb:

ancient, old, wise, timeless
in a wise way, with wisdom

ŠATHU-
ŠÁWÁ-

†jellyfish (V)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to be seen
to see

to be seen, to watch oneself

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:
eye (‡)
†Moon and Sun (collective plural

term) or ‘celestial eyes’ (VII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

watchfully, warily
warily

ŠAWA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be a stone
to make into a fool, to turn
into a fool, to make another
look foolish
to turn oneself into a fool

†fool, idiot, stone-head (I)
nut, tree-stone (IX)
stone (from about the size of a
human’s head to a small boulder)
(X)

stone (fallen from a mountain or a

piece of a larger item) (XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

stony, hard, unyielding
hardly, with difficulty
water hole (plural form of the root
xułyá-) (IX, X), dried up water hole
(XI)
leaves blowing in the wind (VIII,
XI, XII)
to circle, to enfold, to wrap around
granite, diorite stone (X)
to be sticky, to be tacky
to lower one’s head (to eat or drink)
to
plants,
budding
“springtime” (IX, VIII)
†(your) mate (♀) (I)

bud,

◊ŠAWÉ-

ŠAYA-

ŠÉHA-
ŠÉHÍ-
ŠENA-
ŠEQXE-
ŠERÁ-

•ŠÉRÁ-
ŠERNÁ-

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to make another strong
to be strong, to make oneself
strong
strong
strongly

ŠERU-
ŠESEŁ-

ŠESYE-
ŠÉYÚ-
ŠIHÁN-
ŠIŁÚ-

stagnant water (IX)
to stretch after waking, to stretch
out, to flex
clear, open meadow (X)
heather (IX)
fat, fat on meat, blubber (‡)
a knot of wood on a tree, a burl of
wood (IX)

29

•◊ŠINHÁ-

•◊ŠÍNNA-

ŠINSHA-
•ŠINUR-

ŠIQSA-

ŠIRA-
ŠISE-
ŠISIŁ-

ŠIŠI-

ŠŁIRE-
ŠŁIWÁ-
ŠNÁHE-
ŠNARÍ-

(◊)ŠNAYA-

ŠNÚTHE-

ŠRERÍ-
ŠRÍNA-

•◊ŠUHUN-

ŠÚRHA-
#ŠURIN-

ŠURŠÚ-

ŠÚRÚ-

ŠUSA-

ŠUSÚ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

†an Amphiptère dragon (plural
form is šínna-) (I)
†an Amphiptère dragon (singular
form is šinhá-) (I)
lame, limping, limping thing (‡)
skin (non-scaled) (‡, although not
draconic)
to be dazed and confused, †a
creature which
is dazed and
confused (‡)
†otter (♂) (IV, V)
†mite, tiny insect (VI)
to hiss, to let out steam, to hiss
angrily, hissing animal or steam (‡)
to squeak (On.), squeaking sound
(VIII)
moss tight against a tree (IX)
humidity, humid (VIII)
tide, to move in and out (IX)
Blood Hunt, hunt of vengeance
(VII)
vine, ivy, to climb up, to creep, to
crawl up steadily (plural form is
syeru-) (IX)
to
to bend
to wind,
something terribly out of shape or
to distort it, a twisted or distorted
thing (‡)
to nuzzle, to cozy up
to cross, to move over without
permission
print, track, mark left in the ground
by a foot but without any traceable
smells left by the animal which left
it (plural form is háší-) (‡)
beeswax (XI)
to be blind, stupid or deaf, †a blind,
stupid or deaf creature (‡)
to stall, to stall out while flying
(aerial maneuver)
to tell, to
elaborate
broken rocks, field of broken rocks
(X)
to swim by moving the tail up-and-
down, fluke (hind fin of a whale or
dolphin, up-and-down motion only,
not side-to-side swimming) (V,
XII)

inform, to till

twist,

in,

ŠUSHU-
ŠUŠA-

ŠUTHÉ-

to crush, to crack, to smash flat
to draw out,
to pull out of
something, to play with something

ŠURA-

ŠURI-

ŠÚRI-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be unknown
to hide something
someone (indirect obj.)
to keep distant and not
announce oneself

from

†unknown dragon, stranger (I)
unknown thing, strange object (‡)

Adjective:

strange, unusual, unknown,

distant (personally)
strangely

Adverb:

†lean, thin, lean animal without
much meat or fat on it (‡)
bubbles (apparently always plural)
(IX)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to arc over, to reach over
to reach over, to cover or
uncurl over
to stretch oneself across, to
uncurl, to span

†Milky Way, Road of Stars, the Night

Mother (VII)

Adjective:

Adverb:

vast,
huge,
conception, overarching
expansively, hugely

beyond

ŠÚRÚ-

mating call (On.?) (‡)

X

icy desert, icy plain, snow-covered
land (X, XI)
right (direction) (‡)
upper right front (direction) (‡)
grow large, grow up, grow

XÁHÁ-

XÁHA-
XÁHI-
XAHÍN-
XAŁIR-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to begin, to generate, to start
to fertilize, to generate
to be a father

†father (undifferentiated ownership)

(I)

†father, progenitor of an animal (‡)
†euphemism for the Moon (VII)

30

beginning of a river or stream (IX)

#XÁTSU-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Adjective:
Adverb:

male, masculine
original way

†sea lion (IV, V)

XAŁÍR-
XÁŁIR-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be afraid
to fear
to be afraid

†nightmare, evil dream, bad dream

†fly, bug, buzzy thing (VI)

(VII)

terror, fear (IX)

Adjective:
Adverb:

twisted, fearfully, horribly
horribly, fearfully

•XÉŠE-

XÉŁÁR-
#XÉŠÉ-

to kill but not to eat, †fool, idiot,
wasteful (‡)
†butterfly (VI)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to hum, to warble
bother
to
incessantly, to harass
to buzz, to annoy

another

Adjective:
Adverb:

bothersome, buzzing
in
a
bothersome

harassing way,

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to make into (your) hatch-
sister
to be (your) hatch-sister

†(your) hatch-sister (I)

Adjective:

sisterly, protectively

XÉSI-
XEX(A)-
•XERYA-

XÉRYU-
XEYI-
XIHA-
•XINA-
XÍNÉX-

XINÍ-
XINIX-
•◊XINHÁ-

•◊XÍNNA-

XINŠÍ-

XINXIN-

XÍNTHÁ-

XIŠÉ-
XÍSÍ-

XÍTSA-

to come, to arrive
†worm, earthworm (VI)
mating/rutting season for prey
animals (VIII, XII)
track, trail, sign, mark (‡, XII)
dark cloud on the horizon (VIII)
to feel, to emote, to feel emotion
(a friend’s) hunting territory (X)
to dodge, to run zigzags, to pull
away to avoid an attack
soft, unhardened dragon scales (I)
to be able, can do, possible to do
†a Heraldic type of dragon (plural
form is xínna-) (I)
†a Heraldic
(singular form is xinhá-) (I)
to attract an animal by imitating its
mating cries
to pump, to beat, generic term for a
heart (On.) (‡)
sleet (VIII, IX when on
ground)
acorn (IX)
to cavort, to play, †a playing
creature (‡)

type of dragon

the

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to change with the seasons
to make to grow

31

XAŁNÁ-

XÁNI-

XÁNRA-
XANRÉ-
XANSÍ-
XANXÍ-

XANÚ-
XÁNU-

XANYE-
XARÁ-

XARHU-

XARU-

XASHA-
XASHÍN-
XÁXA-
◊◊◊XÁTHA-

XATHÉ-

XÁTHÚ-

light

to strike, to hit, to slap at, a hit or
strike (XII)
poetry, joke, pun, twisted words,
words which mean one thing but
say another (VIII)
†maggot, worm (VI)
muscle (‡)
†bees (usually innumerable) (VI)
†Saturn (VII), yellowish,
yellow
†crab, arthropod (VI)
to fight, to tussle, to engage in
combat
headwind (VIII)
to come up from underneath the
water and pull something near or
on the surface down (usually in an
attack), a creature which does this
(V, ‡)
for a whiteout to blow, for a terrible
snowstorm to rage, whiteout or
terrible snowstorm (compare with
sunúth-) (VIII)
mushroom,
festering, fungus-covered (IX, XI)
†frog (VI)
to graze, to eat grass
seaweed (V, IX)
†beetle
innumerable plural is wéša-) (VI)
piles of round/flat stones, riverine,
littoral (usually innumerable) (X,
XII)
to dry out

rotting,

(plural

rotten,

rérłá-,

is

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

to grow, to get larger, to
change through time

Adverb:

with great difficulty due to a

mass of events

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

tree (undifferentiated type or species)

(IX)

Adjective:
Adverb:

dead wood, log (XI)
branch, twig (XII)
woody
seasonally
gray, ashen (XII)
reeds,
innumerable) (IX)

reedy

grass

(usually

XÍSRÍ-
XIŠA-

XÍYE-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be in a bunch, in a pack
to move along with, to move
in concert with
to move as a group

†group, bunch of the Kindred (I)
†wolf, hunting hound, coyote, dingo

(II)

†dog (domestic) (♀?) (IV)

Adjective:
Adverb:

in a pack
together

•XŁAXIN-
•XŁENA-
XŁÉNA-
XŁÉSU-
XŁÍRU-

XŁÍSA-

XŁÍTSA-
XŁUNÁ-
XŁU(RI)-

XNAHU-
XNÁHÚ-
XNAŁA-
XNÁŁA-
•XNA(QSÉ)-

†(your) untrustworthy neighbor (I)
mating dance (draconic) (I)
mane of an animal or dragon (‡)
stalactite (X, XII)
†colt, little horse (undifferentiated
gender) (IV)
tail, dragon-tail, behind, backwards
(I, ‡)
†Orion’s Belt (VII), three (?)
pollen (VIII, IX)
to sit on the haunches, †a sitting
creature (‡)
mound, hill (X)
beech tree (IX)
†quail (VI)
upper left front (direction) (‡)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be woven (as in a mass of
brambles or thorns)
to spin a web (inherent
object)
to be a spider

†spider, spider-like thing (VI)

Adjective:

matted, thick, woven

32

XNATHSU-
XNAYA-

◊XNÉSYI-

XNÉWI-
XNEYÁ-

XNIYA-

icy rain (VIII)
fall, autumn, trees in fall, the color
orange/yellow (VIII, IX, ‡)
cedar tree (plural form is hałúth-)
(IX)
†squirrel (VI)
to plummet, to drop quickly, to let
something go and let it fall to its
death

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to be deep, beneath the earth
to bury
to cover oneself in earth, to
bury

Noun-Verb:

earth, soil, sand (X)

Adjective:

earthy, loamy, solidly

XNÚYA-
XRÁNA-
•XRARI-

•XRASÚN-

XRÁXA-

XRÁXÁ-

(X)RESE-
XRESHA-
•XRÉŠÚ-
XREŠWA-
XRETHÍ-

XRÍŁA-
XRÍNÁ-

XRÍRA-
XRÍRÁ-
#XRÉTHA-
#XRÍTHA-

•◊XRUSHÁ-

in

the

silvery,

moon-like,

(undifferentiated

bed, sleeping place (‡)
to go to a high place to look/smell
untroubled
face of a
challenge or threat (non-draconic
threateners)
(♂)
†mate
ownership) (I)
moving through the brush and
making sounds, †fool (On.) (‡)
silver,
moonlight (VII, VIII, X)
†(your) trusted enemy (?)
†shrew (VI)
†(your) hatch-sister (I)
hemlock tree (IX)
to rub up against something to
scratch an itch
intestines (‡)
to decapitate, to bit the head off of
something or someone
†cow, heifer (♀) (III)
to dive into water, to plunge
†little færie, pixie (?) (VI)
†little færie, pixie (?) (this appears
to be a variation on xrétha- or
perhaps indicates male and female
varieties?) (VI)
†a Guivre dragon (plural form is
xrúsna-) (I)

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

•◊XRÚSNA-

XÚHÁ-

XUHÁN-
XÚHÚ-

XUHUN-
•XUŁU-
XÚŁUN-
◊XUŁYÁ-

XÚNA-

†a Guivre dragon (singular form is
xrushá-) (I)
†who, what, where, when, why,
question word (“XIII,” ‡)
dead, unhatched dragon’s egg (XI)
moving through the brush silently,
stealthily (‡)
†caribou (♀) (III)
shed horns (prey animal) (‡)
sky, atmosphere (reachable) (VIII)
drinking place for prey, waterholes
(IX, X, XI) (singular form is šawé-)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to scratch at, to itch, to
scratch at the earth
to itch oneself, to scratch
oneself

claws (non-draconic) (II-VI)

Adjective:

itchy, scratchy

XÚNÍ-
◊XÚNRA-

XÚRÚ-

XUSI-

•XÚXA-

◊XÚXU-

scabrous, scab, scabby (XI, XII)
thin cloud in a streak (plural form
is słísya-) (VIII)
“land” clouds (relatively dry and
usually slowly moving) (VIII)
a stripe, stripes, striped or banded
stone or earth (X), †a striped
animal or creature (‡)
to make a place forbidden to me, to
be
to me, a place
forbidden or off-limits to myself
(X, XII)

forbidden

Trans. V:

lay

(plural form is SHÁTSÁ-)
to
lay
eggs,
(inherently belonging to the
Kindred)
to be an egg, to be lain

to

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

egg, dragon’s eggs (I)
†full Moon (singular only) (VII)
†Pleiades star cluster (Bunch of Eggs,

always plural) (VII)

Adjective:

ripe, full but unrealized

XÚTSU-

XWAHI-
•XWAXÍN-

to

to
eyes

brighten,
glowing

dawn,
uncover/reveal
(VIII)
†bear (♂) (II, III)
The Hunt, life, a dragon’s life, life
in general (‡)

XWÉSHÁ-
XWÍŠA-
XYÁNÁ-
#XYÁTSE-

XYEHAŁ-
◊XYÉHÍ-

XYÉTSU-

to allow to escape, to let go
†owl (VI)
afterbirth (XI)
rancid, barely edible meat, †a
desperate hunter who will eat
something just to stay alive (‡)
†buffalo(?) (♂) (III)
†wizard/sorcerer? (plural form is
qsáshi-) (VI)10
blue, turquoise stone (X)

TH

track, mark

print,
left by an
animal’s foot in the ground but
which has a traceable smell left by
the animal on it (‡)

THÁHE-

THÁHÉ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be a storm, to be violent,
excited
to overwhelm with violence,
to assault violently
to be excited, to be exalted

storm, tempest (VIII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

stormy, excited, angrily
angrily

THAŁÁXA- milk, sap (‡)
THÁŁE-

THÁŁRÍ-

THANÍ-

THANRÁ-

◊THÁNYU-
•THARÉ-
THARÍ-

to

it,

to stalk without success, to fail at
hunting
to grab another’s throat with the
teeth
throat,
suffocate
windpipe (‡)
rays of sunlight breaking through
clouds on the horizon (VIII)
fish spawning, fish spawning place,
fish in the middle of spawning (V,
X)
†cod (plural form is qxwéyu-) (V)
prey animal’s trail (‡)
bay, slight inlet, water in a bay or
inlet (X, IX)

10 This word and its plural form qsáshi- is a rather strange
one, Davis notes it in the margin of one of his pages but
does not describe it further or in what context it is used or if
it applies to what we humans might call a “wizard” or if it
is another concept entirely. I am at a loss, but this word
appears to always be Class VI Inedible so it might mean
something else entirely.

33

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

THAŠE-

THAWÉ-

THAYÁ-
THÉNA-

THERI-

THRESI-
THEŠÁ-

to have an intestinal pain, intestinal
pain, troubled stomach, sickness of
the belly (XII)
low hanging clouds, grey color
(VIII)
long, long time, duration (XII)
to fly steadily without much effort,
†a creature flying without much
effort (but more strenuous then
gliding) (‡)
brush, bushes, low plants one might
hide among (IX)
juniper (berry and tree) (IX, XI)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to heard together (usually
while hunting),
to hunt
birds in a flock (inherent
object)
to be birds, to flock, to be en
masse

†bird, flying birds (undifferentiated

species) (IV)

Adjective:

Adverb:

flocking,
swarming,
protected due to being in a
group
many

THÉTSÉ-

THÉWE-

THÍŁÍ-
THISHU-

THÍXÍ-
THÍTSU-

THÍYAŁ-
•THŁÁ(XE)-
THRANA-

THRATSÚ-

low lying clouds in a thick cover
over the ground like a blanket
(VIII)
for clouds to disperse, dispersing
clouds (VIII)
moss (general term) (IX)
wing membrane of a dragon (I,
XII)
ice, frozen lake (IX)
to drift, to glide, “drifting celestial
things” which seem to refer to
satellites (which is a very strange
sight for the Shúna) (VII)
copper, copper ore (X)
female organs, vagina (‡)
to reverberate, to echo (implies
greater sound and a thrumming
a
sound
reverberation, an echo (VIII)
†Mercury (VII), flashing, there-
and-gone

(On.),

húšá-)

then

THREŠÁ-

THRETSÁ-
•THRÍRÉ-
THUNSE-

#THÚRSÍ-
THÚSUN-

THÚTSI-
THYASU-

TSÁHÁ-

TSÁHÍ-

wake up, get up, open eyes, become
suddenly aware
tsunami, destructive wave11 (IX)
†(your) mother (I)
to dry out in the sun, †a creature
which is drying itself out in the
sunlight (‡)
snot, mucus (‡)
(†) oyster (V, IX because it is
considered semi-plantlike)
†pig, sow (♀) (IV)
†reptile (general) (VI)

TS

weird, strange, unexpected, odd,
bizarre (‡)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to protect by

to cover,
covering
to peel off the scales of
another, to wound
to shed, to flake off

scale, dragonscale (living, part of a

dragon) (I)

Adjective:

scaly, hard
†weasel (IV, VI)
finger, individual claw, digit (‡)
(plural is (y)írha-)
†cricket (usually plural) (VI)
hunger, desirous of food, in want of
food, creature which is hungry (‡)
†(my) mother (I)
fishpond (IX)
ankle, ankle joint (XII, ‡)
†herring (V)
†seal (♂) (IV, V)

TSÁHI-
◊TSAHIN-

TSAHÍN-
TSAHU-

•TSÁHU-
TSANÁTH-
TSÁNHU-
TSÁNÚ-
TSÁQXÚ-
•TSÁRÁN-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

to

be nearby,

to
somewhat close (location)
to make another (your)
neighbor

be

11 Although interestingly tsunami are not viewed badly by
the Shúna, mostly because they are either able to fly or are
such powerful swimmers. Also, tsunami bring up many
tasty fish and sea creatures a dragon with a taste for such
things rarely gets a chance to eat.

