A Grammar of Eastern Classical Dryadic

A Grammar of Eastern Classical Dryadic

Author: Jesse D. Holmes

MS Date: 06-06-2017

FL Date: 07-01-2018

FL Number: FL-000052-00

Citation: Holmes, Jesse D. 2017. «A Grammar of Eastern

Classical Dryadic.» FL-000052-00, Fiat
Lingua, . Web. 01 July

Copyright: © 2017 Jesse D. Holmes. This work is licensed

under a Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.


Fiat Lingua is produced and maintained by the Language Creation Society (LCS). For more information
about the LCS, visit http://www.conlang.org/






Praca lincencjacka napisana pod kierunkiem:

Prof. dr. hab. Mirosław Kocur


1 Introduction

1.1 Extent of the Classical Dryadic Language


1.2 Typology

2 Phonology and Phonetics

2.1 Dryadic Physiology and Speech

2.2 Phonemes

2.2.1 Consonants

2.2.2 Vowels

2.3 Stress

2.4 Phonotactics

3 Writing System and Romanization

3.1 Classical Dryadic Alphabet

3.2 Romanization

4 Nouns and Pronouns

4.1 Plural Prefixes

4.2 Noun Cases

4.2.1 Relational and Essive Suffixes

4.2.2 Locative and Lative Suffixes

4.2.3 Vocative Suffixes

4.2.4 Genitive Suffixes

4.2.5 Other Suffixes and Adpositions

5 Adjectives and Adverbs

5.1 Adjectival Agreement

5.2 Forming Superlatives and Comparatives

5.3 Adverbs and Adverbial Suffixes

6 Verbs and TAM

6.1 Transitive Verbs and Nominal Tense

6.2 Intransitive Verbs, Participles, Negation, and Interrogatives

6.3 Irregularities and Dual-Transitive Verbs

6.4 Speech Levels and Honorifics

6.5 Aspectual and Modal Affixes and Verbal Prefixes

6.6 Emphatic Suffixes, Imperative Mood, Evidentiality, and Noun Clauses

7 Relative Clauses and Complex Sentences

7.1 Relative Clauses

7.2 Conjuction Words and Constructions

8 Vocabulary and Phrases

8.1 Differences of the Sacred Register

8.1.1 Pronouns, Nouns, and Adjectives

8.1.2 Verbs and TAM

8.1.3 Lexical Differences

8.2 Numbers and Religion

8.3 Mimetic Words

8.4 Flowers, Plants, and Fungi

8.5 Animaplants

8.6 Family and Relations

8.7 Houses, Buildings, and Decor

8.8 Clothing and Ornaments

8.9 Body Parts

8.10 Speaking, Eating, and Gardening

8.11 Time, Seasons, Flavors, and Direction

8.12 Natural Bodies

8.13 Emotion and Moral

8.14 War, Government, and Clans

8.15 Entertainment, Music, and Art

8.16 Miscellaneous

9 Literature and Excerpts

9.1 Dryadic Myth: Song of the Universe

9.2 Dryadic Legend: Princess of Camellias

9.3 Short Story: The Flower King

9.4 Classical Dryadic Poetry

9.4.1 Song of the Dryads

9.4.2 Tree Never Grown

9.4.3 My Blossom in the Wind

9.4.4 A Future Together

1. Introduction

1.1. Extent of the Classical Dryadic Language

The Classical Dryadic language was a language spoken by the native,

humanoid inhabitants of Planet Eunomia approximately between the years 1000 BFC
(≈1400 CE)1 and 200 BFC (≈1950 CE), before eventually developing into the early

modern language variants, such as Middle Meliadic Dryadic, by the second century
BFC. The extent of the language encompassed much of the dryads’ domain2,

becoming the central language in the Golden Age of the dryads and the dominate

uniting force of the Meliadic Clan, subjugating most of the other more diverse dryadic

languages spoken in the area. A clear divide, however, existed between speakers west

of the Sphurathic Mountains and speakers to the east. The east, centered around the

forest of Asympusht and home to the Meliat Clan, formed the basis for standardized

writing and maintained itself as the primary written language of the dryads up until

the modern spelling reformations of 96 AFC (2182 CE). It is still used in religious

texts and literature from the classical period. The western variants, however, varied

greatly as they had taken in great influences from the previous languages spoken by

the dryadic tribes in that area. Very few texts survive that portray the spoken western

variants of Classical Dryadic using the standardized eastern orthography to convey its

sounds, usually in informal contexts such as personal letters or drawings of short

messages in the dirt.

Much of what we know about Classical Dryadic comes from analyzing

documents left over from the classical period and comparative methods using the

modern Dryadic languages and the languages spoken around the beginning of the first

century AFC. The written form of the language can still be seen in religious texts

decorating the walls and ceilings of Dryadic temples, and it is still studied in Eunomic

schools by both dryads and humans. Classical Dryadic is often compared to the use of

Latin and Greek in Europe prior to antiquity and well into modern years.

1 BFC (meaning «Before First Contact») is a calendar era using Eunomic years to record the date based
on the arrival of humans to the planet Eunomia, its adverse being AFC (or «After First Contact»). In
parenthesis is the approximate equivalent in accordance with Earth years and the Earth calendar.
2 The biology of dryads, unlike humans, prevent them from living outside of specific environments,
and, prior to first contact, there was never incentive for them to populate their entire planet and
migrate; thus, the dryadic domain and the diversity among dryads are not as grand as they are for
humans on Earth.

1.2. Typology

Classical Dryadic is often typologically categorized as an agglutinative

language. It can also be classified as slightly fusional. Its morphosyntactic alignment

is ergative-absolutive; however, unlike most other known ergative-absolutive

languages where the absolutive case remains unmarked, in Classical Dryadic the

absolutive case is marked. Its primary writing system is a featural alphabet consisting
of 14 basic symbols that form the basis of a total of 29-31 letters3. It has no distinction

of gender or noun classification, it has no articles, and there are only two noun

numbers: singular and plural. It modifies and inflects nouns, adjectives, pronouns,

numerals, and verbs depending on their role in the sentence. Its many noun cases are

divided into 5 groups: morphosyntactic alignment/relation, location, motion to,

motion from, and TAM (tense-aspect-mood). There is also a clear distinction between

transitive and intransitive verbs, which affects the basic word order of a sentence.

The basic word order of Classical Dryadic is OVS when the verb is transitive,

and SV when the verb is intransitive. Adjectives can go before or after the noun they

modify; however, the former is most common. Possessive nouns follow the noun they

possess, and numerals always precede the noun. It is primarily a head-final language.

3 The exact amount of letters depends on what one considers a letter in the Dryadic alphabet; this will
be further looked at in section 3.1.

2. Phonology and Phonetics

2.1. Dryadic Physiology and Speech

The organs and structures used in the articulation of dryadic speech are very

similar to that of humans. The dryadic mouth, throat, and nasal cavity bear surprising

similarities with human anatomy and allow for the production of many similar

phonemes. These phonemes are not exact. Dryads lack a bridged nose and have a

much smaller nasal cavity, which changes the resonance of nasal consonants and

nasalized vowels. Their teeth-like structures are also made of a woody lignin

substance slightly affecting the quality of frication with dental fricatives. The most

striking difference is in the lungs. Unlike humans, who have full control over the

inflow and outflow of air in their lungs, dryads’ lungs act as independent structures.

Their breathing is entirely involuntary, bringing in and expelling air in periods of

equal length. This causes all dryadic languages to be spoken in a manor of alternating

pulmonic egression and ingression.

2.2. Phonemes

There are 6 vowels, 1 diphthong, and 25 consonant phonemes in Classical Eastern


2.2.1. Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal


p b

f v








t d

θ ð

(l̪ )



ʃ ʒ


(t) (d)

s z




k g

x ɣ



The dental /n̪ /, /t̪ /, and /d̪ / are retracted to the alveolar /n/, /t/, and /d/ in certain

consonant clusters, such as /st/, /zd/, /ʃt/, /ʒd/, /ɾt/, and /ɾd/.

stoñ [stõŋ] ‘to plant’, ‘to speak’

twel [t̪ ʷɛːl̪ ] ‘many’

In the some dialects of Eastern Classical Dryadic, speakers may pronounce the

/ɾ/ as /ʐ/ or /ʂ/ when preceded by a non-nasal bilabial consonant, or followed by /t̪ / or

/d̪ /, which in this case, would become /t/ and /d/.

bruñ [bɾũŋ] ~ [bʐũm] ‘to give’

artym [ˈhaɾt!̃m] ~ [ˈhaɾtʃʲə̃m] ~ [ˈhaʂtʃʲə̃m] ‘full-moon’, ‘one’

In these same dialects, when /ɾ/ is preceded by a nasal, the nasal becomes a


nruth [nɾuːθ] ~ [dɾuːθ] ‘beautiful’

In some dialects, and later on towards Middle Meliadic Dryadic, /t̪ i/ and /d̪ i/

are retracted to /ti/ and /di/, and in some cases even palatalized to become /tʃi/ and

/dʒi/. The same is true with /t̪ ʲ/ and /d̪ ʲ/ becoming /tʃ/ and /dʒ/.

andin [ˈhandĩn] ~ [ˈhandʒĩn] ‘peach-like fruit’

tiaroñ [ˈt̪ ʲaɾɔ̃ŋ] ~ [ˈtʃaɾɔ̃ŋ] ‘to rip’, ‘to pull apart’

The same phenomenon can also result in the palatalization of /si/ and /zi/ to

/ʃi/ and /ʒi/.

sichros [ˈsixɾɔs] ~ [ˈʃixɾɔs] ‘now’, ‘at this time’

The phoneme /l/ becomes fronted to a dental /l̪ / at the end of a word. This also

happens when /l/ proceeds a dental consonant and when /l/ proceeds a labial or velar

consonant while following an open or mid vowel such as /ɛ/, /ɔ/, or /a/.

ñwel [ŋʷɛl̪ ] ‘yes’, ‘such’, ‘true’

mil’dherys [mil̪ ˈðɛɾɨs] ‘sea creature’, ‘aquatic animaplant’

palgise [pal̪ ˈgisɛ] ‘quickly’

Vowels never begin a word; instead, all words that seem to begin with a vowel,

actually begin with the phoneme /h/.

2.2.2. Vowels

aeryth [ˈhaɪɾɨθ] ‘earth’, ‘soil’, ‘food’

elath [ˈhɛlaθ] ‘elath flower’, ‘eunomic lilac’

uthyr [ˈhuθɨɾ] ‘random’, ‘unpredictable’

Front Central Back













The vowel /jə/ is a variation of /ɨ/ and can be found in certain dialects

palatalizing the consonant that precedes it.

izyn [ˈhiz!̃n] ~ [ˈhiʒʲə̃n] ‘strange’, ‘abnormal’
chwyn [xʷ!̃n] ~ [xɥə̃n] ‘sprout’, ‘child’

In one of its evolutionary branches containing Middle Meliadic Dryadic, /jə/

came to replace /ɨ/, palatalizing the consonants that come before it. Every vowel is

also nasalized when it precedes a nasal consonant.

chronzeñ [ˈxɾɔ̃nzɛ̃ŋ] ‘to love’
zuluñ [ˈzulũŋ] ~ [ˈzulũm] ‘perhaps’, ‘maybe’

2.3. Stress

The main stress of a root word in its null form is always on the penultimate

syllable. All root words in their null form can have no more than three syllables.

drís [ˈd̪ ɾis] ‘tree’, ‘word’

élos [ˈhɛ.lɔs] ‘nostril(s)’

sorélyñ [sɔ.ˈɾɛ.l!̃ŋ] ‘to comfort’, ‘to embrace’

When a root word is inflected with a case or TAM ending, the stress remains

on the penultimate syllable of the entire word.

dríse [ˈd̪ ɾi.sɛ] ‘to the tree/word’

drisíse [d̪ ɾi.ˈsi.sɛ] ‘from the tree/word’

elóse [hɛ.ˈlɔ.sɛ] ‘to the nostril(s)’

elosíse [hɛ.lɔ.ˈsi.sɛ] ‘from the nostril(s)’

crélen [ˈkɾɛ.lɛ̃n] ‘(it) doesn’t come/go’
creléno [kɾɛ.ˈlɛ̃.nɔ] ‘doesn’t (it) come/go?’
If a lexical suffix is attached to a root word, then the stress remains on the

penultimate syllable in both the null and inflected forms.

drísyph (dris + -yph)4 [ˈd̪ ɾi.sɨf] ‘young tree’, ‘sappling’

drísphe [ˈd̪ ɾis.fɛ] ‘to the young tree’

drisphíse [d̪ ɾis.ˈfi.sɛ] ‘from the young tree’
drísel (dris + -el)5 [ˈd̪ ɾi.sɛl̪ ] ‘dryad’, ‘sentient individual’

4 The suffix -yf indicates something young or juvenile.
5 The suffix -el indicates a sentient or conscious, usually humanoid, being. It can also be used to
indicated a ‘doer’ of something, similarly to the English suffix -er.

driséle [d̪ ɾi.ˈsɛ.lɛ] ‘to the dryad’

driselíse [d̪ ɾi.sɛ.ˈli.sɛ] ‘from the dryad’

When a lexical prefix is attached to a root word, then, if the root has one

syllable, the stress is on the last syllable. In all other cases, the stress remains on the

penultimate syllable.

zedrís (ze- + dris) [zɛ.ˈd̪ ɾis] ‘trees’, ‘words’, ‘language’

zedrísel (ze- + drisel) [zɛ.ˈd̪ ɾi.sɛl̪ ] ‘dryads’, ‘people’

shecréñ (she- + creñ) [ʃɛ.ˈxɾɛ̃ŋ] ‘to leave’
shethmiéryc (sheth- + mieryc) [ʃɛθ.ˈmʲɛ.ɾɨk̚ ] ‘yesterday night’

chrezhýl (chreth- + zhyl) [xɾɛ.ˈʒɨl̪ ] ‘tomorrow’

When a root word with a lexical prefix is inflected, the stress is on the

penultimate syllable unless the inflected word has two syllables, in which case the

stress would be on the last syllable.

zedríse [zɛ.ˈd̪ ɾi.sɛ] ‘to the tree’

zedriséle [zɛ. d̪ ɾi.ˈsɛ.l̪ ɛ]] ‘to the dryad’

shecrélen [ʃɛ.ˈxɾɛ.lɛ̃n] ‘(it) doesn’t leave’
shecreléno [ʃɛ. xɾɛ.ˈlɛ̃.nɔ] ‘doesn’t (it) leave?’
shethmiergíse [ˌʃɛθ.mʲɛɾ.ˈgi.sɛ] ‘since yesterday night’

chrezhlé [xɾɛ.ˈʒlɛ] ‘until tomorrow’

In the case of compound words, if the word has a total of two syllables then

the stress is on the penultimate syllable. The stress remains on the penultimate

syllable in its inflected forms as well.

mílaer (mil + aer) [ˈmi.laɪɾ] ‘water’

miláere [mi.ˈlaɪ.ɾɛ] ‘to the water’

milaeríse [mi.laɪ.ˈɾi.sɛ] ‘from the water’

If the compound word has three syllables – the first root in the compound

containing two syllables and the second root containing one syllable – then the

primary stress is on the first syllable and the secondary stress is on the third syllable.

