Patterns of Allophony

Patterns of Allophony

Author: William S. Annis

MS Date: 02-23-2015

FL Date: 04-01-2015

FL Number: FL-00002B-00

Citation: Annis, William S. 2015. «Patterns of Allophony.»
FL-00002B-00, Fiat Lingua,
. Web. 01 Apr. 2015.

Copyright: © 2015 William S. Annis. This work is licensed

under a Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Fiat Lingua is produced and maintained by the Language Creation Society (LCS). For more information
about the LCS, visit http://www.conlang.org/

Patterns of Allophony

William S. Annis

February 23, 2015

This is a small collection of common allophones taken from the PBase database1, presented
as graphs. In making these graphs I have focused on selecting patterns that occur more than
once, or which are part of a larger pattern that occurs more than once. For example, in some
languages /l/ will present as [d] after nasals. In fewer languages both /r/ and /l/ will do this, so
I include them both. I have tried to leave out one-off exotica, but one or two might have slipped
through if they struck me as especially interesting.

I have omitted certain very common changes. For example, voicing assimilation of any kind
is left out for consonant clusters, and do I not include either nasal assimilation or word-final
devoicing.
I have also left out all patterns of deletion, which are also largely predictable (as
codas, word-finally, etc.).

Reading the Graphs

Arrows indicate the direction of change. The environment in which the change occurs is indi-
cated by the grey text to the left of the line. So, in the selection below, note that /t/ becomes [θ]
before /p/, /t/, and /k/, but becomes the glottal stop [ʔ] word finally.

The environments are given in fairly standard notation: C is a consonant, V a vowel, N any nasal
consonant, # is a word boundary, and the underline represents the sound itself. Curly braces
enclose a set of phonemes. So, the notation _# marks a change that occurs at the end of a word,
_{w,j}V marks a change that occurs when the sound is followed by either /w/ or /j/ and then a
vowel, and #_{i,e} marks a change that happens at the start of a word and followed by either /i/
or /e/.

1(cid:63)(cid:105)(cid:105)(cid:84)(cid:44)(cid:102)(cid:102)(cid:84)(cid:35)(cid:28)(cid:98)(cid:50)(cid:88)(cid:35)(cid:96)(cid:81)(cid:63)(cid:28)(cid:77)(cid:88)(cid:43)(cid:28)(cid:102)(cid:91)(cid:109)(cid:50)(cid:96)(cid:118)