34

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Refl. V:

to be (your) neighbor, to
move in near (to you)

Noun-Verb:

†(your) neighbor (I)

Adjective:
Adverb:

next (to you), near (you)
nearly
†sea otter (V)
to blink the eye, to blink quickly
to treat, agree with, work with,
understanding (XII)
†sick, infirm, dying creature (‡)
sweat (generic & non-gendered
term) (‡ although not draconic as
the Shúna do not sweat)
to fall, to drop, to dive without
control, lose, let go of
remain, stay, hold position
lower left front (direction) (‡)
to lead, to lead on, to direct by
going in the same direction or
doing the same thing, to teach or
instruct
to eat multiple small things (fish,
squirrel) (implies desperation or
extreme hunger to resort to such a
thing)
liver (‡)
birch tree (IX)
a shell, a hard shell, †an animal
with a shell (turtle, armadillo etc.,
compare with qsáqsa-) (‡)
to be pointed, to be pointy, canine
tooth (‡)
to fly (a bird or feathered animal),
bird’s wing (VI, XII)
†mammoth (♀) (III)
only, just, until12
tidal pool (plural form is sréša-)
(IX)
to gauge, to guess, to sound another
creature or thing out, to determine
jade (X)
raining (lightly) (VIII)
†scavenger, to scavenge (‡)

TSARÉ-
TSARŁÁ-
TSASHI-

TSASŁU-
TSÁSNE-

TSASWÉ-

TSAŠU-
TSATHÁ-
TSATHÚ-

TSATSU-

TSAWÁ-
TSEHEN-
TSEHU-

TSÉŁÍ-

•TSÉNÉTH-

TSEQSA-
TSÉRIN-
◊TSESHÁ-

TSESHÍ-

TSÉTSÉ-
•TSETSU-
#TSÉTHÉ-

◊TSETHÚ-

TSÉWI-

TSÉWÍ-
TSÉYA-

†ewes, sheep (♀) (singular is sará-)
(IV)
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but without any
traceable smells left on it (IX, XI,
XII)
cliff, drop-off (X)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be

to be quiescent,
sluggish (river, sea)
to lull, to put another to
sleep
to be asleep, to be lulled

†sleeping dragon (I)
†sleeping animal (‡)
†Sun in winter (sleeping Sun) (VII)
trees in winter (sleeping trees) (IX)
the land in winter (X)
sleep (abstract) (XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

sleepy, unwatchful
sleepily, slowly, groggily

TSÍHAN-

TSÍNÁ-

TSINRÁ-

TSIRA-
TSÍRÍ-
•◊TSÍRHÁ-

•◊TSÍRNA-

TSIRŁE-
TSÍRSYÍ-

◊TSÍRŠU-

TSISNÚ-
TSIŠÁ-

TSÍŠU-

to be a deep infrared color, a thing
which is a deep infrared color (‡)
horizon, edge of sight, in every
direction (VIII, XII)
a nice cave, a good living space, a
good cave for a lair (X)
desire, wish for, to want
trilling, birdsong (On.) (VIII)
†a Lindworm dragon (plural form
is tsírna-) (I)
†a Lindworm dragon (singular
form is tsírhá-) (I)
to chitter, to chirp
to grow new scales after a wound, a
tender, new scale which has not
hardened yet (I, XII)
aspen trees (singular is qxłéya-)
(IX)
chestnut tree (IX)
†lamb,
(undifferentiated gender) (IV)

sheep

small

12 There is another form of “only, just, until” the root rusu-.
Davis writes both of these down, I am not sure if this is a
mistake or if there is a slightly different meaning between
this root and rusu-. Although tsérin- seems to imply a
pejorative meaning to it.

35

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to have a male horse smell
on it
to put a male horse smell on
something
to be a horse, to be skittish

Noun-Verb:

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Noun-Verb:

†male horse, male horse-like animal

(III)

†male ancient cameloids (IV)
horse-smell, horsy

Adjective:

TSÍTSA-
TSITSÍ-

to escape, to get away

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be warm, to be in the
sunshine
to warm another, to shine
down on, to heat up
to warm oneself, to sit in the
sunshine

†Sun (generic term) (VII)
year, pattern of the seasons (VIII)
day (rarely used) (XII)

Adjective:
Adverb:

•TSÍTSÍ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

sunny, warm, shining
warmly
emotion)

(in

terms

of

to make another into (your)
friend/ally
to be (your) friend/ally

†(your) ally/friend (I)
†comrade, part of a group of animals

(‡)
Adjective:
Adverb:

(you)

friendly, comradely (to you)
together, allied, along with

•TSITSU-

TSITHÍ-
TSIYE-
TSŁÍTHA-

TSNASHU-
TSNÁTHE-
#TSNÉHU-
TSNUŠA-
TSUHÉ-

•TSÚHU-

to flap wings and stall out, to stop
mid-air
always, forever, continually
†octopus (V)
sooty, covered in soot, face covered
in soot after breathing fire (‡)
pumpkin, gourd (IX)
†trout (V)
pus, mucus (‡)
thick, heavy, clouds (VIII)
lagoon, shallow inlet, shallow bay,
water of a lagoon or shallow bay
(X, IX)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to make into my neighbor’s
neighbor (inherent object)
to be
neighbor

(my) neighbor’s

36

†(my) neighbor’s neighbor (I)

Adjective:
Adverb:

friendly (to me)
allied, along with (me)

TSÚHÚ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be dark, to be shadowed
to make
darken
to be shadowed, to be dark

shadowed,

to

night, night sky, celestial darkness

(VII)
winter (VIII)
shade, shadow (IX)

Adjective:
Adverb:

dark, shadowed, dim, black
without leaving a train or
mark, deathly silent
to trail, to follow, to stalk from
behind
swamp water (IX)
seed, nut (IX, XII)
rugged mountain pass, craggy and
difficult pass to walk through (X)
elm tree (plural is qxére-) (IX)
pebble, little stone (the singular
form of hała(ł)-) (IX, X)
to pretend to sleep but really awake
and listening
for prey to scatter to prevent a
predator gaining a quick kill, to
cause chaos by quick movement
to bend until broken
†sparrow (VI)
half-and-half, half, half of a whole
(‡ although usually XII)
†tern (VI)
blackthorn bush (IX)
to dig, to burrow, †mole, †little
burrowing thing (IV, VI)
†duck (alternate word from •ŠÁNU-
) (VI)
†swallow (bird) (VI)
whisper, soft voice (VIII)
†heron (VI)
†(my) father (I)

TSÚŁÁ-

TSUNRE-
TSÚNÚ-
TSUQSŁÍ-

◊TSURÍ-
◊TSÚRÍ-

•TSURU-

TSURÚ-

TSUSŁIN-
TSUSHÍ-
TSUXŁÁ-

TSUŠIN-
#TSUTHÁ-
TSÚTSE-

TSÚTSÍ-

TSUTSÍ-
TSUTSU-
TSUWÉ-
•TSÚWE-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

U

ÚRUN-

ÚSUN-

blue (abstract) (XII), blue creature
of object (‡), blue sky (VII, VIII)
some, something, general, others
(‡)

W

†Venus, Morning/Evening Star
(VII)
gizzard (‡)
†Jupiter (VII), to gorge, to fill
oneself up while eating, engorged,
distended stomach
travel, distance, trip, to make a
journey (XII)
to pounce, to jump upon, †jumper,
pouncer (‡)
period, time, season (VIII)
lower right front (direction) (‡)
claws (draconic) (I)
abundance of prey, goodly hunting
catch, get, grab, get a hold of
fireweed (IX)
to speak a poem, a poem (VIII)
to be sad, sadness (VII), sadly, a
sad or unhappy creature (‡)
silence, quiet (VIII)

WAHAŁ-

WAHÉ-
WAHÍN-

WÁHÍN-

WAŁA-

WÁŁE-
WÁŁÉ-
•WANA-
WANAŁ-
WÁNA-
WÁNHA-
•WÁNSA-
WANTSÁ –

WANÚ-
WÁRÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be smooth, to be flat
to flatten out, smash flat
to be flattened out, to lay
out

the sea, the ocean (large moving

expanse) (IX)

tundra, plain, large expanse of ground

(X)

Adjective:
Adverb:

large, flat, flattened out
moving closely along open
ground

WARÍ-

WARSÚ-

howl of pain, cry of anguish (On.)
(‡)
sea, smaller expanse of water
(either able to see the other side
from a great height or only several
hours travel to cross by wing or
swimming (IX)

37

WASA-

WÁŠÁ-

to greet, to acknowledge another’s
presence (usually to a non-friend,
non-family, non-enemy)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to shine, to sparkle, to glitter
to make glittery, to make
shiny
to glitter, to shine, to refract
light

†beloved one, dear one, familiar term

for mate (I)

†star (usually plural or innumerable)

(VII)

ember, spark, little glittering thing (IX,

VIII)
gemstone (X)

Adjective:
Adverb:

glittering, sparkly
to move without being
stealthy

WASHI-

WASHÍ-

WÁSHÚ-

WÁSI-
WASÍN-
WASYÍ-

WAŠIN-
WÁSÚ-

WAŠUN-
◊WAŠÚN-

◊WAŠRA-

WÁTSÍ-
WATSÉ-
WÁTSU-

WAXŁÁ-
WAXUR-
WEHÍ-
WÉHÍ-

to
territory, a

to be swollen, to be puffed up with
something inside (pus, liquid), boil
or pimple (‡)
hot, sharp, hot flavor, thing which
has a sharp flavor (‡)
(†)jellyfish (considered to be like a
plant) (V)
apple tree (IX)
(bird’s) nest (XI)
to debate, to argue, to discuss,
arguing creatures (‡)
smoke (VIII)
to challenge another Sihá,
challenge another’s
challenge (XII)
spleen (‡)
†crab,
sea
lobster,
(plural form is sráqxe-)
to lie, lies (VIII), liars (‡), deceitful
happenings, tricks (XII) (singular
form is níłsa-)
ash, powdered coal (XI)
†eel (V)
drip, drop, drop of water/fluid, to
drip (IX)
iron (X)
water plants (usually plural) (IX)
†snail (VI)
†millipede (VI)

anthropoid

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

•WEHÚ-

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

for a female to urinate upon
for a female to urinate

female dragon’s urine (I)
female’s urine (various animals) (‡)

Adjective:

to smell like female’s urine

WÉŁU-
WÉNHÚ-

•WÉNU-

†dogfish (V)
rain driving sideways in the wind
(VIII)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

lightning

for a thunderstorm to strike
(inherent
with
subject)
to be lightning, to be a
shooting star

†shooting star (VII)
†lightning (VIII)
a spark which flashes but doesn’t last

long (IX)

Adjective:
Adverb:

flashing
incredibly suddenly, there

and gone in a flash

WEQXA-

WÉRI-

WÉSÉ-

WÉSHA-

◊WEŠA-
◊◊◊WÉŠA-

WÉXA-

WÉYÁ-
WÍŁWA-
WINA-
WIRA-

to circle around, to move around in
order to trap (hunting term)
for something not to happen which
usually does, something or (†)
someone which usually
does
something or has a particular
characteristic but does not at the
time spoken of (contrast this with
the term shéqxá-) (‡)
to be struggling or wounded, †a
struggling or wounded animal (‡)
to doubt, to disbelieve, to be
incredulous,
a
†a
disbeliever of something (‡)
hoarfrost (plural form shiye-) (IX)
†beetle (singular is xátha-, plural is
rérłá-) (VI)
damp rain which washes away
scents (VIII)
†badger (♀) (IV)
feather (VI, XII)
†wren (VI)
to pull something together until
there is only a narrow passage, to
together, narrow
bring closely

doubter,

WÍRA-
WIRÍ-

YAHA-

YANA-

YANÁ-

YÁNÁ-

trees

(crevasse,

thing(s)
together) (‡)
to attempt, to try, tryingly
fruit of a tree or plant (IX, XI, XII)

close

Y

sadness (VII or XII), sad or
despondent creature (‡)
light, physical light (VII, VIII,
XII)
a sharp, piercing sound, a shriek or
sharp yell

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Noun-Verb:

for a river to plunge into the
ground or hole
to drink, to swallow a liquid,
to lap up

mouth (dragon’s) (I)
animals’ mouth (‡)
dark hole in the middle of the span of
the Night

the Milky Way,
Mother’s Mouth (VII)

tornado, hurricane (mouth of air or

clouds) (VIII)

whirlpool (mouth of water) (IX)
cave entrance (mouth of the earth) (X)
holy (full of holes)

Adjective:

#YÁNÁTH-

YÁNU-

YANÚ-

YÁRA-
YARÍN-
YÁRTSÚ-

YÁRÚ-

to be inattentive, to be unaware, to
inattentive
be unobservant, an
creature (‡)
to miss another’s presence, to miss
someone or something
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but which has a
traceable smell on it from the
animal (‡)
to be terse and rude, to be unkind
lichen (IX)
saltwater swamp, tidal swampland,
saltwater wetlands (IX, X)

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

to know, to be known, to be
famous
to be wise, to know oneself

head of a dragon, brain (vs. skull) (I,

XII)

38

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

YAŠI-

YAŠU-
YÁŠU-

animal’s head (‡)
clouds

(“brains

in

the

air”,

undifferentiated types) (VIII)
known, famous

Adjective:

to menstruate,
menstruating animal (‡)
lower right back (direction) (‡)

to ovulate, †a

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Noun-Verb:

diaphanous, thin, dream-like
to dream, to ponder on, to
think dreamily about
to be dreaming

dream (undifferentiated quality) (VII)
dreamy, illusory
unrealistically, improbably

Adjective:
Adverb:

YASÚ-
YAŠÚ-
YASÚN-
YAXIN-

YÁTHÁ-

YÁTHI-

•◊YÁTSÍN-

YATSU-
•YAWE-
YÁWÉ-

YÁYÁ-
YÉŁÁ-
YENA-

YERE-
YÉSHE-
YESHÍ-

†walrus (♀) (III, V)
†leader of a herd of animals (‡)
†hummingbird (IV)
to thrash in ones sleep, to move
while dreaming, †an animal or
dragon thrashing in its sleep (‡)
bend in a river or stream (IX), bent
object or thing (‡)
copse of trees, bunch of trees (IX,
XII)
shed scales (plural form of the root
néłu-) (XI)
to guard, to protect
heart (draconic) (I)
downwind, being downwind (‡,
VIII)
†bug, insect (VI)
strawberry (IX)
leaves on trees (undifferentiated
species) (IX, XII)
†lark (VI)
†peregrine falcon (II, VI)
(†) gooey duck (V, IX because it is
considered semi-plantlike)

YESI-

YEŠÚ-

YÉWA-
YEWÉ-

YIHU-

(Y)ÍNA-
YINSU-
(Y)ÍNSHU-
YÍNTSE-

◊(Y)ÍRHA-

YIRŠÚ-
YÍSA-

◊YISI-

YISÍ-
YIXA-

YÚNA-

(Y)UNSE-
#YURSU-

YUSHU-

YÚŠE-
YÚŠU-
YUTSE-

YÚTSÍ-
YUXI-

to answer, to reply to a question, an
answer (VIII)
crack, cenote, pit, cave pointing
downwards (X)
†shark (V)
a spring, source of water bubbling
up from beneath the earth (IX)
to roll over, to present the stomach
or belly, to submit abjectly
cherry tree (IX)
to trip, to mess up, to stumble
†weevil (VI)
to be ironic, irony, amusing turn of
events (XII)
fingers, claws, digits (collective and
plural) (‡) (singular is tsahin-)
spinal cord, spine (‡)
lapping water, small waves in the
water (IX)
honeysuckle plants (singular form
is hutsá-) (IX)
†(my) friend’s enemy (I)
to point, to point out a thing or
location
to be lost, †lost creature, lost thing
or item (‡)
nettles, nettle plant (IX)
to be timid, timidity, to be humble,
timid or humble creature (‡)
(†)sea cucumber (V, IX (considered
to be like a plant))
†bear (♀) (II, III)
jawbone hinge, jawbone socket (‡)
slippery, hard to stand on, slippery
ice (IX)
wave on the sea (IX, XII)
a pile, a stack, a bunch atop one
another (‡)

39

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Section III:
Thesaurus of Noun-Verb Roots According to Class

3.1. Overview
This section contains roots which are used as verb-nouns, divided up according to class structure.
Roots often appear in multiple classes as they can refer to multiple derivational forms and those roots
which appear in multiple classes depending on their usage appear in the final section Multi-Class Roots and
it should be remembered that all of these roots occur in many different classes. For instance HÍŠÁ- ‘ear’ (‡)
refers to ‘a dragon’s ear’ when placed in Class I Kindred -híšéš, a ‘predator’s ear’ when put in Class II
Predator –híšíł, ‘sounds moving through the air’ when in Class VIII Aerial -híšásin and so on, but it is
recorded only once in this thesaurus under Multi-Class Roots for simplicities’ sake. Additionally, almost
any root may appear in Class XII Components if the speaker wished to stress that the object is (or was) a
part of a larger whole and anything alive can appear in Class XI Dead if it is, in fact, dead. Items which
have specific component meanings are placed in Class XII in this thesaurus in order to keep repetition to a
minimum.

The classifications and notes for this section are identical to the lexicon above:
All words which carry an Intentional Voice are indicated by ‘†’ in the translation. All others are
considered to be Unintentional in voice. Verb roots which have Inherent Objects or Inherent Subjects are
marked with •. Words which have wholly different plural roots are marked with ‘◊’. Roots with uncertain
usage, gender or precise meaning are bracketed by ( ). Sounds which are onomatopoeic (words which
“sound like” what they refer to such as splash, slash, rip and boom in English) are marked with (On.). When
the procreative gender of a root is relevant (primarily for prey animals of various types) it is indicated with
the symbols ♀ for female and ♂ for male. The sound x is placed after the other s-sounds because it closer to
these, so does not follow w as in the standard English alphabet.