When such a word is inflected, the stress moves to the penultimate syllable.

árzhy’drìs [ˈhaɾ.ʒɨ.ˌd̪ ɾis] ‘father’

arzhy’dríse [haɾ.ʒɨ.ˈd̪ ɾi.sɛ] ‘to the father’

arzhy’drisíse [haɾ.ʒɨ. d̪ ɾi.ˈsi.sɛ] ‘from the father’

If the compound words have three syllables, but the first root has one syllable

and the second root has two syllables, then the stress is on the penultimate syllable in

both in the null form and inflected forms.

bhzul’áryzh [vzu.ˈla.ɾɨʒ] ‘stupidity’

bhzul’árzhe [vzu.ˈlaɾ.ʒɛ] ‘to the stupidity’

bhzul’arzhíse [vzu.laɾ.ˈʒi.sɛ] ‘from the stupidity’

2.4. Phonotactics

A syllable in Classical Dryadic is structured as the following:


The following are all the viable onset consonants and consonant clusters in

Classical Eastern Dryadic. All words in Classical Dryadic must begin with a

consonant sound, specifically one of the primary consonants found to the left of the

chart below. The chart also lists every viable consonant cluster that can begin a

syllable or word in Classical Dryadic.

Secondary Consonants

























































































































































The /s/ and /z/ consonant clusters featuring a secondary nasal, stop, or fricative

can also take on a trinary (semi-)consonant of either /j/ or /w/.

snwor [snʷɔɾ] ‘song’

zdwesh [zdʷɛʃ] ‘tendrils’

The nucleus of a Classical Dryadic syllable is fairly straightforward as it

simply one of the 6 vowels or the one diphthong found in the language: /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɨ/,

/ɔ/, /u/, or /aɪ/.

The following consonants can act as a coda in Classical Dryadic, but only

when the syllable is at the end of the word: /p/, /f/, /t/, /θ/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ɾ̥ /, /l̥ /, /k/,

and /x/. If the syllable is in the middle of a word and the subsequent syllable begins

with a voiced consonant (i.e. when forming a compound word), then the consonants

become voiced: /b/, /v/, /d/, /ð/, /z/, /z/, /ʒ/, /ʒ/, /ɾ/, /l/, /g/, and /ɣ/.

pwezbhel (pwes + bhel) [ˈpʷɛzvɛl̪ ] ‘deciduous leaf’

phiadh’zeñ (phiath + zeñ) [ˈfʲaðzɛ̃ŋ] ‘to love, befriend’
If the subsequent syllable begins with an unvoiced consonant, then the

consonants remain unvoiced, except in the cases of /z/ and /ʒ/, which become /s/ and


shic’stoñ (shic + stoñ) [ˈʃikstɔ̃ŋ] ‘to yell’
myth’sieruñ (myth + sier + -uñ) [mɨθˈsʲɛɾũŋ] ‘sympathetic’

If a syllable beginning with a vowel (technically /h/) is morphologically

placed or ‘glued’ after a syllable ending in a coda consonent (either through inflection

or word compounding), then the /h/ is dropped and the coda becomes voiced except in

the case of fricatives, which remain unvoiced.

phiet [fʲɛt̪

̚ ] ‘floor’

phiedol (phiet + -ol) [ˈfʲɛd̪ ɔl̪ ] ‘on/above the floor’
mieryc [ˈmʲɛɾɨk̚ ] ‘night’

mierguñ (mieryc + -uñ) [ˈmʲɛɾgũŋ] ‘at night’, ‘during the night’

The nasal consonants /m/, /n/, and /ŋ/ can also end a syllable at the end of a

word. When a syllable follows a nasal consonant, and it begins with a single unvoiced

consonant, then the nasal consonant nasalizes to the same articulation as the

consonant, and that consonant becomes voiced (with the exception of /s/ and /ʃ/).

chiambesh (chiam + pesh) [ˈxʲãmbɛʃ] ‘perfume’

creñgrim (crem + crim) [ˈkɾɛ̃ŋgɾĩm] ‘memory’

This voicing also happens when the single unvoiced consonant is a stop and is

preceded by a vowel.

dhebaeros (dhewa + paeros) [ðɛˈbaɪɾɔs] ‘circle’

sidoche (si- + toch + -e) [siˈd̪ ɔxɛ] ‘precisely, exactly’

There are no geminate consonants in Classical Dryadic, so when two of the

same consonant end up next to each other, one of them is dropped.

chel’snwor (chelys + snwor) [ˈxɛlsnʷɔɾ] ‘thunder’

nusho’mil (nushom + mil) [ˈn̪ uʃɔˌmil̪ ] ‘doubt’, ‘mistrust’

3. Writing System and Romanization

3.1. Classical Dryadic Alphabet

Classical Eastern Dryadic is written using a featural alphabet, originating from

a part-logographic part-abjad script that was used to write Ancient Dryadic. The

alphabet is written away from the writer, from bottom to top in lines going left to right,
mimicking the growth of plants6. The Ancient Dryadic script was originally written
on the ground, in dirt, sand, or mud, using a stick or one’s finger7; however, by the

time of the Classical Dryadic languages, the written language had transferred to

colorful paints on walls and stone (using a brush or using a finger), and eventually to

ink on parchment (usually with a brush).

Phonetically speaking, the Classical Dryadic alphabet can be broken into 14

separate components that comprise the written language. The components come

together to form 29 phonetic letters, 21 consonants, 2 semi-consonants, and 6 vowels,

which are displayed in the chart below.


Full Name

Short Name IPA Romanization






pesh ‘pollen’



leph pesh ‘deep pollen’





thruch pesh ‘thin pollen’




lephthruch pesh ‘deep-thin pollen’




tos ‘spore’




6 For rendering and utility purposes, any written Dryadic in this grammar will be displayed left to right
like English using a modern Dryadic computer font except in the charts displaying individual letters.
7 Many of the remaining samples of Ancient Dryadic writting are preserved in hardened mud and clay.













leph tos ‘deep spore’




thruch tos ‘thin spore’




lephthruch tos ‘deep-thin spore’




cesta ‘pod’



leph cesta ‘deep pod’





thruch cesta ‘thin pod’




lephthruch cesta ‘deep-thin pod’




sun ‘leaf bud’



leph sun ‘deep leaf bud’





thruch sun ‘thin leaf bud’




lephthruch sun ‘deep-thin leaf bud’




ñeltosyc ‘left sporangium’
















rintosyc ‘right sporangium’



nilbhel ‘unfurling leaf’





nizbhel ‘unfurled leaf’




lot ‘flower bud’




wethych ‘sepal’




dwesh toscy ‘tendril of sporangium’




dwesh a ‘tendril a’



dwesh e ‘tendril e’

dwesh y ‘tendril y’

dwesh i ‘tendril i’

dwesh o ‘tendril o’

dwesh u ‘tendril u’

















As seen above, the letters pesh, tos, cesta, and sun all act as bases for their

‘deep’, ‘thin’, and ‘deep-thin’ counterparts. By adding an extra node below the base to

the left side of the stem, the node acts as the lebhem or a ‘deepener’ or even a ‘voicer’,

which voices the consonant. Another diacritic, a sort of squiggly line called the

thrughem, ‘thinner’ or ‘fricator’, can be placed to the left of the letter to make it

fricative. The vowels are simply made up of 3 distinct letters, and the side of the stem

it rests on determines its pronunciation.

The lebhem, however, does not only determine the voicing of one consonant,

but also the voicing of an entire string of consonants. For instance, the previously

mentioned example in 2.4 with pwezbhel, the lebhem with the leph pesh in bhel would

be moved behind the sun in pwes.

cpweS + cveL

pwes (‘fallen’) + bhel (‘leaf’)


pwezbhel (‘deciduous leaf’)

Additionally, the example using the word zdwesh would be spelled as follows:


zdwesh (‘tendrils’)

The letters are all placed on a poviath or ‘stem’ connecting all the letters of one

word or root word. All words begin with a shtol’poviath or ‘beginning stem’, and

words that end in vowels must end with an erys or ‘blossom’.







It is often debated whether these two characters should be treated as letters

themselves or as punctuation, resulting in confusion as to whether there are 29 letters

or 31 letters in the Classical Dryadic alphabet. A break in the stem is used to indicate

most compound words or contractions:

carJy ‘driS

arzhy’dris (‘father’)
cers ‘seN

ers’señ (‘to blossom’, ‘to like’)

There are three primary symbols used for punctuation in Classical Dryadic.

The following chart displays the punctuation, its Dryadic name, and the English




English Equivalent




dharomyph ‘small pause’

comma, semicolon

dharomyc ‘full pause’

period, exclamation or

question mark

chomyc ‘something that explains,

tells, or shares’

colon, quotation marks

The dharomyph is used to separate clauses or when separating individual

objects in a list, much like the English use of the comma. The dharomyc indicates a

full stop, usually the end of a complete sentence. The chomyc, however, can serve the

functions of both a colon and of quotation marks. It can be used to indicate a list of

objects, or to show that the following line of text is spoken aloud. The following

example sentence demonstrates the use of the three different kinds of punctuation:
cbex czedrisax cton cdaS , cNjer cdex
csjex czedrisax cstoM cbaS : cdux
cGrisex cg ‘arDelaex .

Be zedrisa ston das, ñier de sia zedrisa stom bas: du ghrise g’ardhelae.

I talked to her, but she told me that she really dislikes me.

(Lit. I talked to her, but she said to me this: I really dislike you!)

The dharomyc itself does not actually determine whether a sentence is

interrogative or exclamatory; that is done through suffixes and other cues in the

language itself. The dharomyc simply indicates the end of a complete sentence.

3.2. Romanization

The most popular and widely used romanization system of Classical Dryadic

is the Willis romanization, which was devised in 32 AFC by the human xenolinguist,

Enid J. Willis. Other systems of romanization were proposed by other linguists;

however, the Willis romanization proved the most effective at conveying both the

spoken and written language and eventually became the official romanization of the

Classical Dryadic language in scholarly work. The Willis romanization also proved

popular with native dryads as a method to write their own language using Latin


The Willis romanization uses 21 individual Latin characters: a, b, c, d, e, g, h,

i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, w, y, and z. The letter h, however, is used with base

consonants to represent the thrughem or the ‘fricator’. This creates 8 diglyphs

representing a single sound: bh, ch, dh, gh, ph, sh, th, and zh. When two voiced

consonants are in a consonant cluster, they are both written as voiced using the Willis

romanization. Another less popular romanization, the Branson romanization or

Branson transcription, assigns each sound its own letter and gets rid of the diglyphs

used in Willis romanization. Willis also devised a transliteration system, called Willis

transliteration, which marks voiced consonants with a dot above the voiceless

consonant mimicking the use of the lebhem in Dryadic orthography and includes

other features that mimic the language’s orthography. The following chart shows the

letters of the Classical Dryadic alphabet and their respective transcriptions and

transliterations in the three systems previously mentioned:

Letters IPA Willis Rom. Branson Rom. Willis Trans.



















































































































































The following example sentences show the three systems in use:
cpwezfelax cTela ‘Telax cnuCoN
caryM cnweTaL .

Spwezbhela thela’thela nushoñ arym nwethal.

Spwezvela çela’çela nušoŋ arym nweçal.

Spwäṡphela thäla’thäla nöshoŋ arim nwäthal.

(The autumn breeze softly tosses the deciduous leaves.)

cTaelax cpewaDax csmirinex carDesaf
chrosaf , csfuroL cfjulgoL cstoS

cwiM cbaS .

Thaela Pewadha smirine ardhesaph chrosaph, sphurol phiulgol stos wim bas.

Çaila pewaca smirine arcesaf hrosaf, sfurol fjulgol stos wim bas.

Thaäla päwaṫha smïrïnä arṫhäsaph chrosaph, sphörol phyölċol stos wïm ṗas.

(When the Great Peony came into the world, he resided upon a lush hilltop.)

Punctuation remains the same in all three systems; however, when using the

Willis romanization, especially in an informal setting, it is not uncommon to see the

use of question marks and exclamation marks in the place of a dharomyc, usually for

emphasis. Generally, the dharomyc is represented by a period, the dharomyph is

represented by a comma, and the chomyc is represented by a colon.