1

w

ɔ

_
V

_
N

_
C
#

_
C
C

,

_
#

_
C
C

,

_
{
t
,
s
,
n
}
,

_
V

_
X
a

ɑ

o

_
V

_
#

_
t
{
o
u
}

,

_
t
{
o
u
}

,

_
{
b
m

,

,
r
}

ʊ

_
{
w

,

k
ʷ
}

_
C
#

,

C
_
C

,

_
N

,

_
r
,

u

_
C
#

_
a

,

_
{
m
n
}
,

,

_
j
V

,

_
#

_
ʔ
{
e
o
}
,

,

_
j
,

{
k

,

w
}
_
{
k

,

w

}
,

ə

ɪ

_
{
ʔ
,
h
}

{
ʔ
,
h
}
_

,

ɨ

{
t
ʃ
,
ʃ
}
_

C
_
C

{
ʃ
,
ʒ
}
_

{
p
,
f
,

_
{
p
,
f
,

m

}

_
N

{
t
ʃ
,
ʃ
,
j
}
_

_
C
#

_
C
C

,

C
_
C

,

_
N

,

_
r
,

{
k

,

w
}
_
{
k

,

w

}
,

_
C
#

_
C
C

,

_
{
l
,
r
}
,

_
#

_
{
ʒ
}
,

_
{
w

,
j
,

h
}
,

V
_
V

e

ɛ

_
j
V

j

_
r
{
t
,
d
,
s
}

,

_
{
k
x
,
l
,
r
}
,

_
a

_
C
#

,

_
{
m
n
}
,

,

_
j
V

,

_
ʔ
{
e
o
}

,

,

_
{
h
m
w

,

}
,

_
{
ʔ
,
w

}
,

_
{
p
,
f
,

m

}

,

m
w
}
_
{
p
,
f
,

m
w

,

}
,

_
t
{
o
u
}

,

w
_

,

_
w

,

a
ʔ
_

_
{
h

,

ʔ
}
u

ɛ
{
h

,

ʔ
}
_

_
i
,

i

_
{
w

,
j
}
{
i
,
u
}






æ

,

{
k
g
,
r
,
w
}
_

,

_
{
k
g
,
r
,
w

}
,

_
N

a

_
N

_
w

{
t
ʃ
,
z
}
_

,

_
j

_
#

,

_
{
j
,

h
,
ʔ
}
,

a
ʔ
_

w
_
C

,

{
k
w
}
_
{
k
w

,

}
,

,

w
_
{
b
g
m
ŋ
w

,

,

,

}
,

_
N

V
_
V

f

b

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}

p

V
_
V

N
_

,

_
N

,

m

β

_
#

_
N

,

V
_
V

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}

_
#

_
{
o
u
}

,

v

ʔ
m

ɸ

w

_
#

V
_
V

,

,

_
{
u
o
,
ɔ
}
,

V
_
V

_
{
o
u
}
,

,

,

_
{
u
o
,
ɔ
}

k

x

q

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}

V
_
V

,

{
i
,
e
}
_

_
{
i
,
e
}
,

_
{
a
,
ɔ
}

{
a
,
ɔ
}
_
{
a
,
ɔ
}
,

,

{
a
o
}
_

,



















V
_
V

V
_
V

_
#

V
_
V

N
_

,

_
N

,

_
#

,

{
o
u
}
_
V

,

_
{
u
o
,
ɔ
}
,

_
#

ɢ

χ

ɴ

_
#

c

t

t
s

{
i
,
e
}
_
V

_
#

{
i
,
e
}
_

_
{
i
,
e
}
,

g

ʔ

_
#

_
#

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}

V
_
V

N
_

,

_
N

,

θ

_
N

_
{
w

,
j
}

V
_
V

,

d

d
z

_
N

N
_

,

V
_
V

,

{
i
,
e
}
_
V

t
ʃ

c
ç

z

_
{
i
,
j
}

_
{
i
,
j
}

_
{
i
,
e
}

V
_
V

ŋ

#
_

,

{
o
u
}
_
V

,

,

_
{
u
o
,
ɔ
}
,

_
#

_
{
i
,
e
}

_
{
d
,
z
,
n

,
l
,
r
,
j
}

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}
,

V
_
V

,

_
#

_
#

_
C

,

ɲ

_
#

ɟ

_
{
i
,
u
}

#
_

,

_
#

,

j

ɣ

{
i
,
e
}
_
V

a
_
V

n

ɾ

_
#

_
N

,

ð

ʔ
n

_
t

,

_
{
d
d
z
,
g
}

d
ʒ

ʃ

_
t

V
_
V

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
}

_
#

_
{
i
,
u
}

_
t
,

_
{
i
,
j
}

_
{
i
,
e
}

V
_
V

_
{
i
,
e
}

_
C

_
t
,

V
_
V

V
_
V

_
t

_
{
i
,
e
}

s

ʒ

,

_
{
b
d
g
}

,

V
_
V

,

_
N

,

x

t
ʃ

j

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

k

#
_
{
o
u
}

,

N
_

,

_
{
t
,
n
}

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
,
ʔ
}
,

_
s
,

{
i
,
u
}
_

_
{
i
,
u
}
,

N
_

_
{
k
,
t
,
p
}
,

_
{
o
u
}

,

_
n

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

N
_

,

ɸ

_
{
t
,
n
}

h

_
{
o
u
}

,

_
{
o
u
}

,

f










v

p
f

d

N
_

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

ð

p

θ

n

s

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

m
_

,

β

V
_
a

_
m

z

ɣ

ɦ

t

_
w

ʃ

t
s

V
_
V

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

_
{
s
,
z
}

_
{
t
ʃ
,

d
ʒ
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

_
k
{
i
,
j
}
,

_
{
i
,
e
}
,

{
p
,
t
,
k
w
,
ɾ
}

,

N
_

,

ʔ

_
s

_
w

N
_

V
_
V

i
_
V

_
{
i
,
e
}
,

N
_

_
{
o
u
}

,

V
_
V

,

n
_

_
n

,

_
{
t
ʃ
,

d
ʒ
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

_
{
i
,
e
}
,

,

_
{
u
o
,
ɔ
}

_
{
i
,
e
,
j
}

_
{
s
,
z
,
ʃ
,
ʒ
}

N
_

,

b

w

V
_
a

m

ʒ

g

_
{
i
,
e
,
ɛ
}

_
ŋ

ɲ

g

ʃ

_
V
[
+
n
a
s
a
l
]

_
N

#
_
{
ɨ
,
ə
,
a
}
,

_
{
w

,
j
}

d
ʒ

_
N

N
_

,

,

{
i
,
u
a
}
_
{
i
,
u
a
}
,

,

n
_

V
_
i

_
#

,

z

ʔ

h

d


d

_
{
p
,
t
,
k
,
s
,
h
,
ɾ
,
w

}

n
_

_
{
w

,
j
}
V

w


b

_
{
c
,
ɟ
,
ɲ

,
j
}

b

N
_

,

{
b
d
v
}
_

,

,

j

k

ɣ
ʷ

β

_
#

,

{
i
,
u
a
}
_
{
i
,
u
a
}
,

,

x

p

v

_
{
w

,
j
}

_
C

,

ɣ

,

_
{
k
k
ʷ
}

ɾ

N
_

,

n

_
i

V
_
V

_
{
w

,
j
}
V

_
{
i
,
e
}

_
{
c
,
ɟ
,
ɲ

,
j
}
,

n
_

#
_
{
i
,
e
}

N
_

,

_
{
o
,
ɔ
,
u
}

V
_
{
o
u
}

,

{
t
,
f
,
s
}
_

V
_
V

_
{
i
,
e
}

_
#

,

p
_

m
_

V
_
V

b
_

_
w

_
{
t
,
d
,
s
,
ʃ
,
z
,
ʒ
,
l
,

n
}

V
_
V

_
n

_
{
t
,
t
s
,
s
,
r
}
,
#
_
{
i
,
e
a
}
,

,

N
_

,

m

_
i


g

w

ŋ

_
{
w

,
j
}
V

#
_
u









r

_
{
i
,
u
}

_
n

#
_
{
i
,
e
,
}

_
V
[
+
n
a
s
a
l
]
,

_
{
w

,
j
}

,

_
{
u
o
a
}
,

,

l

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