CLASS I KINDRED

•HÁHÍ-

HANXE-

•HARÁ-
HÁTSÉ-
•HÚNQSÉ-
ŁAHÉ-

•◊ŁERHÁ-

•◊ŁÉRNA-

ŁÍRÁ-
•NUŠÁ-
•NUXE-

NYARE-
•QSÁŁÉ-
•QSŁÁŠU-
•QSÚŁA-

or

dragon,

suspicious

trustworthy

†a dragon looking for a mate (both
genders (I)
truthful
dragon (I)
†(your) father
†youngling, adolescent dragon
spikes along a dragon’s back
†a questionable
dragon
†a Wingless Heraldic form of
dragon (plural form is łérna-)
†a Wingless Heraldic form of
dragon (singular form is łerhá-)
†(my) enemy, proven foe
†(my) hatch-sister
†unexpected guest
territory (neutral intent)
dragon’s forepaw, forefoot, “hand”
†(your) hatch-brother
†(your) neighbor’s neighbor
dragon’s wing

to hunting

†prey of a Blood Hunt
† hunting dragon
†(my) hatch-brother

•QSUNRÍ-
QSUWÉ-
•QXÁXA-
(#QXNÉ(HI)-) †a bothersome Kindred
RANÍ-
RANÚ-
RÁSU-

horns of a dragon
driver (hunting term)
dear one (term of endearment
amongst mated Sihá)
stinger on the end of a dragon’s tail
(vs. hášu-)
†(my) neighbor (neither friend nor
foe)
†(your) mate (♂)
†(my)
gender)
†(my) eye
†a hydra, a multi-headed dragon
†(my) mate
(my) untrustworthy neighbor
†(my)
companion
†enemy,
(undifferentiated ownership)

(undifferentiated

opponent

proven

friend,

child

ally,

REQXE-

•RITSŁÁ-

•SÁHI-
•SÁHUN-

SANU-
SARHÁ-
•SÁRXA-
#•SASHIN-
•SAYA-

#•SHASWÁ-

40

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

◊SHÁTSÁ-

SHÉXÚ-

•SHEYA-
•◊SHÚNA-

SHÚNU-
•◊SIHÁ-

•SÍHÁ-
SINÍ-
SÍRTSE-
SÍTHÍ-
SŁÁHU-
SŁATSÉ-

SŁÉ(NA)-
•SŁÉYU-

SŁIN(E)-

SŁÉXU-
SŁÚHA-

#•SRAŁA-
•SRÉHU-
SRENÚ-
•◊SRESHÁ-

•◊SRÉSNA-

•SÚHU-

friend

(undifferentiated

bunch of eggs, clutch of dragon
eggs (singular form is xúxu-)
†ally,
ownership)
to slay (one Kindred upon another)
†dragons (plural form of the root
sihá-)
to mate, the act of mating
†dragon (undifferentiated race and
relationship) (plural form is shúna-)
†(my) mate (♂)
a dragon hunting by hearing alone
†(my) far distant neighbor
†(my) trusted enemy (?)
†adult, grown-up (draconic)
†sibling, hatch-mate (unpossessed
and non-gendered, generic)
†crouching, ready to spring dragon
†Predator of the Blood Hunt, the
hunter in a vengeance-hunt
†acquaintance
(general draconic
relationship without indication of
friendliness or truculence)
†mother (any dragon’s)
†a very wise dragon (and one not to
be trifled with)
†difficult, troublesome Sihá
dragon shit
†(my enemy’s friend)
†a Wyvern dragon (plural form is
srésna-)
†a Wyvern dragon (singular form
is sreshá-)
a dragon which dives out of the sun
on an animal on the ground

•◊SYÉTHU- wings (of a dragon), to fly
ŠÁTHA-
#•ŠATHE-
ŠÁTHÍ-
ŠAWA-
•ŠÉRÁ-
•◊ŠINHÁ-

†coal-head, idiot
†uninvited, unwelcome guest
†elder dragon, old, wise one
†fool, idiot, stone-head
†(your) mate (♀)
†an Amphiptère dragon (plural
form is šínna-)
†an Amphiptère dragon (singular
form is šinhá-)
†unknown dragon, stranger
†father
ownership)
†(your) hatch-sister

•◊ŠÍNNA-

ŠUTHÉ-
XAŁIR-

•XÉŠE-

(undifferentiated

XINÍ-
•◊XINHÁ-

•◊XÍNNA-

XÍYE-
•XŁAXIN-
•XŁENA-
XŁÍSA-
•XRASÚN-

(X)RESE-
•XRÉŠÚ-
•◊XRUSHÁ-

•◊XRÚSNA-

◊XÚXU-

•XWAXÍN-
THISHU-
•THRÍRÉ-
TSÁHÍ-

•TSÁHU-
•TSÁRÁN-
TSÉYA-
•◊TSÍRHÁ-

•◊TSÍRNA-

TSÍRSYÍ-

TSÍTSÍ-
•TSÚHU-
•TSÚWE-
•WANA-
WÁŠÁ-

•WEHÚ-
YÁNÁ-
YÁRÚ-
•YAWE-
YISÍ-

(♂)

(undifferentiated

type of dragon

soft, unhardened dragon scales
†a Heraldic type of dragon (plural
form is xínna-)
†a Heraldic
(singular form is xinhá-)
†group, bunch of the Kindred
†(your) untrustworthy neighbor
mating dance (draconic)
tail, dragon-tail
†mate
ownership)
†(your) trusted enemy (?)
†(your) hatch-sister
†a Guivre dragon (plural form is
xrúsna-)
†a Guivre dragon (singular form is
xrushá-)
egg, dragon’s egg (plural form is
shátsá-)
The Hunt, life, a dragon’s life
wing membrane of a dragon
†(your) mother
scale, dragonscale (living, part of a
dragon)
†(my) mother
†(your) neighbor
†sleeping dragon
†a Lindworm dragon (plural form
is tsírna-)
†a Lindworm dragon (singular
form is tsírhá-)
new scale which has not hardened
yet
†(your) ally/friend
†(my) neighbor’s neighbor
†(my) father
claws (draconic)
†beloved one, dear one, familiar
term for mate
female dragon’s urine
mouth (dragon’s)
head of a dragon, brain (vs. skull)
heart (draconic)
†(my) friend’s enemy

CLASS II PREDATORS

HÉRŁU-
ŁARA-

†polar bear
†big cat, predatory cat

41

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

ŁÍRÁ-

QSATSE-
QSEHAR-
QSUWÉ-
QXUYE-

RANÚ-
SÁTSÁ-

SINÍ-
SŁÉ(NA)-
SŁIN(E)-
SRUQXÍ-
•SÚHU-

ŠAHÚN-
ŠÁQSI-
XÍYE-

XWAHI-
YÉSHE-
YÚŠE-

†competition animal for similar
food resources
†hawk, eagle
†fox
†predator
†bat (usually in the innumerable
number)
driver (hunting term)
†ancient canine-bear (♂), possibly
now for male dogs/wolves
a creature hunting by hearing alone
†crouching, ready to spring
† cautious hunter
†kingfisher
hawk, thing which dives onto an
animal from out of the sun
†goshawk
†osprey
†wolf, hunting hound, coyote,
dingo
†bear (♂)
†peregrine falcon
†bear (♀)

CLASS III LARGE PREY

HÁQSA-
HÁRÁ-
HAWA-

HÉYA-
HIRA-
HUŠU-
HUXÉ-
•ŁASU-
NÁRIN-
QSAWÍN-
QSÚRÉ-
QXEHÍ-
QXŁAHÍ-
QXNÁHU-
SAŠRÍ-
SÁTSÁ-

◊SIŠIN-
◊SŁAXÍ-
SRIYU-
ŠASRA-
XRÍRA-

†female deer (♀)
†mammoth (♂)
†goat (♀), †large prehistoric animal
of unknown type
†moose (♀)
†bull, cow (♂)
†horse (♀)
†male deer, buck (♂)
†herd of prey animals
†reindeer (♀)
†walrus (♂)
†newborn calf of any prey animal
†reindeer (♂)
†elk (♀)
†ancient giant sloth
animal with a cloven hoof
†ancient canine-bear (♂), possibly
now for male dogs
†ram, sheep (plural is słaxí-) (♂)
†rams, sheep (singular is sišin-) (♂)
†elk (♂)
†caribou (♂)
†cow, heifer (♀)

42

XWAHI-
XYEHAŁ-
TSEQSA-
TSÍŠU-

YASÚ-
YÚŠE-

†bear (♂)
†buffalo(?) (♂)
†mammoth (♀)
†male horse, male horse-like animal
(♂)
†walrus (♀)
†bear (♀)

CLASS IV SMALL PREY

deer

QXURA-

(undifferentiated

RÚNA-
SÁHE-
◊SARÁ-
SAŠRÍ-
SÁTSÁ-
SHAHÚ-

†goat (♀)
†cat
†herd of prey animals
†fox

HAWA-
ŁARA-
•ŁASU-
QSEHAR-
(#QXNÉ(HI)-) †human, chatterer anything which
speaks but is not of the Kindred
(♀/♂?) plural form is #SNUHA-
general name for small animals and
rodent
†a marmot (?)
†badger (♂)
†ewe, sheep (♀) (plural is tsethú-)
animal with a cloven hoof
†dog (?) (♂)
†young
gender)
†seal (♀)
†human (♂/♀?)
†pig, boar (♂)
†rabbit, bunny (♂)
†rabbit, bunny (♀)
†goat (♂)
†mink (gender?)
†otter (♂)
†sea lion
†dog (domestic) (♀?)
†colt, little horse (undifferentiated
gender)
†pig, sow (♀)
†weasel
†seal (♂)
†ewes, sheep (♀) (singular is sará-)
†lamb, small sheep
†male ancient cameloids
to dig, to burrow, †mole, †little
burrowing thing
†badger (♀)

SHÚNÉ-
(#SNUHA-)
SRÍXU-
SRUTHA-
SWÉTHA-
SYASYÁ-
SYÚTSA-
ŠIRA-
XAŁÍR-
XÍYE-
XŁÍRU-

THÚTSI-
TSÁHI-
TSÁQXÚ-
◊TSETHÚ-
TSIŠÁ-
TSÍŠU-
TSÚTSE-

WÉYÁ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

is

CLASS V AQUATIC
fish scales (usually plural)
†goldfish
(†)barnacle
†fish (in a river, lake or sea)
sound under water
†horned fish
gills of a fish or shark
†fish on a run up a river
(†) clam (because it is considered
semi-plantlike)
†crawdad
†whale (undifferentiated gender or
species)
†turtle
†walrus (♂)
†newborn calf of any prey animal
†narwhal whale (undifferentiated
gender)
†pollywog
†cod (plural) (singular form
thányu-)
†small fish living in a small pool of
water
†fish swimming against the current
†leech
†blue whale
†seal (♀)
a creature hunting by hearing alone
†minnow, little fish
sea
lobster,
†crab,
(plural form is wašún-)
†smelt
dorsal fin of a fish, whale, dolphin
fish eggs
†salmon
†salamander
†jellyfish
†otter (♂)
fluke (hind fin of a whale or
dolphin, up-and-down motion only,
not side-to-side swimming)
†sea lion
a creature which comes up from
underneath the water and pull
something near or on the surface
down (usually in an attack)
seaweed

anthropoid

HÁNSU-
HAXYÉ-
HÉNÁ-
HÍNE-
HÍŠÁ-
HUXÉ-
ŁÉYÁ-
NARA-
NARÁ-

NUSU-
QSÁHÚN-

QSÁQSA-
QSAWÍN-
QSÚRÉ-
QXÉNRA-

QXŁÁYU-
◊QXWÉYU-

REQXA-

RÍNHA-
SARA-
SHISHÍ-
SHÚNÉ-
SINÍ-
SŁÁHIN-
◊SRÁQXE-

SREHU-
SUTSÉ-
SWÁHA-
SYÁRÚ-
SYEWÍ-
ŠATHU-
ŠIRA-
ŠUSÚ-

XAŁÍR-
XARÁ-

XÁXA-

THANRÁ-
◊THÁNYU-
THÚSUN-

TSÁNÚ-
TSÁQXÚ-
TSARÉ-
TSIYE-
TSNÁTHE-
WÁSHÚ-

◊WAŠÚN-

WATSÉ-
WÉŁU-
YASÚ-
YESHÍ-

YÉWA-
YUSHU-

fish which are spawning
†cod (plural form is qxwéyu-)
(†) oyster (because it is considered
semi-plantlike)
†herring
†seal (♂)
†sea otter
†octopus
†trout
(†)jellyfish (considered to be like a
plant)
†crab,
sea
lobster,
(plural form is sráqxe-)
†eel
†dogfish
†walrus (♀)
(†) gooey duck (because
considered semi-plantlike)
†shark
(†) sea cucumber

anthropoid

is

it

CLASS VI INEDIBLE

HÁŁA-
HÁQSA-
HÁQSÁ-
HESHÍ-
HEYUN-
HÍXIN-
HÚNI-
HUNQSE-
HÚRÉ-

HÚSRU-
HUSÚN-
HUXÉ-
ŁARSE-
NASA-
NÉHÁ-
NUNA-
NUSU-
NUSYE-
◊QSÁNŁA-
QSÁQSA-
QSÁQSÁ-
QSAQXE-
QSÁRHU-

†nightingale
†toad, little leaper
ghost, dark thing
†swan
†grasshopper
†chicken
†ptarmigan
†rat, mouse
†worm, earthworm (alternate term
from xánra-)
†magpie
†demon, monster, devil
†horned beetle, bug
†a dwarf (?)
†water skimmer (insect)
†male giant (?)
spirit, ghostly thing
†crawdad
†woodpecker
†ants (singular form is qxarín-)
†turtle
†crow
†goose
†thrush

43

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

◊QSÁSHI-

QSATSE-
◊◊◊QSÉRE-

QSNANÍ-
QSWÍŠÍ-
◊QXARÍN-

is

form

słátsú-,

(plural

†wizards/sorcerers? (singular form
is xyéhí-)13
†hawk, eagle
†gnat
innumerable form is qxuhan-)
†pheasant
†wood boring insects
†ant, antlike insect (plural form is
qsánła-)
†puffin
†pollywog

QXÉQSÍ-
QXŁÁYU-
◊◊◊QXUHAN- †innumerable gnats (singular form

QXÚSHÚ-
QXWÉNÁ-
#QXYÁXE-
QXURA-

◊◊◊RÉRŁÁ-

RÉSYU-
RESYÚ-
RÍNÁ-
#RIXNÁ-
RÚSÚ-
SAŁATH-
SARA-
SERA-
SHAQSE-
SHIYI-
•◊SIHÁ-

SINTHÚ-
◊◊◊SŁÁTSÚ-

SŁEŁÉ-

SŁÍ(HU)-
SRETSU-
SRÍNTHE-
SRÚNA-

SRUQSÍ-
SRUQXÍ-
SRÚSYE-
SUHUN-

is

xátha-,

(singular

is qsére-, plural form is słátsú-)
†robin (bird)
†crane
†goblin (?) (specifically)
general name for small animals and
rodent
†beetle
innumerable plural is wéša-)
†snipe, shore bird
beak, bill (of a bird)
†female giant (?)
nasty, terrible tasting, awful
†singing bird
moth
†leech
to crawl, †centipede
†wasps (usually innumerable)
†stork
†swarm of
(plural form is SHÚNA-)
†partridge
†gnats (singular form
innumerable form is qxuhan-)
†mosquito, biting insects (usually
in the innumerable number)
†rooster
†firefly
†swallow (bird)
†sorcerer, wizard
gendered)
†caterpillar
†kingfisher
†louse
†song
species)

insects, bugs, frogs

(undifferentiated

is qsére-,

non-

bird

((?)

13 See the note on xyéhí- below.

44

SUŁUTH-
#SÚNÁ-
SWIRI-
SYAŠÉ-
SYÁWE-
SYEWÍ-
ŠAHÚN-
•ŠÁNU-
ŠÁNÚ-
ŠÁQSI-
•ŠAQSÚN-
ŠISE-
XÁNRA-
XANSÍ-
XANÚ-
XASHA-
◊◊◊XÁTHA-

XÉŁÁR-
#XÉŠÉ-
XEX(A)-
XNAŁA-
•XNA(QSÉ)-
XNÉWI-
XRESHA-
#XRÉTHA-
#XRÍTHA-

XWÍŠA-
THEŠÁ-

THYASU-
TSÁHI-
TSAHÍN-
•TSÉNÉTH-
TSUSHÍ-
TSUŠIN-
TSÚTSE-
TSÚTSÍ-

TSUTSÍ-
TSUWÉ-
WÍŁWA-
WINA-

is

rérłá-,

(plural

†snake, serpent
†ghost, spirit
†seagull, seabird
†slug
†sparrow, sparrow-like bird
†salamander
†goshawk
duck
†dove
†osprey
ant-hill
†mite, tiny insect
†maggot, worm
†bees
†crab, arthropod
†frog
†beetle
innumerable plural is wéša-) (VI)
†butterfly
†fly, bug, buzzy thing
†worm, earthworm
†quail
†spider, spider-like thing
†squirrel
†shrew
†little færie, pixie (?)
†little færie, pixie (?) (this appears
to be a variation on xrétha- or
perhaps indicates male and female
varieties?)
†owl
†bird, flying birds (undifferentiated
species)
†reptile (general)
†weasel
†cricket (usually plural)
bird’s wing
†sparrow
†tern
†mole, †little burrowing thing
†duck (alternate word from the root
•ŠÁNU-)
†swallow (bird)
†heron
feather
†wren

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

◊XYÉHÍ-
WEHÍ-
WÉHÍ-
◊◊◊WÉŠA-

YASÚN-
YÁYÁ-
YERE-
YÉSHE-
(Y)ÍNSHU-

†wizard/sorcerer?14
†snail
†millipede
†beetle (singular is xátha-, plural is
rérłá-) (VI)
†hummingbird
†bug, insect
†lark
†peregrine falcon
†weevil

HANXE-
HAŠWA-
HÁŠÉ-
HÍNTSE-

◊HÚRÚN-

HUSHÍ-
◊HÚSYÚ-
HUXÉ-

ŁUSÍ-
NAHUN-

NUNA-
QSÁNI-
QSÁSÍ-

QSEQSÉ-

QSUSÉ-

QXÉHA-
RAŁÁ-
RÁRA-

CLASS VII CELESTIAL
truth, veracity (VII)
†comet
heaven, sky (unreachable)
†waning moon (Broken Celestial
Egg)
bravery, lack of fear (singular form
is syénsú-)
†Aldebaran (star in Taurus)
†dreams (singular form is syesá-)
†The Horns (group of stars or
possibly a constellation?)
respect, admiration, (love?)
†Spica (star in the constellation of
Virgo)
fate (celestial winds)
†Moon
†a nightmare, a terrible dream,
frightening thing while sleeping
hundreds of falling meteors in a
swarm
†Northern Lights, ‘Falling Celestial
Rain’ (euphemism)
†the Sun on a hot day
halo around the moon or sun
†The Ribcage, Constellation of
Cassiopeia (?)
flash of light (nova?)
†Pleiades star cluster (Bunch of
Eggs, always plural)
†retrograde planet

RINE-
◊SHÁTSÁ-

SHÉŠU-

14 This word and its plural form qsáshi- is a rather strange
one, Davis notes it in the margin of one of his pages but
does not describe it further or in what context it is used or if
it applies to what we humans might call a “wizard” or if it
is another concept entirely. I am at a loss, but this word
appears to always be Class VI Inedible so it might mean
something else entirely.