4. Nouns and Pronouns

4.1. Plural Prefixes

Classical Dryadic distinguishes between singular and plural nouns. The plural

form of most nouns is formed by attached the plural prefix s/z(e)- to the front of a

noun. If the noun begins with a single, unvoiced consonant, excluding s or sh, then the

prefix s- is used.

thoñyl ‘cave’ > sthoñyl ‘caves’

carys ‘shore’ > scarys ‘shores’

If it begins with a voiced consonant or a sonorants, excluding z, zh, or ñ, then

the prefix z- is used.

bwor ‘wall’ > zbwor ‘walls’

nweth ‘wind’ > znweth ‘winds’

If the noun begins with a vowel, then the noun remains unchanged and takes

on no prefix.

erys ‘blossom’ > erys ‘blossoms’

aeth ‘floor, level > aeth ‘floors, levels’

The prefix ze- is used in all other cases; when the word starts with s, sh, z, zh,

or ñ, and when the word begins with a consonant cluster.

shil ‘bed’ > zeshil ‘beds’

dris ‘tree, word’ > zedris ‘trees, language’

Some nouns are irregular and have no plural form. These nouns are commonly

used with numbers or other quantitative adjectives and act as ‘counting nouns’.

zhyl ‘day, days’ > twel zhyl ‘many days’

zbhel ‘step, stairs’ > clivuñ zbhel ‘some steps’

Few nouns still show traces of an archaic dual number prefix; however, these

nouns are now treated as a single entity instead of an actual dual noun.

cozhyl ‘two-day period’ > chrowa cozhyl ‘three two-day periods’

colun ‘two moon period, Dryadic month’ > dhel colun ‘two Dryadic months’

This archaic dual prefix can also serve as the plural form of some nouns. Most

such nouns are found in pairs of two.

ghas ‘hand’ > coghas ‘hands’

nrel ‘eye’ > conrel ‘eyes’

The plural and dual prefix historically originated from Ancient Dryadic

numerals. The ancient number two, [qɑluːjaɾ] in Proto-Dryadic (coyar in Classical

Dryadic), shortened to [qɑlu-] and eventually co- and fused with nouns to represent

the dual form, which was commonly used in Ancient/Pre-Classical Dryadic. The

ancient number three, [sɛpʰuːɾat̪ ʰ] in Proto-Dryadic (sphurath in Classical Dryadic),

shortened to [sɛ-] or se- and eventually s/z(e)- and fused with nouns to represent the

plural form.

4.2. Noun Cases

The Classical Dryadic language has a rich case system, similar to that of

Caucasian languages on Earth. Many of these cases, however, are formed through the

combination of 20 basic case suffixes. These basic ‘building’ suffixes are divided into

three groups: relational/essive suffixes, locative suffixes, and lative suffixes. The final

group is the vocative group, which is independent of the other case endings. The

following chart displays all the basic suffixes and their use:





– The normal, unmarked form of a noun



– The object of a transitive verb

– The subject of an intransitive verb



– The possessor of another noun




– An instrument or means of doing something

– Being in company of someone/something



– The lack of something



– A comparison with something






– A temporary state of being

– Concerning something/someone

– A general location, at something

– Around or near something





– The absence of something

– Located inside something



– Located outside something



– Located above something



– Located under something






– Located in front or before something



– Located behind or after something



– Located next to or beside something



– Located between two of something



– Motion to something











– Motion from something

– Motion through or along something

– Addressing someone familiar or younger

– Addressing someone unfamiliar

– Addressing someone of respect



– Addressing someone/something of annoyance

4.2.1. Relational and Essive Suffixes

The first set of suffixes expresses morphosyntactic relation and states of the

noun or pronoun. The following charts display the three personal pronouns of

Classical Dryadic and their plural counterparts in each of the relational and essive


Null Abs Gen Inst/Com Car Comp Ess-M

1st S.




1st Pl.




2nd S.




2nd Pl.




3rd S.




3rd Pl.




























In the following example, the noun durym is used to demonstrate the suffixes

attached to a noun and their approximate translation to English.












of the house(s)







with the house(s)


durmwen zdurmwen without the house(s), houseless




as/like the house(s)




as/concerning the house(s)

Notice that in this example, the y in the final syllable of the noun is dropped

when a suffix is added. This happens when the final syllable of a noun has the vowel

y surrounded on both sides by single consonants (not consonant clusters). This

‘disappearing y’ can reappear in other words, which have a second disappearing y,

usually from taking on a lexical suffix and then a case suffix.

durmyc (durym + -yc) > durimga ‘furniture’

ghorsyph (ghorys + -yph) > ghorispha ‘a type of instrument’

The penultimate syllable is stressed; however, the vowel y is fronted to i as

shown in the examples above.

4.2.2. Locative and Lative Suffixes

The locative and lative suffixes are used to the determine location, motion to,

motion from, and motion through something, and, thus, fill the role most adpositions

would in English. These suffixes can further combine to form even more suffixes,

specifying to where, from where, or through where the motion occurs.

Essive Lative Ablative Perlative

















































The locative suffixes can also combine with each other to form more specific

locations or postpositional suffixes.


Extra- Super-

Sub- Ant- Post- Apud-












-ophis -ophin -ophoch




















These compounded abessive suffixes are often used to clarify or reiterate

information on ‘when something is located away’ or ‘when it is not where it is

expected to be’, usually in agreement or disagreement with a question. For example:

Durmaph wiñ galno? «Are you at home?»

Dalen, durmis win dal. «No, I am away from home.»

Durmoch wiñ galno? «Are you outside the house (but still at home)?»

Dalen, durmochis win dal. «No, I am away from home (and thus not outside).»

The other compound suffixes are used to specify exactly where something is

located in relation to the object. Here are some examples:

Drisoph «under the tree (general)»

Drisophin «in the shade of the tree» or «the bottom of the tree (in its trunk)»

Drisophoch «underneath the tree (where its roots are)»

Durmath «at the front of the house (general)»

Durmathin «at the front (of the inside) of the house»

Durmathoch «in front of the house (outside)»

When the entire locative phrase fills a semantic or relational role in the

sentence or phrase, these locative suffixes can also be combined with the relational

and essive suffixes. For example:

Ibhinon eghros wim bal. «It is moist like the inside of (someone’s) mouth.»

Thoñlathocha gzan dal. «I see the way into the cave (the front from the outside).»

Thoñlathina gzan dal. «I see the way out of the cave (the front from the inside).»

The following is a chart showing the basic locative suffixes combined with the

relational and essive suffixes. The locative suffixes may also be compounded in

addition to taking on a relational/essive suffix as seen in the previous example.

Abs Gen



Comp Ess-M























-opha -ophy


-ophwen -ophon -ophuñ






















Most of the time these compounded suffixes fill the role of noun phrases and

adpositional phrases that would consist of several words in English, thus condensing

them into a single word.

4.2.3. Vocative Suffixes

The vocative case in Classical Dryadic has three distinct registers: formal,

informal, and vulgar. The formal is primarily used when addressing someone of

higher social order (i.e. one’s Mother, the eldest sister, an unknown foreign sister, etc).

The informal, is used in all other occasions (i.e. a friend, a younger sister, a daughter,

etc). The vulgar register is used when one is angry or displeased with someone and

similar to the use of the English word ‘fuck(ing)’ with a noun as an interjection. The

following are examples of each registers with approximated English translations:

Csalayoñ! «Dear Mother!»

Sworelayoñ! «Dear Sister!» or «Princess!»

Chwynae! «My child!»

Ghuvelae! «My sister!»

Adhmelizhem! «Stupid pig!» or «Piece of shit!»

Gruzhbhizhem! «Damned fiend!» or «Son of a bitch!»

In some instances the vulgar register suffix can be replaced with the informal

suffix in order to lessen its intensity or to retain some respect, as the vulgar ending is

deemed as extremely taboo. Typical nouns and even nouns that are often used with

the formal register can also take on the vulgar suffix in rare instances.

Adhmelizhem! > Adhmelae! «Piece of crap!»

Gruzhbhizhem! > Gruzhbhae! «Son of a gun!»

Chwynae! > Chwynizhem! «Damned child!»

Csalayoñ! > Csalizhem! «Damned Mother!»

4.2.4. Genitive Suffixes

When a noun is in its genitive form and is possessing another noun, the

genitive noun takes on certain suffixes that agree with the case marking of the

primary noun. The genitive suffix, however, does not agree with every suffix in a

compound lative or locative suffix on the possessed noun; it only agrees with the final



















erys drisely

ersa driselia

ersy driseli

ersu driseliu

erswen driseliu

erson driselion

ersuñ driseliuñ




-iaph ersaph driseliaph



ersis driselisy

ersin driseliin



ersoch driselioch



ersol driseliol




-ioph ersoph driselioph


ersath driseliath


ersus driselius



ersech driseliech



ersuñ driseliuñ





erse driselie

-(is)ie ersise drisel(is)ie


ersith driseliith











drisely ersae

drisely ersayoñ

drisely ersizhem

As seen in the chart above, the genitive form of a noun always follows the

noun that it possesses, except in the vocative cases. The reason the -is is optional in

the ablative form is because it is technically of a compound construction of the

abessive suffix combined with the allative suffix. In the null form, -i is used instead of

-y whenever the noun or pronoun has only one syllable in its genitive null form, most

likely through a disappearing y in the nucleus of its non-genitive null form.

4.2.5. Other Affixes and Adpositions

The infix -odh- is used to express ‘too’ or ‘also’, and is commonly infixed to

nouns and pronouns (before the case endings). The overall meaning of the sentence

and what is implied can change depending on which word it affixed to.

Dodhe win durmal. «I, too, have a house (you aren’t the only one).»

De win durmodhal. «I also a house (on top of the other thing I mentioned).»

Dodha mile crevial. «I, too, would like to go to the sea.»

Da milodhe crevial. «I would also like to go to the sea.»

Due to the extensive use of locative and lative suffixes in Classical Dryadic,

there are not many adpositions. The most common of these is the preposition, dho,

which combines with the genitive and absolutive forms of a noun to express either

causality or intent. When dho is used with a noun taking on the genitive suffix, then it

expresses causality or, more specifically, that the noun causes someone or something

else to do or be something non-volitionally. This is often translated as the phrase

‘because of’ in English.

Dho ñury aery, ers’señ zlotalen.

«The flowers do not blossom because of the winter weather.»

Dho gi, sichrosus de wiñ ghela shestol ebhalen.

«Because of you, I can no longer fall asleep.»

When dho is used with a noun taking on the absolutive suffix, then it

expresses intent and shows that the referent of the noun receives the benefit of the

situation expressed by the clause and, in most cases, is volitional or intended.

Dho ga, csale zedrisa ston das. «I spoke to Mother for you.»

Dho itra milaera, milbhishe crel win dal.

«I am going to the river for some fresh water.»

The use of dho will be discussed further in relation to dependent clauses in

Classical Dryadic and verbal phrases.

5. Adjectives and Adverbs

5.1. Adjectival Agreement

Adjectives take on agreement suffixes much like the genitive forms of nouns

take on extra endings in agreement with the noun they possess; however, unlike

genitive nouns, the adjective always precedes the noun it modifies. The following

chart displays all of the adjectival endings with each case and an example of an

adjective modifying a noun.












bhzul dris

bhzula drisa


bhzuly drisy









bhzulu drisu

bhzulu driswen

bhzulon drison

bhzuluñ drisuñ




-aph bhzulaph drisaph



bhzulis drisis

bhzulin drisin



bhzuloch drisoch



bhzulol drisol




-oph bhzuloph drisoph


bhzulath drisath


bhzulus drisus



bhzulech drisech



bhzuluñ zedrisuñ










bhzule drise

bhzulise drisise

bhzulith drisith

bhzul drisae

bhzul drisayoñ

bhzul drisizhem

When modifying a noun that takes on a compounded suffix, the adjective

agrees with only with the final suffix. If it modifies a noun with an agreeing genitive

suffix other than the genitive null form, then it takes on the same suffix as the noun.

Bhzulne durmine da cres. «I entered the large house.»

Spwezbhela ghria drisia nwethith zeral.

«The fallen leaves of the barren tree flutter through the wind.»

5.2. Forming Superlatives and Comparatives

To form the superlative and comparative forms of an adjective, suffixes

coming from certain locative suffixes are attached to the end. The superessive suffix

is used for the superlative, and a combination of the superessive and abessive suffixes

is used for comparatives. The reverse can be used as well with the subessive suffix,

taking on the meaning of «less» or «least». The following chart displays the suffixes

and examples of their usage:



Example Translation









-oph Anti-superlative


least sweet

-ophis Anti-comparative swarophis

less sweet

These suffixes are not in agreement with a noun and are in the null form;

therefore, if they modify a noun they must take on an agreement suffix.

Sphurola drisa gzan das. «I saw the greenest tree.»

Chwerolisin aerthin wadha mreston das. «I replanted the seed in richer soil.»

When using an adjective to compare one noun to a second noun, the second

noun takes on the essive-modal suffix, and the adjective can take on either the

superlative or comparative form. The following example demonstrates this


Guñ dachol(is) win dal. «I am taller than you.»

Pustochuñ twelise ghwinol(is) wim pustinal.

«Inside the forest is much safer than outside the forest.»

Zbhaluñ nruthoph(is) wiñ zbhermal. «Leaves are less pretty than petals.»

In such a construction the superlative form of the adjective is used more often

since the comparativeness can be implied from context.

5.3. Adverbs and Adverbial Suffixes

In order to form an adverb in Classical Dryadic, the ablative suffix is added to

the end of an adjective.

palyc «quick» > palgise «quickly»

sphur «green, good» > sphurise «greenly, well»

That adjective is then most commonly placed in front of the primary verb of

the sentence; however, its placement is not entirely absolute, as it can also be placed

anywhere in the sentence as long as it comes before the verb.

Zedrisa sphurise stom bal. «He speaks well.»

Palgise ga crevae! «Go quickly!»