45

SHÍN(YÍ)-
SŁÁHÍN-
•SRÉHU-
SŁÁ(YA)-

SUŁÚTH-
#SÚNÁ-
SUSA-
SYÁHU-

SYEHÚ-
◊SYÉNSÚ-

◊SYESÁ-
ŠÁQXÉ-
ŠÁWÁ-

ŠNARÍ-
ŠÚRI-

XAŁIR-
XÁŁIR-
XANXÍ-
XŁÍTSA-
XRÁXÁ-
XÚXU-
THÍTSU-

THRATSÚ-
TSÉYA-
TSITSÍ-
TSÚHÚ-
ÚRUN-
WAHAŁ-
WAHÍN-
WÁŠÁ-

•WÉNU-
YAHA-
YANA-
YÁNÁ-

YÁŠU-

(star

in Taurus)

crescent moon
†Sirius (the Dog Star near Orion)
shooting star (star-shit)
†Aldebaran
(alternate name)
†planet (swift celestial thing)
†gods, mighty spirits
†Rigel (star in Orion)
bright celestial object (euphemism
for either the Sun and Moon when
singular, the Sun and the Moon
when plural and the Stars when
innumerable, full moon
†Mars
bravery, lack of fear (plural form is
húrún-)
†a dream (plural form is húsyú-)
†Orion Nebula
†Moon and Sun (collective plural
term) or ‘celestial eyes’
Blood Hunt, hunt of vengeance
†Milky Way, Road of Stars, the
Night Mother
†euphemism for the Moon
†nightmare, evil dream, bad dream
†Saturn
†Orion’s Belt
moon-like, moonlight
†full Moon (singular only)
“drifting celestial things” which
seem to refer to satellites (which is
a very strange sight for the Shúna)
†Mercury
†Sun in winter (sleeping Sun)
†Sun (generic term)
night, night sky, celestial darkness
blue sky (unreachable)
†Venus, Morning/Evening Star
†Jupiter
†star
innumerable)
†shooting star
sadness
light, physical light
dark hole in the middle of the span
of the Milky Way, the Night
Mother’s Mouth
dream (undifferentiated quality)

(usually

plural

or

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

CLASS VIII AERIAL

HÁNRÚ-

HANSÁ-
HÁQSÁ-
HASHA-
HÁXU-
HÉXU-
HÍRÍ-
HÍSA-
HÍSHÍ-

HÍŠÁ-
HÚNU-
HÚRA-
HURTHÁ-

HÚSÁ-
HÚSHA-

•HUSU-

HÚXHÁ-

HÚTSÚ-
HUXÉ-

ŁÉŁATH-
ŁÍHI-
ŁÍHU-
ŁÍXNÁ-
NÁHÍN-
NAHU-

NÁRÁ-
◊NÍŁSA-
NUNA-
QSEQSÉ-
QSÍNQXE-
QSŁAHU-

•QSŁÁRU-

QSUSÉ-
QXÉHA-

extended wait

aerial conditions between a large
pocket of high pressure (clear
weather) and low pressure (cloudy,
rainy weather)
open, clear skies with few clouds
thin clouds, diaphanous clouds
weather, atmospheric conditions
mist laying in a hollow
rainbow
sound of rain (On.)
gust of wind, puff of wind
drought caused by intense heat
wave (compare with rathu-)
sound
a melody (On.?)
thunder
atmospheric disturbance caused by
the curve of the earth (VIII)
echo (usually plural)
long duration,
(rarely used)
whispering of the wind through
reeds, grass, leaves (On.)
a
amusement
bark (of a dog, seal etc.) (On.)
forks of
lightning
dry air, dry season, summer (?)
lullaby, crooning soft song
a question
a warning
expulsion of air or sneeze
a lake which water flows into but
(apparently) not out of
to roar, a roar (On.)
a lie (plural form is wašra-)
wind, breeze
falling snow
updraft of wind
statically charged clouds (thunder
clouds which are forming)
a song with a traditional melody
but differing lyrics
rain, falling water from the sky
heat, hot weather

laugh or chortle, sound of

lightning, horns of

46

QXÉNÁ-

QXRÍNA-

QXUYE-

RAHÍ-
RAŁÁ-
RATHU-

RESYÁ-

RINA-
RINE-

RÍNŁE-

•RÍTHÍ-
RUQSA-
RÚSÚ-
SÁRHÁ-
SANSÚ-
SHANSHI-

or

(usually

hailstones

a sound echoing through a valley or
in the mountains (thunder, loud
noise)
hail,
innumerable)
smattering of clouds moving over
the moon at night
calm, still air
halo around the moon or sun
drought caused by changing aerial
currents
unusual weather
patterns (compare with híshí-)
a thermal of air, a warm current of
air to glide upon
mind, thoughts
flash of
meteor strike)
booming,
(alternative word for thunder)
hard (raining)
a burp, expulsion of air
whistling sound
dusk
a fleeting smell
staccato, rapid and sharp sounds (of
prey moving through bushes while
running and making sounds?)

light (fire, explosion,

crashing

sound

•SHÁTHUN- name, to be called, to be addressed
SHENÍ-

“ocean” clouds (very damp and
quickly moving)
to chant with a pulsing rhythm, a
chant with a pulsing rhythm
mourning (plural form is syarí-)
an unexpected rustle of the bushes
terrible weather
“falling mist,” extremely light rain
cold weather, temperature
a shuddering breath (VII)
waves of heat coming off the
ground or in the air
thin clouds in streaks (singular
form is xúnra-)
a song with traditional lyrics but
varying melodies
(†)phantoms,
sounds (singular is sreyú-)
glow, dim light, emanating light
from a forest fire or the dawn
vicious downdraft

strange

ghosts,

•SHÉQXU-

◊SHÉRYA-
SHEŠU-
SHÉŠU-
SHÚRA-
SHUSU-
SŁARÚ-
SŁÁRÚ-

◊SŁÍSYA-

•SŁIŠI-

◊SŁÚŠÉ-

SNÁHU-

SNE(YU)-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SNUQSE-

SRÉQSA-

◊SREYÚ-

SRÍNA-

SRÚNSA-
SUNÚTH-

SWASI-

SWÉHÉ-
◊SYARÍ-
SYESHE-
ŠAHE-

ŠATHA-

ŠAYA-
ŠERÁ-
ŠIŠI-
ŠŁIWÁ-
XÁNI-

XANYE-
XARHU-

•XERYA-

XEYI-
XÍNTHÁ-
XŁUNÁ-
XNATHSU-
XNAYA-
XRÁXÁ-
XÚŁUN-
◊XÚNRA-

XÚRÚ-

XÚTSU-

THÁHÉ-
THANÍ-

THAWÉ-

boom, explosion, sudden and loud
noise
willow-the-wisp, ghostlight from a
swamp
(†)phantom, ghost, strange sound
(plural is słúšé-)
word, speech, talking (root of
Srínawésin)
legend, story, ancient tale
blizzard, snowstorm (compare with
xarhu-)
thick, piled up, billowing clouds
(generally plural)
song, tune, poem
mourning (singular form is shérya-)
the sound of ice falling off a glacier
a weird or strange dream during
hibernation or sleep
cloud (usually in the innumerable
number)
leaves blowing in the wind
“springtime”
squeaking sound (On.)
humidity, humid
poetry, joke, pun, twisted words,
words which mean one thing but
say another
headwind
whiteout or terrible snowstorm
(compare with sunúth-)
mating/rutting season for prey
animals
dark cloud on the horizon
sleet
pollen
icy rain
fall, autumn
moonlight
sky, atmosphere (reachable)
thin cloud in a streak (plural form
is słísya-)
“land” clouds (relatively dry and
usually slowly moving)
dawn,
brighten,
to
uncover/reveal glowing eyes
storm, tempest
rays of sunlight breaking through
clouds on the horizon (VIII)
low hanging clouds, grey color

to

THÉTSÉ-

THÉWE-
THRANA-

•TSETSU-
TSÍNÁ-

TSÍRÍ-
TSITSÍ-
TSNUŠA-
TSÚHÚ-
TSUTSU-
ÚRUN-
WÁŁE-
•WÁNSA-
WANTSÁ –
WANÚ-
WARÍ-
WAŠIN-
◊WAŠRA-
WÉNHÚ-
•WÉNU-
WÉXA-

YANA-
YANÁ-

YÁNÁ-

YÁRÚ-

YÁWÉ-
YESI-

low lying clouds in a thick cover
over the ground like a blanket
(VIII)
dispersing clouds
a reverberation, an echo (implies
greater sound and a thrumming
sound then húšá-) (On.) (VIII)
raining (lightly)
horizon, edge of sight, in every
direction
trilling, birdsong (On.)
year, pattern of the seasons
thick, heavy, clouds
winter
whisper, soft voice
blue sky/clear weather
period, time, season
a poem
sadness
silence, quiet
howl of pain, cry of anguish (On.)
smoke
lies (singular form is níłsa-)
rain driving sideways in the wind
†lightning
damp rain which washes away
scents
light, physical light
a sharp, piercing sound, a shriek or
sharp yell
tornado, hurricane (mouth of air or
clouds)
clouds
in
undifferentiated types)
downwind, being downwind
an answer

(“brains

air”,

the

CLASS IX ANIMATE

◊HAŁA(Ł)- (singular form is tsúrí-)

Intran. V:
Noun-Verb:

to be tiny pebbles or gravel

tiny pebbles, little stones, gravel (IX,

X)
Adjective:

Adverb:

crunchy, loud, difficult to
move over silently
crunchingly, loudly
steam, boiling water, hot springs
cedar tree (singular form is xnesyi-)
stress, worry, excitement

HÁŁI-
◊HAŁÚTH-
HANSÍ-

47

HÁSNI-
HÁŠRÚ-
HAXŁA-
HÁXU-

HAXÚ-
HATHÁ-
HATSI-
◊HEŁÁ-

HÉŁÁ-

HEŁÁTH-

HÉNÁ-
HERI-
HESA-
HÉTSÁ-

HINŁÍ-

HÍRŁA-
HIRÚ-
HÍŠIN-

HIŠRU-
HUŁU-
HUNHA-
HÚRÁ-
HÚRŁÁ-

HURQSÁ-

HÚSA-
HUSHI-

HÚSÚ-
HUSWA-

HUXŁI-

HUXRÍ-
◊HUTSÁ-

ŁAŁA-
ŁAŁIN-
ŁAHÚ-
◊ŁARÍ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

raspberry
blackberry, brambles
sand, dirt (always innumerable)
standing water, small lake, pool,
little puddle
lava
anger, fury
holly-tree
ford in a river (singular form is
qsúqsí-)
tributary river (similar to húran- or
a vein or artery of water)
a forest with too much cover to see
prey from the air
(†)barnacle
moss on a stone
a film, or coating
clear, mirror-like lake with a lot of
glare
a muddy river, stream, creek or
rivulet
glacial pool of water
plant that grows on a vine
lowlands, low area where the tide
might come in
trees marked by horns or antlers
beach, edge of the water
deep and wide lake
liquid such as blood or bile
water dripping over stone, water
dripping in a cave
hole in the ice (used by seals as a
breathing hole)
thorny bushes
open ground in a forest, forested
but without much brush to impede
movement (and without cover)
icicle
spotted,
dappled,
(shadows & sunlight)
knot in bone caused by an old
injury which healed
salty water
honeysuckle plant (plural form is
yisi-)
seedling
flowers, blossoms
berry
willow tree (plural form is sasi-)

splotchy

48

ŁASHÍN-
ŁÁŠI-
ŁINTSA-
ŁÍSHÉ-
ŁISHU-
ŁÍSHU-
NÁQXE-
◊NAQXÍ-

NARÁ-

NARATH-
NARHA-
NÁRHU-
NARSÚ-

NÍŠÁ-
QSÉRU-
QSEQSÉ-
QSŁÁWU-
QSŁIRÁ-
◊QSÚQSÍ-
QSUSÉ-
QSUWÍN-
QXAŁRÍ-
QXÉHA-
QXEQXÍ-
◊QXÉRE-
QXESUN-
QXÍNÍ-
QXÍXA-
◊QXŁÉYA-
QXŁÍRÍ-
QXRÍNA-

QXÚHU-
QXÚNAX-
RASHE-
RÁTHA-

REHE-

RIŠA-
RÍYÁ-
RÚRÍN-
RUSHÉ-
RUTHU-
SAHÍ-
SÁNYA-

scotch broom plant
shoal, shore
rowan tree
roots of a tree
pussy willow
pine needles (usually plural)
spray, foam, sea foam
little twig, tiny branch (plural is
sušun-)
(†) clam (because it is considered
semi-plantlike)
elder tree
grass, field, clearing, meadow
creek, little stream, rivulet
sick, rotting tree which is still alive
but might fall over
oil
tip of a tree, treetop(s)
snow on the ground
forest with various mixed trees
oak tree, oak wood, oak branch
ford in a river (plural form is hełá-)

waterfall, splashing water

(usually

heather (bush)
mudflat
fire, flame
fern
elm trees (singular is tsurí-)
ivy, crawling ivy
swamp, swampy land
fork in the river or stream
aspen tree (plural is tsíršu-)
cave pool, pool of water in a cave
hail,
hailstones
innumerable)
honey, sweet
hollow tree
muddy pool, puddle
stiffness, soreness, dull pain (as
opposed to a sharp pain)
bark of a tree (usually possessed in
some fashion)
mistletoe
forget-me-not (flower)
ice
madrona tree (?)
river flowing beneath ice
moss, low hanging
undercut riverbank

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

◊SASI-
SASRÁ-
SÉRÁ-
SESU-
SEŠU-
SEŠA-

SEŠE-
SEŠÉ-

SÉŠI-
SEWE-
SÉYU-

SHAŠI-

SHAXÚN-

SHETSÍ-
SHÉYAŁ-
SHIWÁ-
◊SHIYE-
SIHIN-

SÍŁA-
SÍXI-
SÍTHRA-

SŁÁRU-
SŁÁ(YA)-
SNARHÉ-
SNÉ(RÍ)-

SNÉYA-
SNÍŠA-
SRAHÍN-
SRÉQSA-

◊SRÉŠA-
SRÉTSÚ-

SRÉWÚ-
SRÍHU-
SRÍŁA-
SRÚSYU-
SUSÚ-
SÚSÚŁ-

in

the

snow

plural form of #łari- ‘willow tree’
avalanche (either snow or stone)
muck, grime
sickly, spotted leaves
little river, creek, stream
a wave, ripple of water (alternate
form of sihin-)
alder tree
sandbar on a riverbank (due its
changeable nature)
pine tree
frost, rime, thin frost
river, moving water, flowing water,
stream, creek
prints
(usually
possessed in some way, referring to
the species which left them)
flood, dramatic flush of water,
rushing waves
yarrow plant
acid, acidic liquid
algae
hoarfrost (singular form weša-)
a ripple of water (alternate term to
seša-)
lily, lily plant, lily blossom
very still and reflective water
ocean, vast expanse of water
(without being able to see the other
side)
bluebell plant
tree sap, plant sap (plant blood)
saltwater iceberg
snow covered forest where prey
show up well
rose hip (plant)
glacier
fruits, fruit
willow-the-wisp, ghostlight from a
swamp
tidal pools (singular form is tseshá-)
slush, really wet snow, mushy
snow
yew tree
walnut tree
hawthorn
a reflection on the water
ash tree
silt (usually innumerable)

◊SUŠUN-

SWAHAN-

SWESA-
SWÉTSÍ-

(◊)SYERU-
SYESHE-
SYEXI-

SWÁNE-
ŠAHU-
ŠATHA-
ŠAWA-
◊ŠAWÉ-

ŠERÁ-

ŠERU-
ŠÉYÚ-
ŠIŁÚ-

ŠŁIRE-
ŠNÁHE-
(◊)ŠNAYA-
ŠURI-
XAŁIR-
XÁŁIR-
XARU-

XÁXA-
XÍNTHÁ-
XIŠA-

XIŠÉ-
XÍTSA-

its

bud,

plants,

budding

little twigs, tiny branches (singular
is naqxí-)
submerged sandbar (due to
changeable nature)
underground river
trail made out of crushed plants,
crushed plants which make a trail
vines, ivy (singular form is šnaya-)
an iceberg
sprouts which come up after a fire,
to sprout up after a fire
riverbank (IX as it is changeable)
maple tree
dew on the ground
nut, tree-stone
water hole (plural form of the root
xułyá-)
to
“springtime”
stagnant water
heather
a knot of wood on a tree, a burl of
wood
moss tight against a tree
tide
vine, ivy (plural form is syeru-)
bubbles (apparently always plural)
beginning of a river or stream
terror, fear
mushroom,
festering, fungus-covered
seaweed
sleet (when on the ground)
reeds,
innumerable)
acorn
tree
species)
pollen
beech tree
trees in fall
cedar tree (plural form is hałúth-)
hemlock tree

(undifferentiated

type or

(usually

rotting,

rotten,

reedy

grass

water in a bay or inlet
brush, bushes, low plants one might
hide among
moss (general term)
ice, frozen lake

XŁUNÁ-
XNÁHÚ-
XNAYA-
◊XNÉSYI-
XREŠWA-
THAŁÁXA- milk, sap
THARÍ-
THERI-

THÍŁÍ-
THÍXÍ-

49

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

THRESI-
THRETSÁ-
THÚSUN-

TSANÁTH-
TSEHEN-
◊TSESHÁ-

TSÉWI-

TSÉYA-
◊TSÍRŠU-
TSISNÚ-
TSNASHU-
TSUHÉ-
TSUNRE-
TSÚNÚ-
◊TSURÍ-
◊TSÚRÍ-

#TSUTHÁ-
WÁNHA-
WÁRÁ-

WARSÚ-

WÁŠÁ-
WÁSI-
WAXUR-
WÁTSU-

•WÉNU-

◊WEŠA-
WIRÍ-
YÁNÁ-
YARÍN-
YÁRTSÚ-

YÁTHÁ-

juniper (berry and tree)
tsunami, destructive wave15
(†) oyster (because it is considered
semi-plantlike)
fishpond
birch tree
tidal pool (plural form is sréša-)
(IX)
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but without any
traceable smells left on it
trees in winter (sleeping trees)
aspen trees (singular is qxłéya-)
chestnut tree
pumpkin, gourd
water of a lagoon or shallow bay
swamp water
seed, nut
elm tree (plural is qxére-)
pebble, little stone (the singular
form of hała(ł)-)
blackthorn bush
fireweed
the sea, the ocean (large moving
expanse)
sea, smaller expanse of water
(either able to see the other side
from a great height or only several
hours travel to cross by wing or
swimming
ember, spark, little glittering thing
apple tree
water plants (usually plural) (IX)
drip, drop, drop of water/fluid, to
drip
a spark which flashes but doesn’t
last long
hoarfrost (plural form shiye-)
fruit of a tree or plant
whirlpool (mouth of water)
lichen
saltwater swamp, tidal swampland,
saltwater wetlands
bend in a river or stream

15 Although interestingly tsunami are not viewed badly by
the Shúna, mostly because they are either able to fly or are
such powerful swimmers. Also, tsunami bring up many
tasty fish and sea creatures a dragon with a taste for such
things rarely gets a chance to eat.