A second adverbial suffix exists, -eph; however, it is considered fairly archaic

and is rarely used. It is mainly used with higher registers or speech levels, which will

be further discussed in the next chapter.

Zedrisa sphureph stom baloñ. «He speaks well.»

Palgeph ga crevayoñ! «Go quickly!»

Other adverbs may be formed from nouns through certain affixes, the most

common of which being the instrumental, carative, essive-modal, and the comparative


Arzhu peghos win dal. «I am very tired.»

Psomwen pses win das. «I was helplessly lost.»

Chrethmierguñ ghela ston dalen. «I will not sleep tomorrow night.»

Zuluñ ge win du elvise crel eval. «Perhaps you can come with me.»

Aertha bia pethchon flon das. «I accidentally ate her food.»

The essive-modal suffix may also be used to form adjectives from nouns,

which then may take on an adverbial suffix such as the ablative suffix.

Gruthchuñise ñures win di ghuvelas. «My sister was dangerously injured.»

Milaerolin siera ñul’cholsuñise zlegzan das.

«I dispairingly stared at myself in (the reflection on) the water.»

6. Verbs and TAM (Tense-Aspect-Mood)

6.1. Transitive Verbs and Tense Endings

In Classical Dryadic, there is a clear syntactical distinction between transitive

verbs and intransitive verbs. When the main verb is intransitive, then the sentence is

verb final. When the verb is transitive, the sentence is subject final, the verb is placed

before the subject, and everything else precedes the verb. Every verb, both transitive

and intransitive, has the infinitive ending -ñ. This ending is also used as a linking

suffix for transitive verbs. This linking suffix nasalizes to -ñ, -n, or -m according to

the first phoneme of the subject noun phrase that follows it. The subject noun then

takes on a tense ending; -(a)l for non-past and -(a)s for past.



First Phoneme




of Subject




c, g, ch, gh, ñ, s,


z, sh, zh, w, l, r,


a, e, y, i, o, u



t, d, th, dh, n




p, b, ph, bh, m


bzhañ gal

you do (it)

bzhañ gas

you did (it)

bzhan dal

I do (it)

bzhan das

I did (it)

bzham bal

s/he does (it)

bzham bas

s/he did (it)

When a noun is the subject of a transitive verb and takes on a tense ending as

shown above, then any genitives or adjectives modifying the noun must come before

the noun. The linking ending of the verb than nasalizes to the beginning sound of

whichever word comes first in the subject noun phrase. Genitives and adjectives

modifying a transitive subject noun are in their null-forms, unless the subject noun

has a locative suffix (which comes before the tense suffix), in which case they would

take on the locative suffix.

Arzhy’snwora zem vzul chwynal. «The small child laughed.»

Aertha sphen drisy zbhermas. «The tree’s leaf touched the ground.»

Cra bin di ghasusas. «The back of my hand hit the rock.»

The copula and auxiliary verb, wiñ (‘to be’ or ‘to exist’), which is used to

connect the subject with a predicate adjective, null noun, or locative noun, is always

treated as a transitive verb.

Ghir win nrazal. «The sand is dry.»

Sworel pusty win di ghuvelal. «My sister is the princess of the forest.»

Rozhiscin win das. «I was in the garden.»

The auxiliary and semi-transitive verb, dhwoñ (‘to become’), which is used

solely with adjectives, is also treated as a transitive verb.

Swarise dhwoñ aeral. «Spring is come.» («The air becomes sweet.»)

Chlebhise dhwom milaeras. «The water cooled down.» («The water became cold.»)

A similar verb, ardheñ (‘to grow’, ‘to become’, ‘to like’), which can take on the

meaning ‘to become’ as used with nouns, is generally treated as an intransitive verb;

however, in certain constructions, when it acts as an auxiliary verb, it is treated as a

transitive verb. This will be further looked at in a later section.

Transitive verbs can be used in their infinitive forms with the verb zeñ in order

to form causative sentences.

Be zedrisa ston da zeñ csalas. «Mother made me speak to him.»

Phthaena ledhoryn da zeñ ñul aeral. «The cold air made me close the door.»

Alternitively, the preposition dho with a noun in its genitive form can be used

to form a causative sentence.

Dho csaly be zedrisa ston das. «Because of mother, I spoke to him.»

Dho ñuly aery phthaena ledhoryn das. «Because of the cold air, I closed the door.»

6.2. Intransitive Verbs, Participles, Negation, and Interrogatives

Intransitive verbs, as previously mentioned, always come at the end of the

sentence in the past and non-past tenses. They lose their infinitive endings and take on

a tense ending.

Infinitive Tense Ending Example Translation







da crel

I go/come

da cres

I went/came

The past and present participles of both transitive and intransitive verbs are

formed in the same manner.

Infinitive Tense Ending Example Translation

Present Particple


Past Participle












The participles can then be combined with the verb wiñ to express the stative

passive voice and continuous aspect. The terminative prefix le- is optionally attached

to the past participle denoting a result or termination of an action; this distinguishes

whether it is stative or dynamic (more verbal prefixes will be discussed later).

Lebzhas wim bal. «It is done/over.»

Du (le)gzas wiñ gas. «You were (already) seen by me.»

Du elbhise (le)gzas wiñ gas. «You were seen together with me.»

Durmoch anul win dal. «I am sitting outside the house.»

Csalu zedrisa stol wim bas. «She was talking with Mother.»

The past participle can also be combined with the verb ardheñ (treated

transitively) to form the dynamic passive voice.

Shelunuñ (le)boras ardheñ swadhmelas. «The fruits were picked last month.»

Dusuñ mierguñ (le)rwes ardheñ zbhalal. «The petals get covered in dew every night.»

Haemu (le)bis ardheñ wilbhal. «The roof is getting hit by rain.»

Du (le)gzas ardheñ gas. «You were being watched by me.»

To negate a sentence, the suffix -en is placed after the tense ending. This

applies to both transitive and intransitive verbs.

Da mile cresen. «I did not go to the sea.»

Durmaph win dalen. «I am not at home.»

When forming a yes/no question, the suffix -o is placed at the end of the

sentence, and, when asking a negative question, the e in the -en is dropped.

Ga mile creso? «Did you go to the sea?»

Ga mile cresno? «Didn’t you go to the sea?»

Durmaph wiñ galo? «Are you at home?»

Durmaph wiñ galno? «Aren’t you at home?»

How to reply ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to such a question depends on the transitivity of the

verb. If the verb is intransitive, then the verb is repeated with the tense ending, either

non-negated for ‘yes’ or negated for ‘no’. If the verb is transitive, however, then the

pronoun of the subject is said with a tense ending; without the negative ending it

means ‘yes’ and with a negative ending it means ‘no’.

Ga mile cresno? ‘Did you go to the sea?’ > Cresen. ‘No.’

Durmaph wiñ galo? ‘Are you at home?’ > Dal. ‘Yes.’

«Wh…» questions are based around the inflection of the pronoun clibha. Such

questions do not take the interrogative suffix, as it is implied from the use of the

pronoun. The word clibha can also be used as an adjective to express ‘which’.

Clibha bzhañ gal? ‘What are you doing?’

Clibhe ga crel? ‘To where are you going?’

Clibhise ga crel? ‘From where do you come?’

Clibhu bhdhwores wiñ gal? ‘How are you called?’ (‘What is your name?’)

Di wiñ clibha durmal? ‘Which house is yours?’

Clibhin pustin sphureñ gal? ‘In which forest do you live?’

Most intransitive verbs can be made causative by simply treating them as

intransitive verbs.

Da durme cres. > Durme da crethañ csalas.

«I went home.» > «Mother made me go home.» («Mother moved me home.»)

Ba zlurys. > Ba zluryn das.

«She died.» > «I made her die.» («I killed her.»)

Zbherma zeral. > Zbherma zeran nwethal.

«The leaves flutter.» > «The wind makes the leaves flutter.»

Some intransitive verbs, however, require the use of the prepisition dho with a

noun in its genitive form to form a causative sentence.

Da znalys. > Dho gi da znalys.

«I jumped.» > «You made me jump.» («I jumped because of you.»)

Wuryl wim bal. > Dho di wuryl wim bal.

«She is crying.» > «I made her cry.» («She is crying because of me.»)

6.3. Irregularities and Dual-Transitive Verbs

When a verb in its infinitive form ends with a syllable containing the vowel y,

the y changes to i if a tense ending replaces the infinitive ending.

luryñ ‘to get/sit up’ > luril/s

Ba aerthise luris. «He got up off the ground.»

Two types of irregular verbs exist in Classical Dryadic – those that end in -elñ

and those ending in -ebhñ (both pronounced -uñ). Their transitive linking form is the

same as their infinitive form except for the nasalization of the ending. When put in

their intransitive past and non-past forms the infinitive ending is removed and

replaced with -u followed by the tense ending. This is also true for the construction of

the participles of such verbs. The following chart demonstrates this using two dual-

transitive, irregular verbs, bebhñ (to break) and belñ (to pull/stretch), which are

pronounced the same in their infinitive and linking forms.


Linking Non-Past Past



















Some verbs, as seen briefly above, can act as both transitive and intransitive,

often changing their meaning. Some examples of this are soryñ, chlebhyñ, creñ, etc.

Milaera soryñ zhor soral. «The summer sun warms the water.»

Da soril. «It is warm.» («I feel warm.»)

Cedhiuna crem bas. «He moved the box.»

Laerthe ba cres. «He went to the temple.»

6.4. Speech Levels and Honorifics

Classical Dryadic society was extremely hierarchical and the language reflects

this through its six distinguished speech levels or registers which are determined

based on who is talking to whom. These speech levels are primarily expressed

through suffixes placed at the end of the sentence after the tense endings. The highest

register is even further distinguished through separate vocabulary.







with deities, fathers, sacred trees



with mothers, elder sisters, warriors, strangers



with one’s self, friends, younger sisters, writing




with saplings, inferiors (mother > daughters)



with someone/something that angers you

The highest register, also called the ‘sacred register’, uses the suffix -aroñ. It is

primarily used when talking indirectly to deities, natural forces, father trees, or trees

revered as sacred and is commonly used in religious dialogue and rituals.

Artymisayoñ, bhedu s’arzha phsethameph thaelsebhayaroñ.

(Dear Artymis, guide me with your light.)

The next highest register is the formal register, which uses the suffix -oñ. It is

used when talking to one’s mother, elder sisters, warriors or other high-class dryads,

and strangers from another clan.

Csalayoñ, nezhluñ milbhishe da creloñ.

(Today I will go to the river, Mother.)

The middle or informal register takes on no suffix and is used when talking to

oneself, friends, younger sisters, and when writing.

Norbhalae, sichros cliva bzhañ gal?

(What are you going to do now, Norbhal?)

The middle-lower register, or subordinate register, uses the suffix -ish and is

used primarily by someone of higher standing talking down to someone of lower

standing, for example a mother talking to her daughters.

Di chwynae, clibhe aerthe ga crelish?

(Whither do you go, my child?)

Finally, the lowest register, otherwise known as the ‘vulgar register’, expressed

with the suffix -izhem, is used when one is angry or disgusted at someone. This

register is considered extremely taboo and disrespectful, and its use is thus limited in

everyday discourse.

Gruzhbhizhem, csala gia gruzyn dalizhem!

(Bastard, I will burn your mother!)

These speech level suffixes combine with other suffix endings. The following

chart shows some of the basic combinations of tense suffixes and speech level

suffixes. Notice, for instance, the e in the negative suffix -en disappears with the

addition of an extra ending suffix. Furthermore, many of the speech level suffixes do

not have a separate interrogative form.



















































Along with speech levels, Classical Dryadic also utilizes an honorific infix, –

tha-, which is placed on primary verbs. This honorific infix is only used when the

subject of the verb is a person of honor or respect (i.e. a mother, elder sister, etc.).

This also holds true when a pronoun is the subject of the verb, and the pronoun refers

to a person of honor or respect.

Rozhiscin ga gzathañ csalas. «Mother saw you in the garden.»

Ge zedrisa stotham babhial. «She wishes to speak to you.»

Some verbs, however, are irregular have entirely separate honorific forms or

counterparts and do not take on the honorific infix. These include verbs such as wiñ,

ardheñ, bruñ, and zeñ, which respectively have the honorific forms ithañ, chliseñ,

duthañ, and thañ.

Durme cres wim bal. > Durme cres itham bal. (She has gone home.)

Du sphurise g’ardhel. > Du sphurise ga chlisel. (I like you a lot.)

De ersa brum bas. > De ersa dutham bas. (She apologized to me.)

Du ers’señ gal. > Du ersa thañ gal. (I love you.)

6.5. Aspectual and Modal Affixes and Verbal Prefixes

Classical Dryadic utilizes special affixes that denote modality and aspect and

combine with the previously mentioned tense and speech level affixes. The following

chart denotes these affixes:





-bhia- N/V + -(a)bhia- + -l/s(en)

to want to



N/V + -(a)ya- + -l/s(en)

to have to, to ought to




N/V + -l/s(n) + -ium

just, only, simply



N/V + -l/s(n) + -iuch

to be about to

The volition affix denotes a desire or intention to do something and the

obligation affix denotes a necessity to do something or something that should be

done; they are both placed before the tense suffix.

Ge bhemila nuston dabhial. (I would like to tell you a secret.)

Ge clibhda duthañ csalabhias. (Mother wanted to give you something.)

Dusa zedrisa chelse ardheyal. (All trees must grow upwards.)

Durme mrecrem bayas. (She had to return home.)

The recent-perfect/simplicative suffix expresses that something recently took

place in the past, or that something merely is in a specific state or simply happens in

the present (and in some cases the past). The prospective suffix expresses anticipation

for a future situation. If the situation is referred to in the past, then the situation did

not come to pass. Both the recent-perfect/simplicative suffix and the prospective

suffix are placed after the tense suffix (but before the speech level suffix).