50

YÁTHI-
YÉŁÁ-
YENA-

YESHÍ-

YEWÉ-

(Y)ÍNA-
YÍSA-

◊YISI-

(Y)UNSE-
YUSHU-
YUTSE-
YÚTSÍ-

it

is

copse of trees, bunch of trees
strawberry
leaves on trees (undifferentiated
species)
(†) gooey duck (because
considered semi-plantlike)
a spring, source of water bubbling
up from beneath the earth
cherry tree
lapping water, small waves in the
water
honeysuckle plants (singular form
is hutsá-)
nettles, nettle plant
(†)sea cucumber
slippery ice
wave on the sea

CLASS X INANIMATE

◊HAŁA(Ł)-

HÁSÚ-
HAŠŁA-
HAXA-

HAXŁA-
HÁXU-
HÁTHA-

HAWÁ-
HÁYI-
◊HEŁÁ-

HENE-
HERI-
HESRÁ-

HESHÚ-

HÉTSÁ-

HÍŁÁ-
HISRE-
HISYÁ-

HÍŠIN-

HUŁU-
HUNHA-

tiny pebbles, little stones, gravel
(singular form is tsúrí-)
flint
dry riverbed
top of a mountain, tip, highest
reaches of a mountain
sand, dirt (always innumerable)
hollow, depression
deep, a location beneath, the ground
beneath one
depths of the earth (stone-meat)
wasteland, barren lands
ford in a river (singular form is
qsúqsí-)
sandstone
dead moss on a stone
volcanic stone, pumice (although
usually the black variety)
clawful (pebbles which fill up a
claw)
clear, mirror-like lake with a lot of
glare
small, rocky island
vein of ore in the stone
mountain trail, trail through hills
or foothills
lowlands, low area where the tide
might come in
beach, edge of the water
deep and wide lake

HUQSU-

HURTHÁ-

•HURÚN-

HÚSŁÉ-

HUXRÍ-
ÍTSIN-
ŁÁŠI-
ŁIŁU-
ŁUHÚ-

ŁÚQXÚ-

ŁURÉ-
ŁUSA-
NARA-
NARSÍ-
NAXUŁ-
NÉNYI-
NÚSHE-
NUWA-

QSÁTHI-
QSÉRU-

QSWÁTSA-

QXAŁRÍ-
QXÁTSI-
QXEQSI-
QXÉYU-
QXÍNÍ-
QXÍQSE-
QXÍTSÚ-
◊QSÚQSÍ-
QSÚQSU-
QXUXI-
QXÚTSÚ-
QXWÉNA-
RÁŁA-

RAQXE-
RARU-
RANTHÍŁ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

(to

from

excluded place

a sheer drop of a mountain face,
sheer stone drop
curve of the earth seen from high
up (while flying)
forbidden,
listener but not to another)
fullerite
formed
(glass
lightning striking sand)
salt
ravine, gully (mostly sharp-walled)
shoal, shore
opal stone
sloped hill, hill with a gentle or
gradual slope
permafrost, layer of frozen ground
which never melts
sulfur
location, place, definite location
fishrun
gemstone, gem
desert, deserted land, barren
limestone
a crack in a rock face
large, unmoving, long lasting ice
sheet
cave, hole
headland, promontory (nose of
land)
tundra, large cold land without
trees
mudflat (IX, X)
bones of the mountain, deep stone
moor
hollow of land
swamp, swampy land
rolling hills, plains, prairie
peninsula (tongue of land)
ford in a river (plural form is hełá-)
thick, brush covered meadow
stalagmite
quartz
shale, crumbling stone
broken groups of stone fallen from
a hill or mountainside (usually
innumerable)
boulder, large stone
metal (undifferentiated)
standing stone (left by a glacier or
other geologic event?)

RÉNA-
RÍHÁN-
RUNÁ-
RÚNÁ-
SÁHÁTH-
SÁNHÍ-
SÁTHIN-
SEŠÉ-
SHÁSE-
SHERA-
SHÉXU-
SHÍWE-
SHÚSYI-
•◊SIHÁ-

SŁAHU-
SŁASWE-
SŁÍHI-
SNÚSU-
SRÍNU-
SRÍTSU-
SUSHÚ-
SUSRÚN-

SÚSÚŁ-
SWAHAN-
SWÁNE-

ŠÁŁA-
•ŠÁQSÚ-
ŠAWA-

◊ŠAWÉ-

ŠÉHÍ-
ŠESYE-
ŠUSA-
XÁHÁ-

XATHÉ-

•XINA-
XŁÉSU-
XNAHU-
XNIYA-
XRÁXÁ-
◊XUŁYÁ-

XUSI-

loamy earth
obsidian
marble
mountain (large)
island, isle
a place to sun oneself
edge, boundary (non-territorial)
sandbar on a riverbank
hillock, little hill
isthmus or neck of land
incline, slope
tin, tinnish stone
loamy, dark, wet earth
bunch of stones, rocks (plural form
is SHÚNA-)
flat rocks, a field of flat rocks
hillock, little hill, tiny hill
clay, river clay
dwelling, lair, home
winding cave
basalt stone
massive stone, big boulder
edge of stone, precipice or cliff’s
edge
silt (usually innumerable)
submerged sandbar
riverbank (when one wishes to
focus on location)
valley, indent in the mountains
(my) hunting territory
stone (from about the size of a
human’s head to a small boulder)
water hole (plural form of the root
xułyá-)
granite, diorite stone
clear, open meadow
broken rocks, field of broken rocks
icy desert, icy plain, snow-covered
land
piles of round/flat stones, riverine,
littoral (usually innumerable)
(a friend’s) hunting territory
stalactite
mound, hill
earth, soil, sand
silver
drinking place for prey, waterholes
(singular form is šawé-)
striped or banded stone or earth

51

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

•XÚXA-

XYÉTSU-
THANRÁ-
THARÍ-
THÍYAŁ-
TSÉTSÉ-
TSÉWÍ-
TSÉYA-
TSINRÁ-

TSUHÉ-
TSUQSŁÍ-

◊TSÚRÍ-

WÁRÁ-

WÁŠÁ-
WAXŁÁ-
YÁNÁ-
YÁRTSÚ-

YEŠÚ-

HAŠŁA-
HAŠŁÍ-

HÁYI-
HÍNTSE-
HIŠRU-
HÍXRÚ-

HÚQSA-
HÚRÁ-
HUSŁÉ-
HUXÉ-
HUXŁI-

HÚTSU-
ŁÍSHÉ-
◊NAQXÍ-

NÁRHU-
NAXÍ-
NAXUŁ-

a place forbidden or off-limits to
myself
turquoise stone
fish spawning place
bay, slight inlet
copper, copper ore
jade
cliff, drop-off
the land in winter
a nice cave, a good living space, a
good cave for a lair
lagoon, shallow inlet, shallow bay
rugged mountain pass, craggy and
difficult pass to walk through
pebble, little stone (the singular
form of hała(ł)-)
tundra, plain,
ground
gemstone
iron
cave entrance (mouth of the earth)
saltwater swamp, tidal swampland,
saltwater wetlands
crack, cenote, pit, cave pointing
downwards

large expanse of

storm

(usually

CLASS XI DEAD
dry riverbed
a broken chunk of bone imbedded
in meat or flesh
wasteland, barren lands
broken dragon egg
trees marked by horns or antlers
debris after a
innumerable)
white ash
spilled liquid such as blood or bile
leaves on the ground
sloughed off antlers
knot in bone caused by an old
injury which healed
skull
roots of a tree
dead little twig, tiny branch (plural
is sušun-)
dried up little stream
unused prey trail
desert, deserted land, barren

•◊NÉŁU-

NUWA-

QSÁTHI-
QSWÁTSA-

QXÁTSI-
QXÚNAX-
QXÚSHÚ-
QXÚTSÚ-
QXUYE-
RÁHÚ-
RANA-
•RÁNA-
◊RAŠI-

RÉNA-
RÍHÁN-
SÁŁU-
SESU-
•◊SIHÁ-

SŁÁ(YA)-
SŁÉXU-
SNÉYA-
•SRÉHU-
SRÍYU-
◊SUŠUN-

◊SWAHÚ-

SWÉTSÍ-
SYUŁRA-
ŠÁTHA-
◊ŠAWÉ-

ŠAYA-
ŠÚRHA-
XÁHÁ-

XARU-

XÍTSA-
◊XUŁYÁ-

XÚNÍ-
XYÁNÁ-

52

shed scales (?) (singular form is
yátsín-)
large, unmoving, long lasting ice
sheet
wound in a dead animal
tundra, large cold land without
trees
dead bones, remains
hollow tree
robin’s egg (a “piece of a robin)
pearl
bat guano, dead bats
stump of a tree
dead thing
stale male’s urine (old)
slivers of wood, tiny pieces of wood
(singular is swahú-)
rotting material
obsidian (dead lava)
log floating in the water
sickly, spotted leaves
group of dead animals or Kindred
(plural form is SHÚNA-)
pool of blood, dead blood
dead egg
dead rose hip (plant)
old, dried out shit
diehria
dead
twigs, dead
branches (singular is naqxí-)
sliver of wood, tiny piece of wood
(plural is raši-)
old trail of crushed plants
sloughed off skin, shed skin
coal, charcoal, burnt wood
dried up water hole (plural form of
the root xułyá-)
leaves blowing in the wind
beeswax
icy desert, icy plain, snow-covered
land
rotten, rotting, festering, fungus-
covered
dead wood, log
dried up drinking place for prey,
dried up waterholes (singular form
is šawé-)
scabrous, scab, scabby
afterbirth

little

tiny

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

#XYÁTSE-
THRESI-
TSÉWI-

WASÍN-
WÁTSÍ-
WIRÍ-
•◊YÁTSÍN-

rancid, barely edible meat
dead juniper (berry and tree)
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but without any
traceable smells left on it
(bird’s) nest (XI)
ash, powdered coal
dead fruit of a tree or plant
shed scales (plural form of the root
néłu-)

CLASS XII COMPONENTS

•HAHÍN-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Noun-Verb:

to be a boundary marker
to set up a boundary marker
between another territory
(direct object)
to set up general boundary
markers

a boundary marker, mark, sign of

possession (XII)

Adjective:

Adverb:

separated, possessed by a
hunting
dragon
territory
in a set-aside fashion

as

a

HANSÍ-
HÁNSU-
HÁNU-
HÁQSÁ-
HÍXRÚ-

HAŠŁÍ-

HÚŁE-
HÚQSA-
•HURÚN-

HÚSHA-

HUSWA-

HUXŁI-

HUTSA-
ŁAHÚ-
ŁÁŠI-
ŁÉYÁ-

storm

(usually

stress, worry, excitement
fish scales (usually plural)
golden, goldish (color)
shade, shadow
debris after a
innumerable)
a broken chunk of bone imbedded
in meat or flesh
cat-nap, little sleep, a nap
white, brightly white
forbidden,
listener but not to another)
long duration,
(rarely used)
dappled,
spotted,
(shadows & sunlight)
knot in bone caused by an old
injury which healed
vengeance
berry
shoal, shore
gills of a fish or shark

excluded place

extended wait

splotchy

(to

•ŁIŠÁ-

ŁÍSHÉ-
ŁÍSHU-
◊NAQXÍ-

NARA-

◊NÍŁSA-

NÚSHE-
QSÁNI-

QSÁTHI-
QSÉRNA-
QSŁÁYÁ-
QSŁIRÁ-
QXÁNU-

QXÚSHÚ-
RASÁ-
RÁSÚŁ-
◊RAŠI-

RESYÚ-
RÁTHA-

SÁHÁTH-
SAŠRÍ-
SESU-
SHINSU-
SÍXI-
SŁÁŁ(Á)-
SŁAŁU-
SŁÉXU-
SNEYÉ-

SNÚSU-
SRÉNA-
SRÉTHE-
SRÍHU-
SUŁA-
◊SUŠUN-

SUTSÉ-
◊SWAHÚ-

SWEHÍ-

53

territory

(general, no

hunting
specified ownership)
roots of a tree
pine needles (usually plural)
little twig, tiny branch (plural is
sušun-)
the time of year where fish swim
upstream to mate
deceitful happening, a trick (plural
form is wašra-)
a crack in a rock face
a single moon’s duration, a month,
from the dark of the moon to the
next dark of the moon
container, hole, “bag”
nipple
pawpads of a mammal
oak branch
down, fuzz, soft feathers (usually
plural)
robin’s egg (a “piece of a robin)
dewlap
vital concept
slivers of wood, tiny pieces of wood
(singular is swahú-)
beak, bill (of a bird)
stiffness, soreness, dull pain (as
opposed to a sharp pain)
island, isle
cloven hoof
sickly, spotted leaves
spots or flecks
reflection on the water
thumb, gripping digit
bladder
an egg (no particular ownership)
boundary
territories
dwelling, lair, home
a bruise
knee, knee joint
walnut
choice, decision
little twigs, tiny branches (singular
is naqxí-)
dorsal fin of a fish, whale, dolphin
sliver of wood, tiny piece of wood
(plural is raši-)
red, the color red

between

hunting

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

SWÉRÍ-
ŠÁHÍN-

ŠÁŁA-
ŠAWA-

ŠAYA-
ŠUSÚ-

XAŁNÁ-
XANXÍ-
XATHÉ-

•XERYA-

XÉRYU-
XÍTSA-
XÍSRÍ-
XŁÉSU-
XUHÁN-
XÚNÍ-
THAYÁ-
THAŠE-

THISHU-
TSÁNHU-
TSASHI-

•TSÉNÉTH-
TSÉWI-

TSÉYA-
TSÍNÁ-

TSÍRSYÍ-

TSITSÍ-
TSÚHÚ-
TSÚNÚ-
TSUXŁÁ-
ÚRUN-
WÁHÍN-

◊WAŠRA-

WÁSÚ-
WÍŁWA-

consequence, result
reason, business, purpose, deal, to
do
valley, indent in the mountains
stone (fallen from a mountain or a
piece of a larger item)
leaves blowing in the wind
fluke (hind fin of a whale or
dolphin, up-and-down motion only,
not side-to-side swimming)
a hit or strike
yellowish, light yellow
piles of round/flat stones, riverine,
littoral (usually innumerable)
mating/rutting season for prey
animals
track, trail, sign, mark
branch, twig
gray, ashen
stalactite
dead, unhatched dragon’s egg
scabrous, scab, scabby
long, long time, duration
intestinal pain, troubled stomach,
sickness of the belly
wing membrane of a dragon
ankle, ankle joint
to treat, agree with, work with,
understanding
bird’s wing
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but without any
traceable smells left on it
sleep (abstract)
horizon, edge of sight, in every
direction
a tender, new scale which has not
hardened yet
day (rarely used)
shade, shadow
seed, nut
half-and-half, half, half of a whole
blue (abstract)
travel, distance, trip, to make a
journey
deceitful
(singular form is níłsa-)
a challenge
feather

happenings,

tricks

54

WIRÍ-
YAHA-
YANA-
YÁTHI-
YENA-

YÍNTSE-
YÚTSÍ-

fruit of a tree or plant
sadness
light, physical light
copse of trees, bunch of trees
leaves on trees (undifferentiated
species)
irony, amusing turn of events
wave on the sea

CLASS XIII VARIA/UNKNOWN
†who, what, where, when, why,
XÚHÁ-
question word

HÁŁRÍ-
•HANA-
HANÁTH-
HÁNÍ-

HANRÁ-
HÁQSRU-
HAQXÍ-
HÁQXÍ-
HÁRÍ-

HÁRTHA-

#HARÚ-

HASA-
◊HASNÉ-
HASHÚ-
◊HÁŠÍ-

MULTI-CLASSED ROOTS
original place, origin
male sex organs, penis, phallus
unsure, uncertain, cautious creature
a creature which wants something
or which is desired
opened mouth of a creature
marrow of bone
a thing which is purple
hoof
scar, scarred over flesh (alternate of
hushí-)
†a predator waiting patiently for
just the right moment to strike
tough or particularly disgusting fat,
gristle, blubber
“empty” root, pronoun root
hip, hip bone, pelvis (plural is rišu-)
wide, open thing
print, track, mark left in the ground
by a foot but without any traceable
smells left by the animal which left
it (plural form of šuhun-)
scales, skin (undifferentiated)
tip of the tail
below (direction)
meat
a confused creature
†a bathing creature
to mate, to copulate (non draconic)
numerical classifier of enumerated
item’s class
flakes of stone or another material,
chips of something

HÁŠIN-
HÁŠU-
HÁTHA-
HAWÁ-
#HAWÉ-
HAYÁ-
•HÍRSE-
HESHÚ-

HÍSHI-

HÍSHÍ-

HÍŠÁ-
HÍŠRÍ-
HÍXÉ-

HÍTSÁ-
HÍYA-
HÚŁE-
HUNA-

#HUNŁÚ-
HÚQSA-
HÚRAN-
HÚRNA-
HÚRQSÍ-

HÚRSÁ-

HURÚ-
HÚRÚ-

◊HÚRÚN-

#HUSA-

HUSHÍ-
◊HÚSYÚ-

HÚTSÚ-
HÚTSU-
HÚWE-
ŁAHÉ-
ŁANIN-
•ŁANŠU-

#ŁARI-
ŁASE-
ŁATSÍ-
ŁATSIŠ-
#ŁAYÚ-
ŁENA-
ŁEYA-
#ŁÍŁA-
ŁISÚ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

rare

creature which is thirsty (compare
with rathu-)
ear
cover, to hide behind while hunting
†a dragon or animal which by its
foolish actions causes itself harm
good, pleasant, nice
†a creature which is startled awake
lightly-sleeping creature
“empty”
feminine
very
pronoun root (found primarily in
Artic Latitudinal but sometimes
found in Northern Latitudinal as
well)
sickly creature
white thing
a vein or artery (see héłá- as well)
anus
trunk (of a tree or torso of an
animal or dragon)
†a creature covered in grime and
rotting muck
left side, left direction
combative,
creature (mostly non-Shúna)
†brave creatures (‡) (singular form
is syénsú-)
(†)a creature or thing which is
ridiculous and utterly foolish
scar, old wound
creatures which
(singular form is syesá-)
bark (of a dog, seal etc.) (On.)
skull
long distance, far away
a sneaky or slinking creature
left over object, remnants
for a ♂ animal to sweat, sweat of a
♂ animal
weak, not strong, wounded
upwind (direction)
†a bored creature
lower left back (direction)
poison, bitterness, venom, bile
pancreas
a creature hunting by scent alone
an incautious creature
a thing which is visibly hot (visual)

are dreaming

difficult,

ornery

ŁIŠA-

ŁUSA-
NAHUN-
NAŁÍ-

NÁRÁ-
NÁSA-
NÁRÍ-
NÁRQSA-
NAŠIN-

NAŠIR-
NÁSRÍ-
NAXÍ-
NÁXU-
NATSA-
NAWE-

NEŁNI-
◊NÍŁSA-
NÍSHU-
NÍŠÁ-
•NUXE-
QSÁHE-

QSÁHI-

•QSASHI-

QSÁTHI-
#QSÁWERÁ-

QSÉRNA-
QSÉRU-
QSÍHÍ-
QSÍRTSE-

QSŁÁN(E)-
QSŁÁYÁ-
QSÚHÁ-
QSUWÉ-

QXÁNU-

†an interesting creature, interesting
thing
location, place, definite location
blue-white, blue as well as white
string, line, group of items strung
on a line (usually plural unless
referring to the string in totality)
a roaring creature
directly up (direction)
†an animal unlike others (‡)
†a creature which is bald or balding
brown, the color brown, brown
object/being
fur, hair
upper left back (direction)
unused prey trail
gamey taste in flesh
cool, soothing object
false trail (left by either predator or
game)
†a kind and generous creature
a liar (plural form is wašra-)
tibia bone
oil of an animal
(†) unexpected happening or thing
to wait, to wait for, expectant or
waiting creature
ancient,
remembrance
a trail where an animal tried to lose
its trail by crossing a river or
stream to disrupt the smell, †an
animal who tried to lose its trail by
crossing a river or stream
stomach
†færie, goblin, elf, little spirit or
sprite
nipple
nose
a thing which is orange-yellow
cancerous, cancer, †a creature with
cancer
intent creature
pawpads of a mammal
lower jawbone and teeth
†animal hunting another (but non-
predatory?)
down, fuzz, soft feathers (usually
plural)

truly old, beyond all

55

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

QXÁTSI-
QXÉŁÁ-
QXENÍ-
QXESHA-
QXÉSHA-
◊QXEŠÍ-
QXÉYÉ-
QXÍTSÚ-
QXNARÍ-
#QXNAYU-
(#QXNÉ(HI)-)

bone
lip
decoy trail, decoy
wet, dripping, wet thing
arm, limb, leg
kidneys (singular is sašni-
†hatchling, child, youngling, child
tongue
tail feathers of a bird or hawk
coward, weakling

is

full of

thing or

†human, chatterer anything
which speaks but is not of the
Kindred (♀/♂?) plural form is
#SNUHA-
obstruction, difficult
creature
†a creature weak from hibernation
a large creature or item
male’s urine
ribcage
dewlap
important individual or creature
forward, in front of
thigh, meat of the thigh
a thing or creature alone
a thing which is bright with heat
†a creature which
hyperbole and is too talkative
little, small, tiny, small creature or
item
steps, footfalls, vibrations in the
ground or earthquakes (singular
form is srúrna-)
tooth, teeth
body
unspoken communication
hip, hip bones, pelvis (singular is
hasné-)
nasty, terrible tasting, awful
deep, bottomless, very deep, abyssal
only, but, just16
†whistling creature or dragon
†an animal faking dead to avoid
real death
particularly delicious or succulent
fat
†a creature sunning itself

disposition,

language,

QXNÍŁA-

QXÚTHRA-
RAHA-
•RÁNA-
RÁRA-
RASÁ-
RÁSÚŁ-
RÁSHÁ-
RÁSHU-
RATHA-
RÉHA-
RETSÉ-

RIHU-

◊RÍNA-

RISA-
RISÍN-

◊RIŠU-

#RIXNÁ-
RÚNHA-
RUSU-
RÚSÚ-
RÚWA-

SANHÍ-

SANHU-

16 Another form of ‘only, but, just’ appears in tsérin-

56

#SÁNSÁ-

SÁNU-

SARÚ-

SAŠNE-
◊SAŠNI-
SERŁÁ-
#SHANA-

SHÁS(NU)-

SHAŠA-
SHAYA-
SHÉQXÁ-

◊SHÉRYA-

SHÉŠU-

SHEYÁ-
SHÍNYA-
SHÍN(YÍ)-

SHURÉ-
•◊SIHÁ-

SIŠÍ-
SÍYA-
SŁÁŁ(Á)-
SŁAŁU-
SŁAN(E)-

SŁÁ(YA)-
SŁETHÍ-

SŁEWA-
SŁÉWÁ-
SŁÍHÍ-
SŁIN(E)-
SŁÍQSA-
SŁÉXU-
SŁUSÍ-

all,

terrible,

†everyone,

annoying, troubling, bothersome,
difficult (fairly rude)
everything,
everything
wise, wisdom, one who is wise,
intelligence (does not necessarily
denote age)
down, fuzz
kidney (plural is qxeší-)
†a foolish creature (‡)
evil, bad, unpleasant,
inedible
pain, hurt, woe, hurt creature,
damaged item
(hollow) bird bones
a thin cut, a slit
to
something or (†) someone
usually not have a particular
characteristic or
tendency but
which does at the time spoken of
(contrast with the term wéri-)
†a mourning creature (plural form
is syarí-)
madness, insanity, †mad creature,
unruly thing
two things apart
a stalking creature
arc, hook, claw (non-draconic),
arching
lung
†group of animals (plural form is
SHÚNA-)
craw
†a funny or amusing creature
thumb, gripping digit
bladder
succulent
wonderful, mouth watering
blood
cut up, mauled, savaged, creature
which is ripped up
neck (undifferentiated)
awe-inspiring thing
a thing which is infrared in color
†cautious animal
a thing which is burning cold
†mother creature
to fly very silently, to approach
prey very quietly on the wing, †a

taste/smell, delicious,

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

creature which approaches its prey
very quietly while flying
face
†a creature (dragon) which has
woken up after hibernation
cracks in stone or wood, crack in a
cliff face, mountain pass (?)
saliva
†human (♂/♀?)
heart of a prey animal
movement, to be alive, to go, to
travel, life, ch’i, ki
guts, innards
thighbone (plural is swísún-)
shit, feces
chest
(†)too much of a type of thing
flipper, fin
knee, knee joint
†an aimlessly wandering individual
†fat animal, overweight animal
diehria
footfall, step, vibration in the earth,
earthquake, ground-shake (plural
form is rína- and there is some
evidence that this term was used
for dinosaurs or
earth-
shakers”)
false image, an idiot (someone who
dives after false images)
(†)thing, object, item (+ Class)
†a hunched creature
†swift, sharp, darting, darting thing
liver
sinew, tendons
udder
wing, to fly (non-draconic)
double, pair, “two”
†a growling creature
breastbone
backwards, back, behind
edge of an object
for a ♀ animal to sweat, sweat of a
♀ animal
feet, to walk
upper right back (direction)
a thing which is ultraviolet
thighbones (plural is sreha-)

“the

SNARE-
SNÉSHA-

SNIHA-

SNÍRNA-
(#SNUHA-)
•SNÚRAN-
SRÁHA-

SRANÍ-
◊SREHA-
•SRÉHU-
SRÉRA-
SREŠU-
SREXÚ-
SRÉTHE-
SRÉTSU-
SRÍRE-
SRÍYU-
◊SRÚRNA-

SRÚSYU-

SRUŠA-
SUHA-
SUŁÚTH-
SÚNHÉ-
SUNHÍ-
SÚRUTH-
•SÚRÚTH-
SUSA-
SÚSÉ-
SUSHI-
SUSÍ-
SUSRÚN-
SUSUN-

SUŠU-
SÚTHUN-
SWATHÍ-
◊SWÍSÚN-

57

•SWITH(Í)-

SYÁHU-
#SYANU-
SYÁQXÍ-
•SYEQSU-
◊SYARÍ-

SYASHÉ-
◊SYÉNSÚ-

#SYERÁ-
◊SYESÁ-

SYISHÍN-
ŠAŁSU-

ŠANI-
ŠARÁN-
•ŠAQSÚN-

ŠÁWÁ-
ŠIHÁN-
ŠINSHA-
•ŠINUR-
ŠIQSA-

ŠISIŁ-
ŠNÚTHE-
•◊ŠUHUN-

ŠURA-

#ŠURIN-
ŠÚRÚ-
ŠUTHÉ-
XÁHA-
XÁHI-
XAŁIR-
XANRÉ-
XARÁ-

#XÁTSU-
XÉRYU-
XINXIN-

or

is avoiding

is dreaming

(a human village

here, right here, where I am
(direction)
bright, brightly, bright thing
†impatient fool
shoulder blade
an animal’s broken limb
†mourning creatures (singular form
is shérya-)
haunch, back leg, thigh
†a brave creature (plural form is
húrún-)
†a fidgeting, jittery creature
a creature which
(plural form is húsyú-)
†a creature which is hibernating
†a creature which
something
spot, patch of something
jaw, bones of the mouth, jawbone
“city”
establishment)
eye
fat, fat on meat, blubber
lame, limping, limping thing
skin (non-scaled)
†a creature which is dazed and
confused
hissing animal or steam
a twisted or distorted thing
print, track, mark left in the ground
by a foot but without any traceable
smells left by the animal which left
it (plural form is háší-)
†lean animal without much fat or
meat on it
†a blind, stupid or deaf creature
mating call (On.?)
unknown thing, strange object
right (direction)
upper right front (direction)
†father, progenitor of an animal
muscle
a creature which comes up from
underneath the water and pull
something near or on the surface
down (usually in an attack)
†fool, idiot, wasteful
track, trail, sign, mark
generic term for a heart (On.)

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

XÍSÍ-
XŁÉNA-
XŁÍSA-
XŁU(RI)-
XNÁŁA-
XNAYA-

XNÚYA-
XRÁXA-

XRÍŁA-
XÚHÁ-

•XUŁU-
XÚNA-
XUSI-

•XÚXA-

•XWAXÍN-

#XYÁTSE-

THÁHE-

THÁŁRÍ-
•THARÉ-
THÉNA-

•THŁÁ(XE)-
THUNSE-

#THÚRSÍ-
TSÁHÁ-

◊TSAHIN-

TSAHU-
TSÁNHU-
TSASŁU-
TSÁSNE-

TSATHÁ-
TSAWÁ-

†a playing creature
mane of an animal or dragon
behind, backwards
†a sitting creature
upper left front (direction)
fall, autumn, trees in fall, the color
orange/yellow
bed, sleeping place
moving through the brush and
making sounds, †fool (On.)
intestines
†who, what, where, when, why,
question word
shed horns (prey animal)
claws (non-draconic)
a stripe, stripes, †a striped animal
or creature
a place forbidden or off-limits to
myself
The Hunt, life, a dragon’s life, life
in general
rancid, barely edible meat, †a
desperate hunter who will eat
something just to stay alive
print,
left by an
track, mark
animal’s foot in the ground but
which has a traceable smell left by
the animal on it
throat, windpipe
prey animal’s trail
†a creature flying without much
effort (but more strenuous then
gliding) (‡)
female organs, vagina
†a creature which is drying itself
out in the sunlight
snot, mucus
weird, strange, unexpected, odd,
bizarre
finger, individual claw, digit (plural
is (y)írha-)
creature which is hungry
ankle, ankle joint
†sick, infirm, dying creature
sweat (generic and non-gendered
term) (although not draconic as the
Shúna do not sweat)
lower left front (direction)
liver

TSEHU-

TSÉŁÍ-
#TSÉTHÉ-
TSÉYA-
TSÍHAN-

•TSÍTSÍ-

TSŁÍTHA-

#TSNÉHU-
TSURÚ-

ÚRUN-
ÚSUN-
WAHÉ-
WAŁA-
WÁŁÉ-
WANTSÁ –
WARÍ-
WASHI-
WASHÍ-

WASYÍ-
◊WAŠRA-
WAŠUN-
•WEHÚ-
WÉRI-

WÉSÉ-
WÉSHA-

WIRA-

YAHA-
YÁNÁ-
#YÁNÁTH-
YANÚ-

YÁRÚ-
YAŠI-

58

a shell, a hard shell, †an animal
with a shell (turtle, armadillo etc.,
compare with qsáqsa-)
canine tooth
†scavenger
†sleeping animal
a thing which is a deep infrared
color
†comrade, part of a group of
animals
sooty, covered in soot, face covered
in soot after breathing fire
pus, mucus
for prey to scatter to prevent a
predator gaining a quick kill, to
cause chaos by quick movement
blue creature of object
some, something, general, others
gizzard
jumper, pouncer
lower right front (direction)
a sad or unhappy creature
howl of pain, cry of anguish (On.)
boil or pimple
hot, sharp, hot flavor, thing which
has a sharp flavor
arguing creatures
liars (singular form is níłsa-)
spleen
female’s urine (various animals)
something or (†) someone which
usually does something or has a
particular characteristic but does
not
spoken of
time
(contrasted with the term shéqxá-)
†a struggling or wounded animal
†a doubter,
something
narrow thing(s) (crevasse, trees
close together)
sad or despondent creature
animals’ mouth
inattentive creature
broken branch or twig left by an
animal’s passing but which has a
traceable smell on it from the
animal
animal’s head
†a menstruating animal

a disbeliever of

the

at

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

YAŠU-
YAŠÚ-
YAXIN-

YÁTHÁ-
YÁWÉ-
◊(Y)ÍRHA-

lower right back (direction)
†leader of a herd of animals
†an animal or dragon thrashing in
its sleep
bent object or thing
downwind, being downwind
fingers, claws, digits (collective and
plural) (singular is tsahin-)

YIRŠÚ-
YÚNA-
#YURSU-
YÚŠU-
YUXI-

spinal cord, spine
†lost creature, lost thing or item
timid or humble creature
jawbone hinge, jawbone socket
a pile, a stack, a bunch atop one
another

59

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Section IV:
Thesaurus of True-Verb Roots According to Usage

43.1. Overview
This section is basically the same as Section II above but all verb roots are divided up into similar
semantic groups which describe actions such as hunting, flying, killing and eating, personal characteristics,
emotions, relationships between Shúna, and so on.

The classifications and notes for this section are in all ways identical to the lexicon above.

AERIAL & CELESTIAL
PHENOMENA
around
to whirl
whirlwind)

(tornado,

HAŠE-

NUNA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to be the wind, to blow
to blow on, to take away
breath (with qsi)
to breathe, to gasp
breezily, breathy

QSEQSÉ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to be snowy
to cover in snow, to powder
with snow
to hide among the snow
snowy

QSUSÉ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

be

raining

to
(undifferentiated strength)
to be rained upon
to go out in the rain, to sit in
the rain
rainy, splashy
in a rain-like way

QXUYE-

Intran. V:

Refl. V:

to move over the moon at
night (dust, clouds)
to be a bat

SANSÚ-
SUNÚTH-

ŠATHA-

to catch a fleeting smell or scent
for a blizzard to blow, (compare
with xarhu-)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to cloud over, to get cloudy
to cover up, to cloud another
thing
to be cloudy, to be in the
mist
misty, mysterious, difficult
to see, hidden

ŠISIŁ-

XARHU-

THÁHÉ-

to hiss, to let out steam, to hiss
angrily
for a whiteout to blow, for a terrible
snowstorm to rage (compare with
sunúth-)

Intran. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be a storm, to be violent,
excited
stormy, excited, angrily
angrily
for clouds to disperse

THÉWE-
TSITSÍ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

to be warm, to be in the
sunshine
to warm another, to shine
down on, to heat up

TSÚHÚ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

•WÉNU-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to

shadowed,

to be dark, to be shadowed
to make
darken
to be shadowed, to be dark
dark, shadowed, dim, black
without leaving a trail or
mark, deathly silent

lightning

for a thunderstorm to strike
with
(inherent
subject)
to be lightning, to be a
shooting star
flashing
incredibly suddenly, there
and gone in a flash

ANIMAL DESCRIPTORS

HÁQSA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to leap, to jump about
to make another to leap
to be a female deer

60

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Adjective:

Adverb:

a female deer’s smell, deer-
like smell
jumpy, ducking,
running in a zigzag

leaping,

HAWA-

Refl. V:
Adjective:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be a female goat
smell like a female goat,
female goatishness

to move back and forth
to make to swim away or
towards oneself or another
to swim (by moving tail
back and forth), to be a fish
fishy, fish-smelling
lashing side-to-side

HÍNE-

HUXÉ-

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to be a male deer
spiky, horny, spined
fish swimming upstream to mate
to be bald and devoid of hair or
trees

NARA-
NÁRQSA-

QSÁQSÁ-

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to be a crow, to flock in a
group
crowy, in a flocky manner,
crow-like smell

QXUYE-

Refl. V:

to be a bat

•ŠÁNU-

ŠUSÚ-

XASHÍN-
XÍYE-

to swim with one’s feet, swim like
a duck
to swim by moving the tail up-and-
down
to graze, to eat grass

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be in a bunch, in a pack
to move along with, to move
in concert with
to move as a group
in a pack
together

•XNA(QSÉ)-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to spin a web (inherent
object)
to be a spider

THANRÁ-
THEŠÁ-

fish spawning

Trans. V:

to heard together (usually
to hunt
while hunting),

birds in a flock (inherent
object)
to be birds, to flock, to be en
masse
swarming,
flocking,
protected due to being in a
group
many

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

•TSÉNÉTH-
TSÍŠU-

to fly (a bird or feathered animal)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to have a male horse smell
on it
to put a male horse smell on
something
to be a horse, to be skittish
horse-smell, horsy

TSÚTSE-
YIHU-

to dig, to burrow
to roll over, to present the stomach
or belly, to submit abjectly

HAQXÍ-
ŁISÚ-
NATSA-
QSÍHÍ-
RÉHA-
RÚRÍN-
SARA-
SHUSU-
SŁÁHÍN-
SŁÍHÍ-
SŁÍQSA-

COLOR AND TEMPERATURE
TERMS
to be purple in color
to be very, very hot
to cool, to soothe
to be orange-yellow
to be burning with heat
to be icy
to be hot
to be cool
alternating colors, alternating
to be infrared in color
to be extremely icy and cold, to be
burning cold
to be ultraviolet in color
red, the color red
to be blue or turquoise
deep infrared color
to be warm
to be blue

SWATHÍ-
SWEHÍ-
SYÉTSU-
TSÍHAN-
TSITSÍ-
(Y)ÚRUN-

EMOTIONS AND THOUGHTS

HANÁTH-
HÁNÍ-

HAQSÚN-

HAXÍ-

61

unsure, uncertain
love, desire, want, hope for, hunger
for
to think, to believe, to give credit
to, to care about
to be tired, to be wearied

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

confusion, confused, to confuse
to be brave, to lack fear (singular
form is syénsú-)

SRÚNÁ-

#SÚNÁ-

to recall, to remember, to think
back to

#HAWÉ-
◊HÚRÚN-

HUSÚN-

QSŁÁN(E)-

QSÚHÁ-

#QXNAYU-
RÁHÍN-

RINA-

RISA-

SANU-

SAYÚ-
SHANÁ-

SHAWÍ-
◊SHÉRYA-

SŁÉWÁ-

SŁIN(E)-

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to plot against…
to plot, to plan

ŁATSÍ-
ŁUSÍ-
QSÁSÍ-

to be bored, to bore
to respect or admire
waking up scared, to dream a
nightmare

#QSÁWERÁ-

Refl. V:

to worry oneself, to hassle
oneself

intently, to pay close

to stare
attention
to chew, to worry (to chew upon
incessantly)
to be a coward, to be a weakling
to make, to create, to think, to
formulate
to decide, to plan, to formulate a
plan of action

Adverb:

angrily, viciously

Refl. V:

surprised,

astonished,

to think about oneself, to
search one’s mind
to feel crushed and dismal
surprise,
startled
to be melancholy and listlessness
to mourn, to feel sadness over death
(0f a mate or friend) (plural form is
syarí-)
awe-inspiring,
amazing, to entrance

entrancing,

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to think about something, to
be cautious towards
to be thoughtful, to ponder
upon oneself, to be self-
conscious, to make oneself
slow
to
penetrate
intellectually),
deeply, to see past appearances

and
understand

(visually
to

SŁÚHA-

SNEYÉ-

Refl. V:

Refl. V:

to organize oneself, to worry
oneself to death

◊SYARÍ-

◊SYÉNSÚ-

#SYERÁ-

◊SYESÁ-
ŠANHE-

ŠÁTHÍ-

to mourn, to feel sadness over death
(0f a mate or friend) (singular form
is shérya-)
to be brave, to lack fear (plural
form is húrún-)
to be excitable, excited,
fidgeting
to dream (plural form is húsyú-)
to divine,
to prognosticate,
assume or guess about the future

jittery,

to

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to teach, to explain, to make
wiser
to be old, to be wise
ancient, old, wise, timeless
in a wise way, with wisdom

to be dazed and confused

ŠIQSA-
XÁŁIR-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be afraid
to fear
to be afraid
twisted, fearfully, horribly
horribly, fearfully
to feel, to emote, to feel emotion
to let go of an issue, to allow a
memory or feeling to fade away
and disappear

XIHA-
TSASWÉ-

THÁHÉ-

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be excited, to be exalted
stormy, excited, angrily
angrily

TSITSÍ-

Adverb:

warmly
emotion)

(in

terms

of

WANTSÁ –
WÉSHA-

YÁRÚ-

to be sad
to doubt, to disbelieve, to be
incredulous

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to know, to be known, to be
famous
to be wise, to know oneself
known, famous

to face a difficult choice or
situation (to split oneself)

YÍNTSE-
#YURSU-

to be ironic
to be timid, timidity, to be humble

62

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
HÁQSÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

to be shaded
to shade from heat or light
to sit in the shade or hide
from the light
shaded, shadowy, slightly
dark or misty, damp
without enthusiasm, slowly,
sluggishly

HAXŁÁ-

HÚRÁ-

SÉYU-

to wear away, to wear down to
erode (probably related to haxła-)
to spill, to gush out, to spill out
over something (relatively small in
nature vs. shaxún- ‘flood’)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

to flow (as a river flows)
to pour out, to make water
flow from, to make blood
flow from
to run along the ground, to
slither like a serpent
like flowing water, watery,
riverine
river-like

SÁNYA-

SYESHE-

SYEXI-
ŠAWA-

to undercut (a river eroding a
riverbank)
for a large piece of ice to fall off of
a glacier and into the sea
to sprout up after a fire

Intran. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be a stone
stony, hard, unyielding
hardly, with difficulty

FLYING MANEUVERS AND
ACTIONS

HÍNA-
HÚQXE-

ŁÉQXÍN-

NÁRA-
QSÁQSÁ-

to roll over (aerial maneuver)
to catch midair, to grab onto prey
midair
to leap up, to take off with a
running start
to fall, to collapse, to dive onto

Intran. V:

to flock together, to fly
through the air in a mass

Adverb:

◊◊◊QSÉRE-

to flock in attack, to swarm
another and attack
in a
group
in a group in the air
to buzz around annoyingly, to fly
dartingly without a pattern (plural
form is słátsú-, innumerable form is
qxuhan-)
to fly (draconic)

a

a
is

form

SŁARU-

•RAQXÍ-

SRUTHÉ-

◊◊◊SŁÁTSÚ-

RESYÁ-
SÍRHE-

•QSÚŁA-
◊◊◊QXUHAN- to buzz around annoyingly, to fly
dartingly without
pattern
(singular form is qsére-, plural form
is słátsú-)
to turn, to make a turn while
flying, to bank
to glide on a thermal current
to flutter, to flap, to beat ones
wings
to swoop down and grab from the
air and lift off again
to buzz around annoyingly, to fly
pattern
dartingly without
(singular
qsére-,
innumerable form is qxuhan-)
to land on (while attacking), to
crush prey while landing on it
to dive out of the sun on an animal
on the ground
to dive steeply and very fast
to fly (draconic) (singular form is
qsúła-)
to stall, to stall out while flying
(aerial maneuver)
to plummet, to drop quickly, to let
something go and let it fall to its
death
to fly steadily without much effort
to drift, to glide
to fall, to drop, to dive without
control, lose, let go of
to fly (a bird or feathered animal)
to flap wings and stall out, to stop
mid-air

THÉNA-
THÍTSU-
TSASWÉ-

•TSÉNÉTH-
•TSITSU-

SUSHÍ-
•◊SYÉTHU-

XNEYÁ-

•SÚHU-

ŠURŠÚ-

GENERAL DESCRIPTORS AND
ACTIONS
again, once more, also
apparent, clear

HAŁIN-
HANSÁ-

63

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Intran. V:
Trans. V:

HÁNSÉ-
HARSU-

HESA-

HÚRSÁ-

ŁÉRSÍ-

ŁESHU-

ŁIŠA-

NÁRÍ-

NAŠA-
NÍŠÁ-
QSANA-
QSÁTHI-

up

pile

something

new, surprising, astonishing
appears to be (usually in adverbial
form)
to coat, to cover something in
something liquid or dusty
to be grimy, to be covered in mud
and rotting muck
onto
to
something else,
to heap onto
something else (as opposed to yuxi-
which implies just a pile or heap
but not explicitly on
top of
something else)
plainly,
obviously
somewhat
(similar to qsér but considered to be
non-insulting, usually in adverbial
form)
to be interested in something, to be
interesting
to be unalike, to be different, to be
dissimilar
sorta, kinda, a little bit
to be oily
to slosh, to splash water or liquid

Intran. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be hidden, stashed away
to be hidden, in a dark place,
to be eaten, to eat oneself
hidden, stashed away
secretly

#QSÁWERÁ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

QSÉRU-

to

to bother,

to pester,
hassle, to disrupt
to worry oneself, to hassle
oneself, to be a færie or
goblin
annoying, problematic
difficult, problematic

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:

Adverb:

to smell, to be odorous
to smell, to taste
to make oneself smelly
smelly
noticeable
obvious, apparent

(non-pejorative),

QSÍSA-
QSŁÁN(E)-

QXÁTSI-

to tip, to push over
to stare
attention

intently, to pay close

to be a bone
to de-bone, to rip out the
bones
to break one’s bone
bony, bleached

Refl. V:
Adjective:

QXNÍŁA-
RAHA-
RÁSU-
RÁSÚŁ-

RATHA-
RETSÍ-
SANU-

stop, halt, wait
big, great, extremely, very, much
to be important and meaningful
to be important, meaningful, vital,
great, central
alone, singular, by oneself, by itself
jagged, ragged, pointed

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

looking for a location (river
moving towards the sea)
to search for, to look for, to
find
to think about oneself, to
search one’s mind
found, discovered
in a searching way

SÁRHÁ-

SASRU-

SHAŁE-

SHEŠÍ-

SHINSU-

•◊SIHÁ-

covering the eyes, cover something
which is glowing
to shake, to shake off water, to
shake something until another falls
out
to own,
(alienable only)
to
to
strain,
something up
to sprinkle, to cover with dust or
water
(plural form is SHÚNA-)

to possess,

to have

struggle

lift

to

SŁEŁÉ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be similar
to make another thing like
another
to be a dragon, to make
oneself the same
alike, in a similar manner
in an alike way

to be en masse, to swarm
to swam another thing and
bite it
to be a mosquito, to swarm
in a group
swarming/biting
in a great mass

SŁÉXU-

64

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be full (clouds full of rain,
hole full of water)
to impregnate, to fill up
to be pregnant, to be full
with eggs
full, pregnant
difficultly, with difficulty

SUHA-

SWÉTSU-
SWÍNA-

SYEHÚ-

ŠÉHA-
ŠENA-
XÁTHÚ-
XINIX-
XŁU(RI)-
XÚNA-

to be hunched, to be balled up, to be
hunchbacked
broken, torn, busted
to be messed up, to be chaotic and
jumbled
to loop, to move in a loop, to make
a hoop
to circle, to enfold, to wrap around
to be sticky, to be tacky
to dry out
to be able, can do, possible to do
to sit on the haunches

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to scratch at, to itch, to
scratch at the earth
to itch oneself, to scratch
oneself
itchy, scratchy

XUSI-
XWÉSHÁ-
XYÉTSU-
THEŠÁ-

to be striped
to allow, to escape, to let go
to be blue

Refl. V:
Adjective:

Adverb:

to flock, to be en masse
flocking,
swarming,
protected due to being in a
group
many

TSÉŁÍ-
TSÉRIN-
TSITSÍ-

to be pointed, to be pointy
only, just, until17

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to be warm, to be in the
sunshine
to warm another, to shine
down on, to heat up
to warm oneself, to sit in the
sunshine
sunny, warm, shining

17 There is another form of “only, just, until” the root rusu-.
Davis writes both of these down, I am not sure if this is a
mistake or if there is a slightly different meaning between
this root and rusu-. Although tsérin- seems to have a
pejorative meaning to it.

65

Adverb:

warmly
emotion)

(in

terms

of

TSITHÍ-
TSÚHÚ-

always, forever, continually

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to

shadowed,

to be dark, to be shadowed
to make
darken
to be shadowed, to be dark
dark, shadowed, dim, black
without leaving a train or
mark, deathly silent
to pretend to sleep but really awake
and listening
to bend until broken
half-and-half, half, half of a whole
to dig, to burrow

•TSURU-

TSUSŁIN-
TSUXŁÁ-
TSÚTSE-
WÁRÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
out
Adjective:

to be smooth, to be flat
to flatten out, smash flat
to be flattened out, to lay

large, flat, flattened out

WÁŠÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to shine, to sparkle, to glitter
to make glittery, to make
shiny
to glitter, to shine, to refract
light
glittering, sparkly

WASHÍ-
WÍRA-
YÁŠU-

hot, sharp, hot flavor
to attempt, to try, tryingly

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

diaphanous, thin, dream-like
to dream, to ponder on, to
think dreamily about
to be dreaming
dreamy, illusory
unrealistically, improbably

YATSU-
YUTSE-

to guard, to protect
slippery, hard to stand on

HUNTING, STALKING AND
AVOIDING

HÁNÍ-
HÁRTHA-

HÍNETH-

hunger for
to wait patiently to strike, to wait
with a purpose
to sequester, to hole up, to dig into
a location to wait

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

HÍŠÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

HÍYA-
#HUNŁÚ-
HÚQXE-

HÚRAN-
ŁEYA-

#ŁÍŁA-

NAHAŁ-

NÍRU-
•QSASHI-

•QSÍNRA-

QSUWÉ-

to be heard, to be audible
to hear, to listen to
to be listening, to listen to
oneself
loud, audible
audibly
to startle awake
to be sick, sickly, infirm, weak
to catch midair, to grab onto prey
midair
to cut a vein or artery
to hunt by scent alone, a creature
hunting by scent alone
to be incautious about where one
defecates and urinates, uncaring,
incautious
to catch something but have it
struggle loose, to struggle loose
from a predator’s grasp
to inadvertently startle an animal
to try and lose one’s scent by
crossing a river or stream
cower, cover up, to hide behind
cover from a predator

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

towards

to move
a
destination (a river hunting
for the sea)
to hunt for something
to be hunting
stalking
“huntingly,” “stalkingly”

QXENÍ-
QXÍRSU-

QXUXE-

RÁNÍ-

RANÚ-
RITHA-

RÚWA-
SANSÚ-
SHASÚ-

to decoy, to lead astray
to hesitate, to pause (at the edge of
a meadow or important action and
implies timidity in both cases)
to trap, to entrap, to back into a
corner
to lower one’s head and threaten to
charge with horns bared,
to
threaten
to drive towards (hunting)
to hide, to cover up, to move
something over oneself in order to
hide
to fake dead, to play dead
to catch a fleeting smell or scent
to chase, to run after

66

SHEŠU-

SHINU-
SHÍNYA-

SÍNA-

SINÍ-
SŁÁN(RA)-
SŁARU-

SŁIN(E)-

to be surprised at a rustle in the
bushes or in the forest, to be
startled by a rustling sound
to attack as a pair or group
to stalk, to move quietly, to creep
up on silently
to chase into a dead end without
escape
to hunt by hearing alone
lack of prey, no prey, without prey
to swoop down and grab from the
air and lift off again

Adjective:
Adverb:

SŁUSYÍ-
SRÉTSI-

SRUTHÉ-

•SÚHU-

SUNRI-

(◊)SYERU-

SYURA-

SYUTHÍ-

•ŠATHÍ-

(◊)ŠNAYA-

XARÁ-

XÍNÉX-

XINŠÍ-

XRÁNA-
XWÉSHÁ-

ŠATHÉ-

lure, to draw

to be hollow

cautiously, carefully, slow
cautiously, slowly
to sniff about, to search for scents
to lurk in the shadows, to lurk in
darkness while hunting
to land on (while attacking), to
crush prey while landing on it
to dive out of the sun on an animal
on the ground
to
in, to draw
something closer (to kill or pounce
on it)
to creep, to climb up steadily
(singular form is šnaya-)
empty,
to be
(euphemism for hunger)
to inspect feces, to look at fecal
matter
flee from a hunter, run away from a
predator
to creep, to crawl up steadily
(plural form is syeru-)
to come up from underneath the
water and pull something near or
on the surface down (usually in an
attack)
to dodge, to run zigzags, to pull
away to avoid an attack
to attract an animal by imitating its
mating cries
to go to a high place to look/smell
to allow, to escape, to let go (fail at
hunting)
to hunt together, to hunt in concert
with another, to hunt as a pack

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

THÁŁE-

THEŠÁ-

to stalk without success, to fail at
hunting

Trans. V:

to heard together (usually
while hunting),
to hunt
birds in a flock (inherent
object)

TSATSU-

#TSÉTHÉ-
TSÍTSA-
TSÚŁÁ-

WANAŁ-
WÁŠÁ-

to eat multiple small things (fish,
squirrel) (implies desperation or
extreme hunger to resort to such a
thing)
to scavenge
to escape, to get away
to trail, to follow, to stalk from
behind
abundance of prey, goodly hunting

Adverb:

to move without being
stealthy

WÉSÉ-

to be struggling or wounded

KILLING, DYING AND EATING

HAWÁ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

to be meaty shreds, to be
torn or rent
to rend, to slash, to rip into
meaty shreds
to be torn up, to slash
oneself
meaty, ripped up, slashed,
smell like meat
with
slicing,
a
motion or manner

cutting

HÁNSU-
HUXÉ-

to scrape the scales off a fish

Trans. V:

to spear with horns, to kill
with horns, to maul
to kill, slay, destroy, rip up (no
mention of eating)

ŁÁŠÁ-

QSÁTHI-

Trans. V:

to consume, to eat, to place
into (the stomach)

QXNUHÉ-

REQXE-

RISA-

to sink ones teeth into flesh and
pull
to strike with the tail, to sting with
the tail

Trans. V:

to bite, to slay with one’s
teeth

67

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to nibble on oneself
sharp, saw-toothed, toothy
angrily, viciously

RÍXU-
SAYÚ-

SHAYA-

SHEQXU-
•SHEYA-
SISNE-
SŁÁ(YA)-

to skewer, to impale
to step down on with force, to hold
something down with the foot or
claw, to crush by stepping on
to split bones or flesh open, to slash
open, to disembowel
to bite off, to remove with the teeth
to slay (one Kindred upon another)
to choke, to gasp, to gurgle on blood

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

stone

to be bloody
(a
covered with blood)
to cut, to make bloody, to
tear
to make oneself bloody
bloodily, bloodied, bloody
bloodily, viciously

SNAHÉ-

SRÁYI-
SRÉNA-
SRUTHÉ-

•SYEQSU-

SYURA-

XAŁNÁ-
XÁNU-

XARÁ-

#XÁTSU-
XNEYÁ-

XRÍNÁ-

THÁHÉ-

to be hollow

to bite and hang on while shaking
one’s head from side to side
to knock out, to make unconscious
to bruise, to lightly wound
to land on (while attacking), to
crush prey while landing on it
to be broken (a creature’s limb or
body-part)
to be
empty,
(euphemism for hunger)
to strike, to hit, to slap at
to fight, to tussle, to engage in
combat
to come up from underneath the
water and pull something near or
on the surface down (usually in an
attack)
to kill but not to eat
to plummet, to drop quickly, to let
something go and let it fall to its
death
to decapitate, to bit the head off of
something or someone

Trans. V:

to overwhelm with violence,
to assault violently

THÁŁRÍ-

to grab another’s throat with the
teeth to suffocate it

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

TSATSU-

WAHÍN-

WAŁA-
WÁNA-
WASHÍ-

to eat multiple small things (fish,
squirrel) (implies desperation or
extreme hunger to resort to such a
thing)
to gorge, to fill oneself up while
distended
eating,
stomach
to pounce, to jump upon
catch, get, grab, get a hold of
hot, sharp, hot flavor

engorged,

LIVING PATTERNS & ACTIONS
to yawn, to open the mouth very
HANRÁ-
wide

HÁQSA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:

Adverb:

to leap, to jump about
to make another to leap
to be a female deer
a female deer’s smell, deer-
like smell
jumpy, ducking,
running in a zigzag
to wait patiently to strike, to wait
with a purpose
to bristle, to appear to be larger, to
make an attempt at intimidation
to be tired, to be wearied

leaping,

HÁRTHA-

HÁXÉ-

HAXÍ-
HÁXU-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:

Adverb:

to lay down on the ground,
to be in a hallow, to be a
lake of water
to place in depressed ground
to lay down in a hallow
laying
drooping
lethargically

laying,

down,

HAYÁ-

HÍNETH-

HÍSHÍ-

HÍŠÁ-

to wash, to bathe in water, to play
in the water
to sequester, to hole up, to dig into
a location to wait
thirst, desire for water (compare
with rathu-)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be heard, to be audible
to hear, to listen to
to be listening, to listen to
oneself
loud, audible
audibly

68

HIŠRU-
HÍXÉ-

HIYU-

◊HÚSYÚ-

HÚRSA-
NÁHÍN-
NÍHÁ-
NIŠNÁ-

QSÁSÍ-

QXÚTHRA-

RANA-
•RÁNA-

to mark trees with horns or antlers
foolish actions which cause harm
(usually to oneself, which is of
course the only thing which really
matters)
to pick at, to scratch at in an
attempt to pull something out or
off
to dream, to move around and
sleeping
sounds while
make
(singular form is syesá-)
to need or require
to sneeze, to snort
to curl up, to roll oneself up
to shake water off, to shake oneself
to get water off
waking up scared, to dream a
nightmare
to be weak after hibernating,
weakness after hibernation
death, to die, to be dead

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to urinate upon (only from a
male)
to urinate (only a male)
shiver,

to

stir,

to
to make
something move back and forth
quickly
to gulp or drink deeply
to sun oneself, to sit in the sun
while holding out the wings to
catch the rays
to dip, to lap, dunk into, reach into
the water
to mate, the act of mating
to spit, to vomit out
to squat or hunker down (to urinate
or defecate?)
to choke, to gasp, to gurgle on blood
to snooze, to doze (implies a light
sleep)
to wake up from hibernation, to get
up after a very long sleep
to draw air in, to suck air in, to
breathe in

RESHÚ-

RÍSU-
SANHU-

SHÁNYÁ-

SHÚNU-
SHUXU-
SÍRE-

SISNE-
SŁINI-

SNÉSHA-

SNÚHI-

•SRÉHU-

Trans. V:

to push out, to force out, to
force to defecate

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:

to shit, to take a shit (to shit
oneself)
shitty (non-pejorative)