Durme lecres win dasium. (I have just arrived at home.)

Arzhu peghos win dalium. (I’m just so tired.)

Ba gzan dabhiasnium. (I simply didn’t want to see her.)

Aertha phlon daliuch. (I am about/going to eat dinner.)

Da cru bim basiuch. (She was about to hit me with a stone.)

Classical Dryadic also has several verbal prefixes which can function as both

derivational and inflectional prefixes:



Example (creñ)



lasting for only a certain amount of

time or temporarily


(to go for a




denoting an action done quietly or


calmly, possibly in secret

(to sneak/tiptoe)









denoting an action happening once


again, repeating an action

(to return)

finishing or bringing something to an



(to arrive)

starting something or beginning a


new action

(to leave/depart)



something that is ongoing or endless


(to never return)

The terminative/perfective prefix is often used with the past participle,

especially in passive constructions.

Durme lecres win dal. (I am come home/I have arrived at home.)

Lebzhas win thuñmal. (The work is complete/done.)

Lebzhas ardhen thuñmal. (The work is being done.)

Oftentimes the addition of this prefix is optional and may be left off. The

prefix, in these instances, is thus used for emphasis on the completion of the action or


Du elbhise (le)gzas ithañ csalas. (Mother was seen together with me.)

Csalu de (le)stos ardheñ zedrisas. (I was being spoken to by Mother.)

6.6. Emphatic Suffixes, Imperative Mood, Evidentiality, and Noun Clauses

Classical Dryadic utilizes special emphatic suffixes which are further used in

the construction of the imperative and an evidentiality suffix. These three suffixes and

their formulations are seen below:




Construction N/V + -(a)l/s +…

N/V +…

N/V + -(a)l/s +…





















The emphatic suffix is used when placing emphasis on the verb or action

being performed and when making an assertion. It can sometimes help to denote a

future activity that the speaker is certain will or will not happen. The suffix can also

be used when answering yes or no to emphasize or assert one’s answer.

Gu elbhise crelnae! «I will NOT go with you.»

Ba gzañ gasno? «Didn’t you see it?» > Dasnae! «No! I did not.»

The imperative is used for expressing commands or requests, including the

giving of permission and prohibition. The imperative mood is always used with the

emphatic suffix; however, the actual imperative mood is expressed through the

affixation of -(a)bh- in its construction.

Dwen ga shecrebhnae! «Don’t leave without me!»

De ñwela zedrisa stoñ gabhnish. «Do not speak to me like that.»

Ers’sen dabhayoñ. «I’m sorry.» («Please allow me to blossom.»)

The evidentiality or indirectivity suffix, which also uses the emphatic suffix in

its construction, is used to show that evidence exists for a statement. It is usually used

for stating something that is expected to be known or that it is obvious.

Shiera du ghrise ardhelarae! «I hate fire (and you know this)!»

De zedrisa stom babhialnarae! «He doesn’t want to speak to me (and you know this)!»

This suffix may also be used to create an indirect quotational clause or a noun

clause, when pairing it with verbs such as ston (to say/think), ñrun (to know), arzhin

melyñ (to hope), arzha (sieria) ghreñ (to worry), etc. When using speech level

suffixes, they apply only to the final or main verb, not to the verb that is part of the

quotational or noun clause, which takes on the neutral or informal emphatic suffix.

Csale zedrisa stom balarae stom bas. «She said that she will speak to Mother.»

Dusa sphurise ardhelarae arzhin melyn dal. «I hope everything will be fine.»

Ga zlurilarae ghren di arzhal. «I worry that you will be killed.»

The neutral or informal interrogative suffix can also be used to create an

indirect quotational clause or a noun clause, when paired with verbs such as ston (to

ask), ñrun (to know), arzhin ardheñ (to wonder), arzha ghreñ (to worry), etc.

Mile da crebhialo de stom bas. «She asked me if I wanted to go to the sea.»

Zdu elbhise aertha flom balo ñruñ galo? «Do you know if she will eat with us?»

Nezhluñ csala gzañ zdalo arzhin ardhen dal. «I wonder if we will see mother today.»

Emphatic suffixes can also be attached directly to adjectives to form an

interjection, usually to make an exclamation about something observed or to offer a

quick response to something.

Emphatic Suffix Example
















The following are some examples of adjectives commonly used with an

emphatic suffix and their approximate English equivalents.

Sphurae. «Nice!» «Well then.» «Okay.»

Ñwelae. «True.» «I agree.» «Yeah!»

Ghrae. «Ew!» «That’s not good.» «Uncool.»

7. Relative Clauses and Complex Sentences

7.1. Relative Clauses

Relative clauses in Classical Dryadic are always placed before the noun they

modify. When the relative clause uses an intransitive verb which is in the final

position, then the verb takes on a tense ending and the phrase is treated as an adjective.

The verb, thus, takes on case-agreement endings to agree with the noun that the clause


Drisiada drisoph dwes. > Drisoph dwes drisiat.

«The dryad stood under the tree.» > «The dryad that stood under the tree.»

Drisoph dwesa drisiada pushtaph gzan das.

«I saw a dryad in the forest who was standing under a tree.»

If the verb of the clause is transitive, and the noun being modified would

normally be the direct object of the phrase, then the tense-marked subject of the

phrase comes before the modified noun and takes on the case-agreement ending.

Drisiada pushtaph gzan das. > Pushtaph gzan das drisiat.

«I saw a dryad in the forest.» > «The dryad I saw in the forest.»

Pushtaph gzan dasa drisiada drisoph dwes.

«The dryad I saw in the forest stood under a tree.»

If the verb of the clause is transitive, and the noun being modified would

normally be the subject of the phrase, then the verb takes the tense and case-

agreement endings and comes before the modified noun.

Aertha phlon drisiadal. > Aertha phlol drisiat.

«The dryad eats (food).» > «The dryad who eats/is eating (food).»

Aertha phlole drisiade zedrisa ston dal.

«I speak to the dryad eating her food.»

Modal infixes can be used as well, and are placed on the same word that takes

on the tense ending in the phrase.

Aertha phlon drisiadabhias. > Aertha phlobhias drisiat.

«The dryad wanted to eat.» > «The dryad who wanted to eat.»

Aertha phlobhiase drisiade ba brun das.

«I gave it to the dryad who wanted to eat.»

Aertha phlon drisiadabhias. > Phlon drisiadabhias aeryth.

«The dryad wanted to eat (food).» > «The food that the dryad wanted to eat.»

Rawñu selos wim phlon drisidabhias aerthas.

«The food that the dryad wanted to eat was stolen by a rawyñ.»

Relative clauses in Classical Dryadic, however, may only modify nouns that

would take the place of the subject or direct object of the clause. It is impossible in

Classical Dryadic to relativize indirect objects and other states of nouns. Thus, when

commenting or providing extra information on such a noun, a separate independent

clause or sentence is necessary.

Bhiu drisiadu zedrisa ston das. Du ghrise b’ardhel.

«I spoke with that dryad. I don’t like him.»

(«I do not like the dryad with whom I spoke.»)

Genitives are also not relativized; however, they often do not require a

separate independent clause for providing relative information. Instead, the relativized

or modified noun (which would act as the subject or direct object of the clause)

inflects to the genetive case and acts as the possessor of another noun.

Drisiada, du sphurise ardhelia tharia, gzañ gaso?

«Did you see the dryad of the face I like?»

(«Did you see the dryad whose face I like?»)

Compare the above examples with th example below, in which the possessor

is switched with the possessed.

Thara, du sphurise ardhelia drisiadia, gzañ gaso?

«Did you see the face of the dryad whom I like?»

7.2. Conjunction Words and Constructions

bhil: This conjunction is used to connect grammatically coordinate phrases and word,

similar to the English use of the word ‘and’. In many cases, when connecting two

nouns, the instrumental/commitative suffix is used.

Aertha phlon dal, bhil csale zedrisa ston dal.

«I will eat dinner, and I will speak to Mother.»

Nruth bhil nor wim bal.

«She is young and beautiful.»

Shethmierguñ swadhu artema gzan das.

«Last night I saw the full moon and stars.»

Shethmierguñ swadha bhil artema gzan das.

«Last night I saw the full moon and stars.»

ñier: This conjunction is used to contrast two phrases, taking on the equivalent

meaning of ‘but’ or ‘however’.

Nizh mile da cresen, ñier crebhial.

«I haven’t gone to the sea yet, but I would like to go.»

Ba bhdhen dalen, ñier.

«But I don’t know him.»

zae: This conjunction presents alternatives when connecting words and phrases,

similarly to the word ‘or’ in English.

Ge win du elbhise crel zayal, zae ge win durmaph anul zayal.

«You can either come with me, or you can stay at home.»

Phiule zae mile ga crevialo?

«Do you want to go to the mountain or the sea?»

dho… -a: This construction is used to show a purpose or an intent for doing something,

taking on the meaning of «in order to» or «for».

Dho aertha flon dala, durme mrecresium.

«I returned home in order (for me) to eat (dinner).»

dho… -y: This construction shows a cause or reason for something, taking on the

meaning of «because» or «since».

Dho du sphurise g’ardhely, phiadhelon gion d’ardhebhial.

«I would like to be your friend, because we get along well.»

añ (though, although): This conjunction shows contrast and is usually associated with

doubt, similar to the words «though» or «although».

Añ sphurise ñrun dalen.

«I’m not really sure, though.»

Zuluñ chleph win durmochal, añ sphurise ñrun dalen.

«Although I don’t know for sure, perhaps it is cold outside.»

-is (ghaeris): This is another construction associated with contrast. It literally means

«away from the fact that»; however, it can be translated as «even though» or «even if».

It is often used alongside the previously mentioned añ conjuction.

Mirs’sen dalis (ghaeris), zaryph win dala irym balnae.

«Even if I smile, it doesn’t mean that I’m happy.»

Añ ga crebhialnaris, crebhialo crebhialno prechyn dalnae, ga creyal.

«Even if you don’t want to, whether or not you want to go is irrelevant; you must go»

Añ da ghusem baethalis, de wim phlol aerthalen.

«Even though I’m hungry, I don’t have anything to eat.»

-uñ (ghaeruñ): This construction is used for assessing or bringing up information and

making a conclusion about it. It literally means «concerning the fact that», but it may

be translated as «since», «inasmuch as», or «seeing as how».

Gu ghrise d’ardheluñ (ghaeruñ), ge zedrisa gilise ston dalnae.

«Seeing as how you dislike me, I won’t talk to you ever again.»

-in (zaerin): This construction is used to form conditional sentences, taking on the

meaning of «if… then». It literally means, however, «in the case that».

Sa chatha daereñ galin (zaerin), nruthise gzas wiñ galarae.

«If you adorn this flower on you, you would look beautiful.»

Durmaph wim basin (zaerin), ba gzan dasarae.

«If he had been home, then I would have seen him.»

a dho ñwel wim baly: This phrase is used to connect a sentence with a previous

statement as a logical conclusion of what was said, taking on the meaning «therefore»

or «subsequently». It literally means «because that is so».

A dho ñwel wim baly, pushta cholyñ zdayalarae ston dal.

«And therefore, I think that we should leave the forest.»

dho’si: This conjunction is similar to the previous phrase; however, it can be used to

directly connect two phrases in the same sentence. It literally means «because of this»,

but it may be translated as «thus», «hence», or «so».

Ñul wiñ aeral, a da dho’si chlebhil.

«It is winter; hence I feel cold.»

Da ghusem baethal, bhil dho’si aertha flon dayal.

«I am hungry, and so I must eat something.»

(-aph) chros(aph): This construction is used to connect two actions or events that took

place at the same time. It can be translated as «when» or «while», but it literally means

«at the time that».

Ñwel nruthise b’ardhesa gzan dasaph chrosaph, phthelis win das.

«When I saw how beautiful she had become, I was surprised.»

Aertha flon dal chros, zdhara syn dal.

«I chew my food when I eat.»

-e chrose: This construction expresses «until» or literally «until the time that (an even

or action occurs)» and connect it with another phrase.

Da shekrele chrose ga sebhubhae.

«Wait until I leave.»

De wim be zedrisa stol zayale chrose, siaerthe d’anulae.

«I will sit here until I can speak to her.»

-ise chrosise: This construction is used to express «from the time that (something

happens)» or «since» and connect it with another phrase.

Driselon d’ardhelise chrosise, ñwela nrutha chathia ghalvus gzan dasen.

«From the time I was born I have never seen such a beautiful flower (in my life).»

-uñ chrosuñ: This construction means «between/during the time that (something

happens)», and can be translated as words such as «while», «during», or «as».

Ghela ston dasuñ chrosuñ, arzhin g’ardhen das.

«I dreamt of you while sleeping.»

Mirs’sem baluñ chrosuñ, ba muluz-muluz wuril.

«Tears roll down her cheeks as she smiles.»

-ath (chrosath): This construction means «before» or «before the time that», and is

used to describe an even that happens before something else.

Da zlurilath (chrosath), chronela dia chiryn dabhial.

«I would like to meet the love of my life before I die.»

-us (chrosus): This construction means «after» or «after the time that», and is used to

describe an even that happens after something else.

Da ghuruñ mierguñ sebhasus (chrosus), phthilise durmine cres.

«After waiting all night I finally went inside.»

nae… (-en) nae… (-en): «neither… nor…»

Nae mile crebhialen, nae phiule crebhialen.

«I don’t want to go to the sea, nor do I want to go to the mountain.»

Nae conrela, nae cwaera syn dalen.

«I use neither my eyes nor ears. (I am oblivious.) (Leave me out of this.)»

-o… -no…: «whether or not»

Gu elbhise crelo crelno de wiñ legrul ebhalen.

«I can’t decide whether or not to go with you.»

8. Vocabulary and Phrases

8.1. Differences of the Sacred Register

8.1.1. Pronouns, Nouns, and Adjectives

The sacred register contains not only different vocabulary and phrasing, but

also an overall different grammar that retains several archaicisms from the Ancient

Dryadic languages. One of the most significant differences between the sacred

register and the other speech levels is its pronouns.



3rd Anim.

3rd Sacred 3rd Inanim.












thaelsu s’aryzh




thaelsu s’aryzh

cothaelys bhi’coyaryzh bhi’cothaelys






One of the most striking attributes of the pronouns is the retainment of the

archaic dual form. This is also applied to every other noun in the sacred register

through the prefix co(y)-. Because the sacred register is used exclusively to talk

spiritually to deities or other immaterial entities, the pronouns refer directly to one’s

heart or soul and to a deity or ‘great one’. The first person, s'(coy)aryzh, literally

means «this/these heart(s)»; the third person animate, bh'(coy)aryzh, means «that/those

heart(s)»; and the third person inanimate, si’bhda, means «this/these thing(s)»,

referring to object that lack a heart or soul. The second person is simply (s/co)thaelys

meaning «great one(s)», and the third person sacred is bhi'(s/co)thaelys meaning

«that/those great one(s)» when referring to another deity or great spirit.

The sacred register also retains a modified form of the archaic animate-

inanimate noun classification system, which distinguishes between spiritual nouns

(dryads, father trees, ‘spirited’ trees, deities, and flowers) and non-spiritual nouns

(everything else). The distinction between these two noun groups, however, is only

seen in the null, absolutive/oblique, and temporal noun cases. The following are the

seven basic, non-temporal noun cases used in the sacred register.

Spiritual Non-Spiritual




-a, –



-y (-i-)

-ae (-ay-)

















There are no locative or lative cases used in the sacred register. Instead they

are replaced with postpositions that are used with the oblique case of the noun and,

just like the locative and lative prefixes in other registers, can be compounded.

Preposition Example



durma aph

at the house












durma is

away from the house

durma in

in the house

durma och

out of the house

durma ol

ontop/above the house

durma oph

under/below the house

durma ath

in front of the house

durma us

behind the house

durma ech

next to the house

codurma uñ between the (two) houses

durma e

to the house

durma ise

from the house

durma ith

through the house

Adjectives agree with the case and classification of the noun they modify,

taking on the same suffix as the noun. If the adjective modifies a noun followed by a

postposition, the postposition may be duplicated and reiterated between the adjective

and the noun being modified.

sphura durym > sphurae durmae

nruth drisel > nruthy drisely

sphura durym + aph > sphura durma aph, sphura aph durma aph

nruth drisel + e > nruthe drisele e, nruthe e drisele e

Adjectives in the sacred register are made into adverbs exclusively through of

the suffix -eph.

ghyr > ghreph

sphur > sphureph

8.1.2. Verbs and TAM

Verbs also conjugate differently in the sacred register, retaining slightly

archaic attributes. The infinitive form of verbs end with -m; however, unlike the other

registers, it is not dropped when the tense endings are attached. Instead, the tense

endings, -el and -es, are suffixed to the end. This applies to both intransitive verbs,

which act as the sole carrier of tense in a clause, and transitive verbs, which, unlike in

other registers, accompany the subject noun in expressing tense in a clause. When

another suffix is overlaid on the tense suffix, the -m nasalizes to -ñ- and the -e- is

dropped; this includes adjectival agreement suffixes for the present and past

participles when modifying a noun. The subject of an intransitive takes on the suffix –

e/a in its absolutive form, while the subject of a transitive verb takes on the suffix –

e/a-, a tense ending -l/s-, and, of course, the speech register ending -aroñ.

The imperative construction acts in a similar way. The imperative suffix -eph

is attached to the end of the verb. In the case of an intransitive verb, once the

emphatic and register suffixes are attached, the -e- is dropped, -ph- vocalizes to -bh-,

and the -m- nasalizes to -m-. With transitive verbs, the nominal form of the imperative

suffix, -e/aph, is also placed on the subject noun, and when the emphatic and register

suffixes are added, -ph- vocalizes to -bh-.






Non-Past Finite

S-e/a creñlaroñ

O-e/a bzhamel S-(e/a)laroñ

Past Finite

S-e/a creñsaroñ

O-e/a bzhames S-(e/a)saroñ

Present Participle

cremel (creñl-)

bzhamel (bzhañl-)

Past Participle

cremes (creñs-)

bzhames (bzhañs-)


S-e/a crembhayaroñ O-e/a bzhameph S-(e/a)bhayaroñ

Other aspectual, modal, and evidentiality affixes are used as they are in other

registers. In the case of transitive verbs, however; with the exception of verbal

prefixes, these affixes are only affixed to the subject noun and not the verb.

8.1.3. Lexical Differences

Aside from the basic grammatical differences mentioned above, the sacred

register also has striking lexical differences from the other registers. In general, the

sacred register is spoken through the excessive use of metaphors, and many of the

lexical differences reflect this. Most of the lexical differences, however, only pertain

to certain types or classifications of words and phrases; two of such classifications

include family and hierarchy and abiotic natural entities and phenomena. *The abiotic

natural entities and phenomena class words may be used in other registers, but it is

not reciprocal; the sacred register may not use the words of other registers. This class

also ties in with the ancient Dryadic numerals, which will be discussed in the

subsequent section. The following is a list of such words with their English translation

and non-sacred counterpart:

Family and Hierarchy

cTaelyS thaelys – diety, great one (laer), father tree (arzhydris)

thael (great, important, divine) + -ys (intangible entity)

csaL sal – clan member, family member (ghubhel)

s(yñ) (use, employ) + a(r) (soul, life-essence) + -(e)l (together, shared)

carsaL arsal – father tree (arzhydris)

ar(y)- (first rank, white) + sal (family/clan member)

ckosaL cosal – mother (csal)

co(y)- (second rank, yellow) + sal (family/clan member)

csfisaL sphisal – princess, first born sister, mother-to-be (sworel)

sphi- (third rank, green) + sal (family/clan member)

chlisaL chlisal – sister, non-first born sister (drisel)

chli- (fourth rank, cyan) + sal (family/clan member)

csalyf salyph – youngling, young autonomous dryad (ñiuryph)

sal (family/clan member) + -yph (diminutive)

cwaDyk wadhyc – sprout, young unatonomous dryad (chwyn)

wath (seed, star) + -yc (object pertaining to)

csalot salot – clan, family (ghubhyc)

sal (family/clan member) + -ot (collective, group)

csaleDuNlat saledhuñlath – warrior, knight, protector (dhulath, dhumel)

sal (family/clan member) + -e- (ABS, connector) + dhuñl- (to protect, present

participle) + -ath (flower, something displayed)

csohaL sochal – stranger, member of another clan (ghubhochel)

s(yñ) (use, employ) + -och- (outside, foreign) + a(r) (soul, life-essence) + -(e)l

(together, shared)

carsohaL arsochal – father tree of another clan (arzhydris ghubhochy)

ar(y)- (first rank, white) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

ckosohaL cosochal – mother from another clan (csal ghubhochy)

co(y)- (second rank, yellow) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

csfisohaL sphisochal – princess from another clan (sworel ghubhochy)

sphi- (third rank, green) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

chlisohaL chlisochal – sister from another clan (drisel ghubhochy)

chli- (fourth rank, cyan) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

cpCoL csohaL pshol sochal – servant, prisoner (pthormel)

pshol (black, gray) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

cpTisohaL pthisochal – servant, prisoner (pthormel)

pthi- (seventh/lowest rank, black) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

cJeL csohaL zhel sochal – rogue sister, clanless sister (ghubhwenel, gruzhyph)

zhel (red) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

cgrusohaL grusochal – rogue sister, clanless sister (ghubhwenel, gruzhyph)

gru(zhy)- (rankless, evil, red) + sochal (stranger, foreigner)

chlisalot chlisalot – sister family unit within a clan (chronyc)

chli- (fourth rank, cyan) + sal (family/clan member) + -ot (collective, group)

cersalot ersalot – (one’s own) sister family unit (chronyc siery)

er(ys)- (blossom, love) + sal (family/clan member) + -ot (collective, group)

cersaL ersal – spouse, lover (chronel)

er(ys)- (blossom, love) + sal (family/clan member)

cersalyf ersalyph – adopted child, youngling (stomyph, chwyn, chronyph)

er(ys)- (blossom, love) + sal (family/clan member) + -yph (diminutive)

Abiotic Natural Entities and Phenomena*

cartyM artym – moon, full moon (lun, thael lun)

ar (first, soul, life-essence) + tim (ascent, dominion) > tym (non-stressed)

ckojar coyar – sun (sor)

coy- (second, yellow, day) + ar (soul, life-essence)

csfuraT sphurath – earth, life (aeryth, sphurem)

sphur (third, green, life) + -ath (flower, something displayed)

chelvar chelbhar – sky (chelys)

chel- (fourth, cyan, sky) + bhar (field of thin, permeable stuff; sea, sky)

csalyf chelvaryx salyph chelbhary – cloud (curyn)

salyph (youngling) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cGoryS chelvaryx nushom chelbhary – wind (nweth)

nushom (whisper) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cJer chelvaryx zher chelbhary – air, gas (aer)

zher (blood, sap) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cwuryM chelvaryx wurym chelbhary – rain (chaem)

wurym (crying, tears) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cGoryS chelvaryx ghorys chelbhary – thunder (chlisnwor)

ghorys (voice) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cCjer chelvaryx shier chelbhary – lightning (chlishier)

shier (flame, fire) + chelbhar (sky) + -y (genitive suffix)

cmilvar milbhar – sea, ocean (mil)

mil- (fifth, blue, sea) + bhar (field of thin, permeable stuff; sea, sky)

cmilvaryf milbharyph – river, lake (milbhish)

milbhar (sea, ocean) + -yph (diminutive)

cJer cmilvaryx zher milbhary – water (milaer)

zher (blood, sap) + milbhar (sea, ocean) + -y (genitive suffix)

cpyTmer pythmer – darkness, nothingness, absence, shadow (pyth, thamys)

pyth (nothing, darkness) + m(i)er (night, nightsky, space)

cgruJeL gruzhel – fire, chaos (shier, gruzhot)

gruzh (chaos) + zhel (red)

car’gruJeL ar-gruzhel – lunar eclipse (ghelun, gruzlun)

ar(tym) (moon, fullmoon) + gruzhel (fire, chaos)

ckoja’gruJeL coya-gruzhel – solar eclipse (ghelsor, gruzilsor)

coya(r) (sun) + gruzhel (fire, chaos)

csef’gruJeL seph-gruzhel – earthquake, eruption (ghors’aeryth)

s(e)ph(urath) (earth, life) + gruzhel (fire, chaos)

chel’gruJeL chel-gruzhel – storm, tornado (siur)

chel(bhar) (sky) + gruzhel (fire, chaos)

chel’gruJelux ckojar chel-gruzhelu coyar – drought (ghirys)

chel(bhar) (sky) + gruzhel (fire, chaos) + -u (commitative) + coyar (sun)

cmil’gruJeL mil-gruzhel – flood, tsunami

mil(bhar) (sea, ocean) + gruzhel (fire, chaos)

8.2 Numbers and Religion

The Classical Dryadic numbering systems are in base-7, meaning there are 7

distinct digits, 0 to 6, and 10 has the value of seven with a 1 in the seventh’s place

(100 would then be forty-nine and so on). This way of counting goes hand in hand

with Dryadic religion and their belief in the concept of Narot. The word Narot can be

translated many different ways ranging from “Life”, “the love and appreciation of the

universe”, or even “negentropy”. It is the inclination for living things to survive, adapt,

and maintain themselves and their environment. The opposite of this is Gruzhot, or

the inclination of nature to harm life, to prevent it from succeeding, and to struggle to

maintain order. For a dryad, especially in the Classical Period, life is a constant battle

between Narot and Gruzhot, and this is reflected in their seven deities, which in turn

affect their number system. Dryadic deities, however, are not personified as most

deities are in human religions; they are seen as faceless personalities or forces in place

on the universe that affect one’s life.

The zeroth deity, referred to as Sphedaris, encompasses everything; she is the

deity of light and infinity, the Great Mother or Thael Csal of the universe, and is

considered the White Mother or Chwar Csal. She is neither of Narot nor of Gruzhot.

Deities one through six, however, are all of Narot, and their power over the universe

dwindles the larger the number they are assigned. Artymis is the first deity, the deity

of the moon, and is known as the White Sister or Chwar Chwyn, the most powerful

deity of Narot. Coyaris is the second deity, the deity of the sun, and is commonly

called the Yellow Sister or Cor Chwyn. The third deity is Sphurathis, or the deity of

earth, and is known as the Green Sister, or Sphur Chwyn. Chelbharis is the fourth

diety, the diety of the sky, and the Cyan Sister or Phabharyn Chwyn. The fifth diety is

Milbharis, the diety of the sea, and is known as the Blue Sister or Zabharyn Chwyn.

The sixth and final diety of Narot is Pythmeris, the diety of nothingness and darkness,

and is also called the Black Sister or Pshol Chwyn.

The seventh deity is Gruzchelis, the deity of fire, death, and chaos. She is

often referred to as the Red Sister or Zhel Chwyn and is the only deity of Gruzhot. She

is more powerful than the other deities of Narot and is constantly trying to manipulate

them, as well as other living things. In Classical Dryadic, Gruzhelis and the other

dieties are commonly referred to when talking about destructive forces of nature. In

the case of a heavy thunderstorm, for example, in Classical Dryadic one might say the


Snwora chelsia gruzil wiñ Gruzhelisal.

«Gruzcelis is disrupting/burning the song of the sky (of Chelbharis).»

Chelbharisu zedrisa stol wiñ Zhel Chwynal.

«The Red Sister is speaking with Chelbharis.»