SRÍSA-
SRÍTSA-

SWIXŁÁ-

SYISHÍN-

SYUŁRA-

ŠAHE-
ŠEQXE-
ŠESEŁ-

ŠRERÍ-
ŠÚRI-

to shrink, to shy away, to submit
to flatten out on the ground, to
make a sleeping place, to stretch
out on the ground
to suck, to draw out, to suck poison
out
to hibernate, to sleep a very long
time
to discard, to toss away, to throw
out or leave something behind
to dream weirdly or strangely
to lower one’s head (to eat or drink)
to stretch after waking, to stretch
out, to flex
to nuzzle, to cozy up

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to arc over, to reach over
to reach over, to cover or
uncurl over
to stretch oneself across, to
uncurl, to span

ŠUŠA-

XAHÍN-
XAŁIR-

to draw out,
to pull out of
something, to play with something
grow large, grow up, grow

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to begin, to generate, to start
to fertilize, to generate
to fight, to tussle, to engage in
combat
to pump, to beat (On.)
to cavort, to play

XÁNU-

XINXIN-
XÍSÍ-
XÍTSA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to change with the seasons
to make to grow
to grow, to get larger, to
change through time
to rub up against something to
scratch an itch

XRETHÍ-

XÚNA-

Refl. V:

Trans. V:

to scratch at, to itch, to
scratch at the earth
to itch oneself, to scratch
oneself
itchy, scratchy
(plural form is SHÁTSÁ-)

Adjective:

◊XÚXU-

to

lay

to
lay
eggs,
(inherently belonging to the
Kindred)
to be an egg, to be lain
ripe, full but unrealized

Refl. V:
Adjective:

THAŠE-
THREŠÁ-

THUNSE-
TSÁHÍ-

to have an intestinal pain
wake up, get up, open eyes, become
suddenly aware
to dry out in the sun

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to protect by

to cover,
covering
to peel off the scales of
another, to wound
to shed, to flake off
scaly, hard

TSAHU-

TSARŁÁ-
TSATSU-

TSÉYA-

hunger, desirous of food, in want of
food
to blink the eye, to blink quickly
to eat multiple small things (fish,
squirrel) (implies desperation or
extreme hunger to resort to such a
thing)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be

to be quiescent,
sluggish (river, sea)
to lull, to put another to
sleep
to be asleep, to be lulled
sleepy, unwatchful
sleepily, slowly, groggily
to grow new scales after a wound
to dig, to burrow
to gorge, to fill oneself up while
distended
eating,
stomach

engorged,

TSÍRSYÍ-
TSÚTSE-
WAHÍN-

•WEHÚ-

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:

Trans. V:

YÁNÁ-

for a female to urinate upon
for a female to urinate
to smell like female’s urine

to drink, to swallow a liquid,
to lap up

YAXIN-

YAŠI-

to thrash in ones sleep, to move
while dreaming
to menstruate, to ovulate

69

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

MOTION, TRAVEL AND
POSITIONING
to burst out, to free, to open up
to appear, to emerge from, to
originate from
to turn around, to whirl around

HÁŁÁTH-
HÁŁRÍ-

HAŠE-
HÍNE-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to move back and forth
to make to swim away or
towards oneself or another
to swim (by moving tail
back and forth), to be a fish

HUSNA-
ŁANIN-

ŁATSE-
ŁÍSHÉ-
ŁIŠÁ-

to go, to leave behind
to remain, to stay behind, to leave
something behind
to find, successfully search for
to spread out into the ground

Trans. V:

to search for a hunting
territory

ŁUSA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

sit up, set in a place
to place, to put a thing down
to sit, to prop oneself up
sitting, placed
in a situated manner
to string, to form into a line
to fall, to collapse, to dive onto
to dip, to move slowly downward,
to slip down
to toss, to throw

NAŁÍ-
NÁRA-
NEWÁ-

QSÍHÚ-
QSUWÉ-

Intran. V:

towards

to move
a
destination (a river hunting
for the sea)

QXÉYÉ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be open, to open up
to open, to bring out
opened, young, new
openly, newly

QXÍSNA-

RÁŁA-

RESHÚ-

RÍNHA-

to push, to force, to make another
do
for stones to tumble down a slope,
mountain or hill
to
to make
something move back and forth
quickly
to swim against the current

shiver,

stir,

to

SANU-

SEŠA-

SÉYU-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

looking for a location (river
moving towards the sea)
to search for, to look for, to
find

to wave, to move back and forth in
the wind or water

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to flow (as a river flows)
to pour out, to make water
flow from, to make blood
flow from
to run along the ground, to
slither like a serpent
like flowing water, watery,
riverine

SHÁNYÁ-

SHEŠÍ-

SHEYÁ-

SHÍSHÍ-

SÍRTSE-

to

to

lift

struggle

to dip, to lap, dunk into, reach into
the water
to
strain,
something up
to be apart, to be not together (no
mention of distance)
to lead astray, to go in the wrong
direction (by travel only, does not
imply wrongness or incorrectness
in general)

Intran. V:

Adjective:

to be near but not really all
that near,
the same
in
general vicinity
somewhat close but not
really, to be sorta near
to walk briskly and quickly, a fast
walk or march

SNÁSŁA-

SNEYÉ-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

divided, split between two
locations
to divide, to separate
to face a difficult choice or
situation (to split oneself)
divided, separated
separately

SRASÍN-

submerge, to force beneath the
water, to dive from the surface of
the water beneath it, to pull down
beneath the water

•SRÉHU-

Intran. V:

to pour out of a hole or
depression

70

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Trans. V:

to push out, to force out, to
force to defecate

SRÉTSU-
SRÍNÁ-

SRÍXE-

SWÁNSA-
SWÁTHÍ-

SWIXŁÁ-

ŠNÁHE-
ŠRÍNA-

ŠUSÚ-

ŠUTHÉ-

to wander aimlessly
to pull, to haul, to drag along the
ground
to scrape, to scratch something off
of something else
to pass to, to give to
explore, look around, looking for
nothing in particular
to suck, to draw out, to suck poison
out
to move in and out
to cross, to move over without
permission
to swim by moving the tail up-and-
down

ŠÚRI-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

from

to hide something
someone (indirect obj.)
to keep distant and not
announce oneself

to arc over, to reach over
to reach over, to cover or
uncurl over
to stretch oneself across, to
uncurl, to span
vast,
huge,
conception, overarching
expansively, hugely

beyond

ŠUŠA-

XARÁ-

XÉSI-
XŁU(RI)-
TSAŠU-
TSATHÚ-

WÁHÍN-

WÁRÁ-

to draw out,
to pull out of
something, to play with something
to come up from underneath the
water and pull something near or
on the surface down (usually in an
attack)
to come, to arrive
to sit on the haunches
remain, stay, hold position
to lead, to lead on, to direct by
going in the same direction or
doing the same thing, to teach or
instruct
travel, distance, trip, to make a
journey

Adverb:

moving closely along open
ground

WIRA-

YÁNÁ-

YIXA-

to pull something together until
there is only a narrow passage, to
bring closely together

Intran. V:

for a river to plunge into the
ground or hole

to point, to point out a thing or
location

NON-SPECIFIC ACTIONS

HASHÚ-

HÉQXU-
HÚRTSA-
HUSÚN-

to wrench something open widely
(corpse, tree)
to feel déjà vu, to feel strange
to grind, to grate

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be winding, sinuous, of
an indirect
to plot against…
to plot, to plan
untrustworthy
in a ugly way, fiendishly

HUXÉ-

Intran. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be forked, to be split
spiky, horny, spined
in a split way, unplanned,
without a purpose
to make worse, to worsen

NÉŁSÁ-
QSÁNI-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

to be changeable, alterable
to change, to make different
to change, to alter, to be
changed
changeable, shifting, moon-
like
shiftingly, shifty

QXÉHA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be seared, burnt
to burn, to sear with flame
to be burnt
fiery, burning, furious
vicious, angry, flaming with
anger

QXÍSNA-

SRÍXE-

SRUHI-
◊SRÚRNA-
#SÚNÁ-

71

to push, to force, to make another
do
to scrape, to scratch something off
of something else
chance, opportunity, possibility
to step, to make the ground shake

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to organize, to interfere
to organize oneself, to worry
oneself to death
organized, orderly
ordered manner

SYÚWA-

SHÉQXÁ-

ŠÁTHA-

to draw a circle, a circle (shape),
round, roundish, circular
for something to happen which
usually does not (contrast with the
term wéri-) (‡)

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be black
to make black, to blacken, to
make dusty with charcoal
to be black to oneself, to
make oneself black, to dust
oneself with coal
black, dark, dusty
mysterious, darkly, dustily

ŠÁWÁ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be seen
to see
to be seen, to watch oneself
watchfully, warily
warily

ŠÉHA-
ŠNÚTHE-

ŠUSHU-
ŠUTHÉ-

twist,

to circle, to enfold, to wrap around
to
to bend
to wind,
something terribly out of shape or
to distort it
to crush, to crack, to smash flat

XÍYE-

Intran. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

•XNA(QSÉ)-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

to be unknown
to keep distant and not
announce oneself
strange, unusual, unknown,
distant (personally)
strangely

to be in a bunch, in a pack
to move along with, to move
in concert with
to move as a group
in a pack
together

to be woven (as in a mass of
brambles or thorns)
to spin a web (inherent
object)

XNIYA-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:

to be deep, beneath the earth
to bury
to cover oneself in earth, to
bury
earthy, loamy, solidly

THRATSÚ-
TSESHÍ-

TSIRA-
TSUXŁÁ-
TSÚTSE-
WÁŠÁ-

flashing, there-and-gone
to gauge, to guess, to sound another
creature or thing out, to determine
desire, wish for, to want
half-and-half, half, half of a whole
to dig, to burrow

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to shine, to sparkle, to glitter
to make glittery, to make
shiny
to glitter, to shine, to refract
light
glittering, sparkly

WÉRI-

YINSU-

for something not to happen which
usually does (contrasted from the
term shéqxá-)
to trip, to mess up, to stumble

HÍXÉ-

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
foolish actions which cause harm
(usually to oneself, which is of
course the only thing which really
matters)
to be ridiculous, to be utterly
foolish

#HUSA-

HUSÚN-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be winding, sinuous, of
an indirect
to plot against…
to plot, to plan
untrustworthy
in a ugly way, fiendishly

ŁAHÉ-
ŁERQSU-
#ŁÍŁA-

ŁÍRÁ-

to be sneaky or suspicious
to be curious, probing
to be incautious about where one
defecates and urinates, uncaring,
incautious

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Adjective:

difficult,

clashing,
problematic
to be hostile (towards me,
implicit object)
hostile, problematic

72

Adverb:

hostilely

ŠERNÁ-

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

ŁUSÍ-
NEŁNI-
#QSÁWERÁ-

to respect or admire
to be kind and generous

QSÚHÁ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to

to bother,

to pester,
hassle, to disrupt
to worry oneself, to hassle
oneself, to be a færie or
goblin
annoying, problematic
difficult, problematic
to chew, to worry (to chew upon
incessantly)
to be a coward, to be a weakling

#QXNAYU-
(#QXNÉ(HI)-) see also (#SNUHA-)

Intran. V:

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

be

and

to be

bothersome

to
troubling
to annoy another, to insult
to be annoying,
insulting
insulting, troubling
insulting, troubling
to bother, to annoy (fairly rude)
to charge into something recklessly,
to
without
something
considering options or results
to dislike, to not desire, to want to
be away from
to be funny, to be amusing
awe-inspiring,
amazing, to entrance

entrancing,

do

#SÁNSÁ-
SERŁÁ-

SHÁRÁ-

SÍYA-
SŁÉWÁ-

SŁIN(E)-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to be slow
to think about something, to
be cautious towards
to be thoughtful, to ponder
upon oneself, to be self-
conscious, to make oneself
slow
cautiously, carefully, slow
cautiously, slowly

◊SYÉNSÚ-

#SYERÁ-

•SYEQSU-

SYURA-

to be brave, to lack fear (plural
form is húrún-)
to be excitable, excited,
fidgeting
to be broken (a creature’s limb or
body-part)
to be
empty,
(euphemism for hunger)

to be hollow

jittery,

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

to make another strong
to be strong, to make oneself
strong
strong
strongly

#ŠURIN-
ŠUTHÉ-

to be blind, stupid or deaf

Refl. V:

Adjective:

Adverb:

to keep distant and not
announce oneself
strange, unusual, unknown,
distant (personally)
strangely

#XÉŠÉ-

XÍYE-

Trans. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

•XRARI-

YÁNU-

YÁRA-
#YURSU-

another

to
bother
incessantly, to harass
bothersome, buzzing
in
a
bothersome

harassing way,

to be in a bunch, in a pack
to move along with, to move
in concert with
to move as a group
in a pack
together
in

the

untroubled
face of a
challenge or threat (non-draconic
threateners)
to miss another’s presence, to miss
someone or something
to be terse and rude, to be unkind
to be timid, timidity, to be humble

RELATIONSHIPS (BETWEEN
DRAGONS)

HANRÍ-

HAQSÚN-

•HURÚN-

HUTSA-

ŁÍRÁ-

to check up on, to look in on, to
visit,
things are
to see how
(principally between two Sihá)
to think, to believe, to give credit
to, to care about
to forbid, to exclude, (to listener
but not to another)
to strike back, to get vengeance
upon, to hit back

Intran. V:

clashing,
problematic

difficult,

73

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred
Trans. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

•NUŠÁ-

to be hostile (towards me,
implicit object)
to be my enemy
hostile, problematic
hostilely

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to make into my hatch-
sister
to be my hatch-sister
sisterly to me

SÍRTSE-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to make another thing like
another
to be a dragon, to make
oneself the same
alike, in a similar manner
in an alike way

to make
distant neighbor
to be (my)
neighbor

into (my)

far

far distant

•QSÁŁÉ-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to make into (your) hatch-
brother
to be (your) hatch-brother
brotherly

•QSŁÁŠU-

Intran. V:

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to be next to something next
to another
to make another (your)
neighbor’s neighbor
to be
neighbor
somewhat distant

(your) neighbor’s

•QXÁXA-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to make into (my) hatch-
brother
to be (my) hatch-brother
brotherly

RÁNÍ-

REQXE-

•RITSŁÁ-

to lower one’s head and threaten to
charge with horns bared,
to
threaten
to strike with the tail, to sting with
the tail

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to be next to, to be near
to make another into (my)
neighbor
to be (my) neighbor
neighboring, nearby
closely

SAHÍN-

•SAYA-

forbidden, not allowed, to make
impossible to cross over

Trans. V:
Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to turn into (my) friend
to be (my) friend
friendly, trustworthy
trustworthily

•◊SIHÁ-

(plural form is SHÚNA-)

Intran. V:

to be similar

SITHA-
SŁÍSYÍ-
SRÍSA-
SÚSÉ-
ŠAŁSU-

•ŠÁQSÚ-

to deny, to refuse
to attack without provocation
to shrink, to shy away, to submit
to growl, to growl at, to warn off
to avoid, doing things in such a
way that one avoids someone or
something

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

to be (my hunting territory)
to claim a hunting territory
(inherent object)

ŠAWA-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

to make into a fool, to turn
into a fool, to make another
look foolish
to turn oneself into a fool

ŠRÍNA-

XAŁIR-

to cross, to move over without
permission

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to be a father
male, masculine

XÁNU-

#XÁTSU-

•XÉŠE-

to fight, to tussle, to engage in
combat
to kill but not to eat, to be a fool,
idiot, wasteful

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:

to make into (your) hatch-
sister
to be (your) hatch-sister
sisterly, protectively
to make a place forbidden to me, to
be forbidden to me
to lead, to lead on, to direct by
going in the same direction or
doing the same thing, to teach or
instruct

•XÚXA-

TSATHÚ-

•TSÍTSÍ-

74

Srínawésin: The Language of the Kindred

Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

to make another into (your)
friend/ally
to be (your) friend/ally
friendly, comradely (to you)
together, allied, along with
(you)

Adverb:

audibly, loudly (in regards
to one’s voice)

(#QXNÉ(HI)-) see also (#SNUHA-)

Trans. V:
Refl. V:

to annoy another, to insult
to be annoying,
insulting

to be

•TSÚHU-

Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:
Adverb:

(my) neighbor’s

to make into my neighbor’s
neighbor (inherent object)
to be
neighbor
friendly (to me)
allied, along with (me)
to greet, to acknowledge another’s
presence (usually to a non-friend,
non-family, non-enemy)
to challenge another Sihá,
challenge another’s territory
to roll over, to present the stomach
or belly, to submit abjectly

to

WASA-

WÁSÚ-

YIHU-

SPEAKING, TALKING AND
SOUNDS
sing

beautifully

HÁŁA-

a

(like

to
nightingale)
to interrupt, to butt in
to sing a specific melody, a melody
(On.?)
to chortle, to laugh
to ask, to query
to warn
to sneeze, to snort
to roar
to lie (plural form is wašra-)

HEŠI-
HÚNU-

HÚXHÁ-
ŁÍHU-
ŁÍXNÁ-
NÁHÍN-
NÁRÁ-
◊NÍŁSA-
#QSÁWERÁ-

Trans. V:

to pester,
hassle, to disrupt

to bother,

to

QXÍTSÚ-

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:

Adjective:

to make noise
to speak to, to address, to
talk to, to speak towards
to be audible, to be making
noise (focus on making the
sound rather then being heard
which is implied with híšá-)
to be audible (the voice)

RETSÉ-

SÚSÉ-
ŠISIŁ-

ŠIŠI-
ŠÚRÚ-

#XÉŠÉ-

to be too loquacious and talkative,
to
too many words
speak
(hyperbole)
to growl, to growl at, to warn off
to hiss, to let out steam, to hiss
angrily
to squeak (On.)
to tell, to
elaborate

inform, to fill

in,

Intran. V:
Trans. V:

Refl. V:
Adjective:
Adverb:

another

to hum, to warble
to
bother
incessantly, to harass
to buzz, to annoy
bothersome, buzzing
in
a
bothersome

harassing way,

THRANA-

TSIRŁE-
WASYÍ-
◊WAŠRA-
YESI-

to reverberate, to echo (implies
greater sound and a thrumming
sound then húšá-) (On.)
to chitter, to chirp
to debate, to argue, to discuss
to lie (singular form is níłsa-)
to answer, to reply to a question

SONGS AND POETICS

a

sing

(like

beautifully

to
nightingale)
to sing a specific melody, a melody
(On.?)
to sing a lullaby, to croon softly
to sing a song with a traditional
melody but different lyrics
to chant with a pulsing rhythm
to sing a song with traditional
lyrics but with varying melodies
to sing a song
to speak a poem

HÁŁA-

HÚNU-

ŁÍHI-
QSŁÁRU-

SHÉQXU-
SŁIŠI-

SWÉHÉ-
WÁNSA-

75Srínawésin: Lexicon of Verb Roots and Thesaurus image
Srínawésin: Lexicon of Verb Roots and Thesaurus image

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