There are two primary numbering systems in Classical Dryadic, both of which

reflect the dieties and the numbers associated with them. The most basic and oldest

numbering system is the Ancient Dryadic numbering system, as seen below:

Numeral Long Name Short Name Ordinal Form Number

0 csfedar













2 ckojar






3 csfuraT






4 chelvar











5 cmilvar






6 cpyTmer






7 cgruJeL









The seventh number, gruzh or gruzhel, can never be used on its own. Since

seven is treated as the number of Gruzhelis, the number of Gruzhot, it is necessary to

place a number of Narot alongside it to ‘balance the forces’. Hence, the number seven

would be ar-gruzhel. Thus, for numbers seven and above, a number of Narot is placed

below (in front of) Gruzhel for the sevens’ place, and to add the ones’ place another

number of Narot may be placed above (after) the pair. For pronouncing such a

number, the sevens’ place number of Narot takes on its short name and combines with

Gruzhel. For the ones’ place, the commitative suffix -u is placed on Gruzhel and the

long name of the ones’ place number of Narot is used. Here are some examples:



Number7 Number10






571 cmil’gruJelux carteM

Mil-Gruzhelu Artem



473 chel’gruJelux csfuraT

Chel-Gruzhelu Sphurath



676 cpyT’gruJelux cpyTmer

Pyth-Gruzhelu Pythmer



To go to higher place values than the sevens’ place, Sphedar is used to

represent forty-nine (or 100 in base-7). Sphedar, as mentioned above, represents zero;

however, in another sense, it also represents infinity and encompasses all of the other

numbers or elements of the deities. Thus, once all of the elements have surpassed

their numerical ‘power’ (having reached 667 or 4810), Sphedar may be used to restore

that power to a higher place value. Sphedar, similarly to Gruzhel, cannot be used on

its own as it requires a number of Narot to give it value. Therefore, the number 1007

or forty-nine, for example, would be ar-sphedar. The following chart displays more

examples of numbers using Sphedar as a higher place value holder:



Number7 Number10















Seph-Sphedaru Coya-

Gruzhelu Chelbhar





Ar-Gruzhelu Sphedar



Coya-Gruzhelu Mil-






Chel-Gruzhelu Pyth-

Sphedaru Ar-Gruzhelu






The Ancient Dryadic numerals are only known to go up to 9,9997 (240010). It

is thought, however, that they could go higher through the use of Sphedar, although it

would be very inconvenient and lengthy. The Ancient Dryadic numbering system is

primarily used as morphological roots in many (compound) words, as metaphorical

references to the Dryadic deities and their elements, and in their ordinal forms as

ordinal numbers. The number, Chel-Gruzhelu Sphurath, for example, could

alternatively be interpreted as “in the wake of a tempest comes new life” or even

“after hardship will come ease”.

As discussed previously with the deities of Narot, Dryads think of the numbers

(as associated with their respective deity) as taking away from a greater value the

larger the number. Therefore, even though the number 6 or Pythmer describes a larger

quantity than 1 or Artem, from a Dryadic point of view it is the opposite. Zero is the

equivalent of infinity, or the largest number of value that contains all the other

numbers, while one is the equivalent of one taken away from that infinity, or one

away from the zero. Six is the weakest number, or rather, the number of Narot farthest

away from zero. From there, the seventh number of Gruzhot is used to move further

away from zero or Sphedar, and once the Sphedar has been fully depleted of

numerical value, a new Sphedar or infinity is introduced to replenish or go to a higher

place value. This is the logic that Dryadic numerals follow.

When, for example, there are two objects, from a Dryadic perspective there

are not ‘two objects filling a space’, but rather ‘four objects missing from a greater

quantity of Narot (six)’. When Gruzhel is added, it represents a complete set of the six

numbers of Narot combined with the number of Gruzhot (which is equivalent in

power to the combined six numbers of Narot). The number in front of Gruzhel

indicates how many of these sets away from a complete set of these sets the overall

number is. The number, Chel-Gruzhelu Sphurath, for example, which is the

equivalent of 437 (3110), would be thought of as ‘two sets missing from a full set of six

sets plus three missing from a full set of six’. This logic then continues through with

each place value.

Another Dryadic Numeral system, called the «Chaembhalic number system»

(Chaembhaluñ Wilyc zLae’bhermy) or sometimes the «Neo-Dryadic number system»

(Noph Wilyc zLae’bhermy), was created in the Classical Period by Meliad scholar,

Zhelaer Chaembhal. This system followed similar logic to the original, Ancient

Dryadic system, but proved much more efficient for everyday use and quickly became

widespread among dryads. It also helped with the advent of algebra and the

development of more complex mathematics in the Classical period.

The Chaembhalic system is based off of the plucking of petals from a flower.

A full, six-petaled flower is zero or a complete set, a flower of Sphedar, and a bare,

petalless flower is six, a flower of Pythmer. There are two types of numerals; low

order numerals, or flowers, which are used to represent the lower place values, and

high order numerals, or stems, which are used for the highest place value in a numeral

containing more than one place value. The following chart shows the low and high

order numerals and their basic names:

Low Order High Order


































$ % ^ The number seven is pronounced as bhaer, and, just like Gruzhel in the Ancient system, it cannot stand on its own. Since bhaer is treated as the number of Gruzhot, a number of Narot must be planced in front of it to balance it and to represent a complete set. Hence, the number seven would actually be said as bza’bhaer or literally “one-seven”. The -r in bhaer is dropped when followed by a number in the ones’ place, making numbers 117 (810) through 167 (1310), for example, be pronounced as bza’bhae bza, bza’bhae dcel, bza’bhae chrowa, and so on. Numbers siuñ and dhañ are also nazalized to sium and dham when combined with bhaer. The following table displays some examples of numbers higher than 10 (7) using Chaembhalic numerals: Numerals Pronunciation Number7 Number10 0 ! 1 % 3 $







cDam’vaex cbsax

dham’bhae bza



csjum’vaex chrowax

sium’bhae chrowa



craw’vaex crawax

raw’bhae rawa



In the place of Sphedar, special words are used to attain higher place values

that have specific values assigned to them. These words up the place value by
magnitudes of 7 starting with bhel (102
or 74

10), from whence it goes up in magintudes of 74 with con (108
7 or 712

10). These words are treated in the same manor as bhaer and require a

10), bhir (103

10), and then on (104

10) and zon

7 or 78

7 or 73

7 or 72


number of Narot to preced them. Other place values between on, con, and zon and
beyond can be expressed through compounding the words to create bhaeron (105
7 or 77
or 710
bhizon (1015

7 or 76
10), bhicon (1011

10), bhiron (107
7 or 711

10). These compounds, however, are broken up when an individual

7 or
10), bhelcon (1010

10), bhaezon (1013

10), bhelzon (1014

10), bhaecon (109

10), bhelon(106

7 or 715

7 or 713

7 or 714

10), and

7 or 79


number other than 0 fills the individual place values. For example, the number

100,0007 would be pronounced as bza’bhaeron, while the number 110,0007 would be

pronounced bza’bhae bza’on, splitting the bhaeron into bhae(r) and on. The following

table gives more examples of large numbers written with Chaembhalic numerals and

their respective pronunciations:






cDam’vix craw’veL

cbsa’vaex cbsax

dham’bhi raw’bhel bza’bhae bza










craw’vix cDaN’on

chrow’vix cDel’vaer

raw’bhi dhañ’on chrow’bhi


csjum’vaex cDel’kon

cDam’viron csjum’vix


chrow’veL cDam’vaex



sium’bhae dhel’con dham’bhiron

sium’bhi chrow’bhel dham’bhae bza



42,5000,4351 177,063,300

When finger-counting, dryads use their right thumb to count each finger on

their right hand and the spaces in between starting with their left most finger. Once

seven or the pointer-finger is reached, they immediately cancel it out by raising their

left thumb to their right most finger on their left hand. The left hand is then used to

keep track of the sevens’ place, as the right hand continues with the ones’ place. The

number zero is expressed by extending all four fingers and the thumb outwards away

from the palm.

Similar to the popular human use of holding up one’s middle finger as an

insult, a dryad might place their thumb against their pointer finger on their right hand

and point to someone to express extreme disgust towards them. This is virtually the

same as telling them “you should burn” or “you deserve to die a painful death”.

8.3 Mimetic Words

cTela’Telax thela-thela – softly blowing; soft breeze; whispering

cmuluz’muluZ muluz-muluz – falling water; plopping rain drops

ckaraes’karaeS caraes-caraes – twinkling; sparkling

cTelyk’Telyk thelyc-thelyc – floating down; falling of leaves; one by one

cvaela’vaelax bhaela-bhaela – flowing; flowing river; fluid

cvjule’vjulex bhiule-bhiule – fill with water; teary eyes

cbelym’belyM belym-belym – stem rising; growing fast/strong

cDonda’Dondax dhonda-dhonda – rumbling; thunder; earthquake

cgalyk’galyk galyc-galyc – laughing loudly; sound of laughing happily

cseguN’seguN seguñ-seguñ – step-by-step, methodically

cThoha’Thohax thchocha-thchocha – coughing; hacking

cGuluN’GuluN ghuluñ-ghuluñ – gulping; chugging

cpalyk’palyk palyc-palyc – franticly; in a hurry

chilys’hilyS chilys-chilys – tossing and turning; unable to sit still

cnoNgo’noNgox noñgho-noñgho – snoring; snort

chowluN’howluN chowluñ-chowluñ – moaning; yawn

8.4 Flowers, Plants, and Fungi

caeDeL aedhel – angiosperm, fruit-producing or flowering plant or animaplant

cGymneL ghymnel – gymnosperm, plant or animaplant that reproduce with

exposed seeds

chaT chath – flower, bloom (of a plant or adult animaplant)

:-aT -ath – suffix for indicating the flower of a plant or adult animaplant (the

dryads’ classification of flowers, fruits, and other structures is based on
appearance and is independant of the organisms actual taxonomy8)

crawaT rawath – Eunomic lily, flower of plants in the Rawiceae family, flower

of an adult animplant in the rawidae family

cdrisaT drisath – hamadryadic flower, general term for flowers found on trees,

especially trees that share similar evolutionary ancestery with dryads (they

release pheromones that in some species would have acted as a form of

8 The taxonomy was first developed by human xenobiologists with the first wave of human explorers
during first contact. First attempts took known taxa from Earth and applied it to Eunomic organisms,
placing an (E) after the nomenclature for ‘Eunomic’. This, however, proved inefficient and confusing.
Biologists, thus, began taking roots from the Dryadic language(s) and suffixes from traditional Terran
taxonomy to create the Eunomic taxonomy in current use.

communication between other individuals of its species; dryads can still

sense this very weakly, and often interpret it as spirits in the trees)

cstelaT stelath – Eunomic chickweed, flower of an adult animaplant in the

family Stelidae

candaT andath – Eunomic peach blossom, flower of certain trees in the

Handaceae family

ckeraT cerath – Eunomic cherry blossom, flower of certain trees in the

Handaceae family

cmaelaT maelath – Eunomic pear blossom, flower of certain trees in the

Handaceae family and tetraclades of the Maelidae family

cNulaT ñulath – Eunomic camellia, flower of plants in the Nhulaceae family

cpewaT pewath – Eunomic peony, large flower of plants in the Pewaceae family

chworaT chworath – Eunomic orchid, flower of plants in the Churaceae family

cvozaT bhozath – Eunomic rose, flower of plants in the Vozaceae family

clunaT lunath – Eunomic moon flower, flower of plants in the Lunaceae family

csworaT sworath – Eunomic bellflower, flower of plants in the Suraceae family

cDulaT dhulath – flower of certain plants in the Handaceae family

cramaT ramath – flower of certain plants in the Vaeseceae family

cfolaT pholath – flower of plants in the Pholeceae family

clawraT lawrath – flower of certain plants in the Vanaceae family

cvanaT bhanath – flower of certain plants in the Vanaceae family

carmaT armath – flower of certain plants in the Harmaceae family

cvalaT bhalath – flower of certain plants in the Valaceae family

cDesaT dhesath – flower of certain plants in the Vaesaceae family

cvaesaT bhaesath – flower of certain plants in the Vaesaceae family

cribaT ribath – flower of certain plants in the Vaesaceae family

cDeksaT dhecsath – flower of certain plants in the Vaesaceae family

canaT anath – flower of certain plants in the Harmaceae family

cJoraT zhorath – flower of plants in the Zhoraceae family

cruTaT ruthath – flower of certain plants in the Thelaceae family

cnakaT nacath – flower of plants in the Nacaceae family

csapaT sapath – flower of certain plants in the Valaceae family

csolaT solath – flower of plants in the Solaceae family

czelaT zelath – flower of certain plants in the Havaceae family

ctrelaT trelath – flowers of plants in the Trelaceae family

cavaT abhath – flower of certain plants in the Havaceae family

cTelaT thelath – flower of certain plants in the Thelaceae family

cDakaT dhacath – flower of certain plants in the Havaceae family

cwaT wath (dh) – seed, star, goal, dream

cwaDmeL wadhmel – seed carrier; fruit, been pod, graid

:-in -in – suffix for indicating the wadhmel of a plant or animaplant

cmaelin maelin – Eunomic apple/pear, fruit of certain trees in the Handaceae

family and adult tetraclades of the Maelidae family

candin andin – Eunomic peach, fruit of certain trees in the Handaceae family

cDulin dhulin – Eunomic plum, fruit of certain trees in the Handaceae family

ckerin cerin – Eunomic cherry, fruit of certain plants in the Handaceae family

cramin ramin – Eunomic jujube, fruit of certain plants in the Vaesaceae family

cfolin pholin – Eunomic olive, fruit of plants in the Pholaceae family

clawrin lawrin – Eunomic guava, fruit of some plants in the Vanaceae family

cvanin bhanin – Eunomic banana, fruit of some plants in the Vanaceae family

carmin armin – Eunomic citrus fruit, Eunomic lemon, fruit of some plants in the

Harmaceae family

cvalin bhalin – Eunomic grape, fruit of some plants in the Valaceae family

cDesin dhesin – Eunomic date, fruit of some plants in the Vaesaceae family

cvaesin bhaesin – Eunomic cranberry, fruit of some plants in the Vaesaceae


cribin ribin – Eunomic currant, fruit of some plants in the Vaesaceae family

cDeksin dhecsin – Eunomic coconut, fruit of some plants in the Vaesaceae


canin anin – Eunomic pineapple, fruit of some plants in the Harmaceae family

cJorin zhorin – Eunomic pomegranate, fruit of plants in the Zhoraceae family

cruTin ruthin – Eunomic kiwi, fruit of some plants in the Thelaceae family

cnakin nacin – Eunomic mango, fruit of plants in the Nacaceae family

csapin sapin – Eunomic lychee or nut, fruit of some plants in the Valaceae


csolin solin – Eunomic tomato, fruit of plants in the Volaceae family

czelin zelin – Eunomic corn, fruit of some plants in the Havaceae family

ctrelin trelin – Eunomic wheat or rice, fruit of plants in the Trelaceae family

cavin abhin – Eunomic sunflower seeds, fruit of some plants in the Havaceae


cTelin thelin – Eunomic melon, fruit of some plants in the Thelaceae family

cDakin dhacin – Eunomic cumin, fruit of some plants in the Havaceae family

ckapsin capsin – Eunomic pepper, fruit of plants in the Capsaceae family

cgryvin grybhin – Eunomic pepper, fruit of plants in the Gryvaceae family

cwylmeL wylmel – stem and leaves of a plant, body, vegetable

:-aen -aen – suffix indicating the wylmel of a plant or animaplant

cbrakaen bracaen – Eunomic cabage, wylmel of plants in the Bracaceae family

cavaen abhaen – Eunomic lettuce, wylmel of some plants in the Havaceae family

cGolaen gholaen – Eunomic onion, wylmel of plants in the Gholaceae family

cDakaen dhacaen – Eunomic parsely, wylmel of some plants in the Havaceae


cmuskaen muscaen – wylmel of plants in the Musciceae family

cfjetmeL phietmel – tuber or root of a plant

:-eS -es – suffix indicating the phietmel of a plant

csoleS soles – Eunomic potato, root of plants in the Solaceae family

cDakeS dhaces – Eunomic carrot, root of some plants in the Havaceae family

cziNeS ziñes – Eunomic ginger, root of plants in the Zinhaceae family

ckoveS cobhes – root of plants in the Covaceae family

cbaTeS bathes – Eunomic beet, root of plants in the Bathaceae family

cpaneS panes – root of plants in the Panaceae family

cbrakeS braces – Eunomic raddish, root of plants in the Bracaceae family

cGoleS gholes – Eunomic garlic, root of plants in the Gholaceae family

cnalmeL nalmel – polinator, flyer

cfjot phiot – fungus, fungi

:-ot -ot – suffix indicating fungi (usually based on their symbiotic plant partner)

cpuCot pushot – mushroom (general)

cbrakot bracot – species of gilled mushroom commonly found on plants in the

Bracaceae family; a delicacy among dryads yet highly toxic to humans

cavot abhot – a type of fungal mycelia that is found on the leaves of some plants

in the Havaceae family

cGolot gholot – Eunomic puffball; a group of white, stockless mushroom with a

closed cap that usually are found near or on the roots of plants in the

Gholaceae family; some are edible for both dryads and humans, others are not

cpanot panot – species of capless mushroom with a large, encompassing volva

found on roots of plants in the Panaceae family; highly toxic to dryads yet

harmless to humans

cdriS dris – tree

cpuCtax pushta – forest, collection of trees and other plants

croJiskax rozhisca – garden, collection of plants used for food or decoration

cnyp nyp – general word for moss

ckat cat – general word for bush

cveryM bherym – collection of leaves, hair, feathers

cveryN bheryñ – (intrans.) to leaf out, to produce new leaves, to prosper

cveL bhel – leaf

cniN nyñ – (intrans.) to unfurl, to unroll

cnilveL nilbhel – unfurling leaf

cnizfeL nizbhel – unfurled leaf

cpweN pweñ – (intrans.) to fall, to fall off, to seperate from

cpweN pweñ – (trans.) to cut off, to absciss

cpwezfeL pwezbhel – deciduous leaf, fallen leaf

crweM rwem – dew drops, morning dew

crweN rweñ – (intrans.) to get covered in (morning) dew drops

crwezfeL rwezbhel – dew-covered leaf

cpeF pesh – pollen

ctoS tos – spore

ctosyk tosyc – sporangium

ckestax cesta – pod

csun sun – (leaf) bud

clot lot – (flower) bud

cvaL bhal – flower petal

cpwezfaL pwezbhal – fallen flower petal

crwezfaL rwezbhal – dew-covered petal

cweTyh wethych – sepal

cdweF dwesh (zh) – tendril

carDeN ardheñ – (intrans.)

ceryS erys – flower, blossom (of an atonomous dryad or non-adult animaplant)

cers’seN ers’señ – (trans.) to blossom, to produce a blossom

8.5 Animaplants

csjuN’Gasyk siuñ’ghasyc – fruit-bearing animaplants that generally live on

land and have four limbs; Tetraclada, tetraclade

:-yk -yc – suffix generally denoting tetraclades that live above the ground

:-yN -yñ – suffix generally denoting tetraclades that live in burrows underground

:-yn -yn – suffix generally denoting horse-like tetraclades of a tall stature, with long

legs and necks

:-yf -yph – the diminutive suffix denoting a juvenile form of a tetraclade

cveryk bheryc – Eunomic wolf/dog, word usually associated with animaplants of

the family Veridae

cveryf bheryph – Eunomic pup, the juvenile autonomous forms of a bheryc

crawyN rawyñ – Eunomic cat, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Rawidae

crawyf rawyph – Eunomic kitten, the juvenile autonomous forms of a rawyñ

cvjoryn bhioryn – Eunomic horse, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vioridae

cvjoryf bhioryph – Eunomic pony/mare, the juvenile autonomous forms of a


cTlozyn thlozyn – Eunomic cow, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vioridae

cTlozyf thlozyph – Eunomic calf, the juvenile autonomous forms of a thlozyn

cmaelyk maelyc – Eunomic sheep, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Maelidae

cmaelyf maelyph – Eunomic lamb, the juvenile autonomous forms of a maelyc

caDmyk adhmyc – Eunomic pig, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Gholidae

cGolyk gholyc – Eunomyc goat, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Gholidae

cvaesyn bhaesyn – Eunomic deer, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vioridae

cDevyn dhebhyn – Eunomic moose, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vioridae

cruTyk ruthyc – Eunomic rat/mouse, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ruthidae

cDakyn dhacyn – Eunomic rabbit, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ruthidae

caerTyN aerthyñ – Eunomic mole, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ruthidae

csapyk sapyc – Eunomic porcupine, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Sapidae

cvuryn bhuryn – Eunomic beaver, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Rawidae

ckrisyk crisyc – word usually associated with certain animaplants of the family


cgryveL grybhel – word usually associated with certain animaplants of the

family Rawidae

celosyk elosyc – Eunomic elephant, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Helosidae

cbziryk bziryc – word usually associated with certain animaplants of the family


cveryN’gran bheryñ’gran – fruit-bearing animaplants that inhabit both land

and water and are characterized by their smooth, scaley, and lignous bark-like

exterior; Phyllodermata, phylloderms

:-an -an – suffix that generally denotes phylloderms that live in water

:-uN -(c)uñ – suffix that generally denotes phylloderms of large nature, living on

land or water

cmilan milan – Eunomic fish, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Milidae

cpuCan pushan – Eunomic medusa, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Milidae

cdrisan drisan – Eunomic octopus, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Milidae

cstelan stelan – Eunomic squid, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Milidae

cTelan thelan – Eunomic slug, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Thelidae

cviCan bhishan – Eunomic eel, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Milidae

cmuCan mushan – Eunomic clam, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Thelidae

csapan sapan – Eunomic blowfish, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Milidae

cmilkuN milcuñ – Eunomic shark, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Milidae

caerTan aerthan – Eunomic frog, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Wadhidae

cwaDan wadhan – Eunomic minnow, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Wadhidae

cCuN shuñ – Eunomic dragon, word usually associated with certain animaplants of

the family Shunhidae

cstaCuN stashuñ – Eunomic lizard, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Shunhidae

cvzuCuN vzushuñ – Eunomic snake, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Shunhidae

ckyr’geljuZ cyr’geliuz – animaplants that inhabit land and water, often

having the ability to fly and acting as pollinators to flowering plants and

animaplants, and characterized by a smooth, lignous exoskeleton;

Phloeocelypha, phloeocelyphs

:-uZ -uz – suffix generally denoting phloeocelyphs that cannot fly

:-yM -ym – suffix generally denoting phloeocelyphs that fly (and commonly act as

pollinators for other species of plants and animaplants)

cdrisuZ drisuz – Eunomic spider, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ceridae

chasyM chasym – Eunomic bee, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Chasidae

caerTyM aerthym – Eunomic wasp, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Haeridae

cersyM ersym – Eunomyc butterfly, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Chasidae

ckeruZ ceruz – Enomic ladybug, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ceridae

cJeryM zherym – Eunomic mosquito, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Haeridae

cdraemuZ draemuz – Eunomic beetle, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Draemidae

cgryvuZ grybhuz – Eunomic beetle, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Draemidae

cwaDyM wadhym – Eunomic fly, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Haeridae

cnrazuZ nrazuz – Eunomic scorpion, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ceridae

ctyNuZ tyñuz – Eunomic stick insect, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Draemidae

csnworuZ snworuz – Eunomic cricket, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Snuridae

csfuruZ sphuruz – Eunomic grasshopper, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Snuridae

cJeruZ zheruz – Eunomic mite, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Zheridae

cpeCyM peshym – Eunomic moth, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Chasidae

csfeduZ spheduz – Eunomic centipede, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Zheridae

cmjerguZ mierguz – Eunomic roach, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Ceridae

cCjeryM shierym – Eunomic firefly, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Draemidae

cCjerwaT shierwath – Eunomic firefly, synonymous to shierym

caeryM aerym – Eunomic dragonfly, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Haeridae

cmiluZ miluz – Eunomic crab, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Ceridae

cnweT’ersep nweth’ersep – animaplants that are generally small and can fly,

acting as pollinators to flowering plants, and characterized by a lignous

indoskeleton; Anemanthera, anemanthers

:-p -ep – suffix generally denoting anemanthers that fly

:-yT -yth – suffix generally denoting anemanthers that cannot fly

cveryM bherym – leaf-like structure unique to anemanthers and used in flight

cvermep bhermep – word usually associated with certain animaplants of the

family Vermidae

cGolep gholep – Eunomic pidgeon, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vermidae

czelep zelep – Eunomic chicken, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vermidae

csemyT semyth – Eunomic goose, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Semidae

csemep semep – Eunomic duck, word usually associated with certain animaplants

of the family Semidae

cmindyT mindyth – Eunomic turkey, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Vermidae

cmilep milep – Eunomic seagull, word usually associated with certain

animaplants of the family Semidae

cdraemep draemep – Eunomic woodpecker, word usually associated with

certain animaplants of the family Vermidae

chasersep chasersep – word usually associated with certain animaplants of

the family Chasersidae

8.6 Family and Relations

cGuf ghuph (bh) – familial love, solidarity, community

cGuvseN ghubhzeñ – (trans.) to love someone as a family member or clansmen

cGuvek ghubhyc – family, clan, community

cGuveL ghubhel – family member, clan member

carJydriS arzhydris – father tree, final stage of a dryad’s life

cksaL csal – mother, most dominant autonomous dryad in a clan, father-to-be

csworeL sworel – princess, first-born sister, mother-to-be

cdriseL drisel – sister, autonomous dryad, second stage of a dryad’s life

cNjuryf ñiuryph – youngling, young drisel

chwyn chwyn – sapling, first stage of dryad’s life, non-autonomous young dryad

cDuN dhuñ – to protect, to guard, to care for

cDuM dhum – protection, security, care

cDulaT dhulath – honored guardian, protector, warrior

cDumeL dhumel – general guardian, protector, warrior

cGuvoheL ghubhochel – stranger, alien, drisel from another clan

cpTormeL pthormel – servant, slave (of not the same clan)

cGuvweneL ghubhwenel – rogue, clanless drisel, loner

cgruJyf gruzhyph – bastard, rogue, clanless drisel, prick

chron chron – unconditional love, true love, romantic love

chronzeN chronzeñ – (trans.) to love someone romantically or unconditionally

chronyk chronyc – couple, a unit of drisel within a clan acting as a small family

chroneL chronel – lover, spouse, one’s equal or fellow drisel in a chronyc

chronyf chronyph – adopted child, adopted ñiuryph raised in a chronyc

cstomyf stomyph – another word for chronyph used by a non-chronel

cfjaT phiath (dh) – brotherly love, friendship

cfjaDseN phiadhzeñ – (trans.) to love someone as a brother or friend

cfjaDyk phiadhyc – friendship, companionship

cfjaDeL phiadhel – friend, companion

csjerux csfurisex carDeN (sieru) sphurise ardheñ – (intrans.) to like

someone, to get along well with someone

csjerux cGrisex carDeN (sieru) ghrise ardheñ – (intrans.) to dislike, to

hate, to be annoyed by someone

celvisex carDeN elbhise ardheñ – (intrans.)

csjerux cers’seN (sieru) ers’señ – (trans.)

carJax csjerjax cgruzeN arzha (sieria) gruzyñ – (trans.)

cvTeN bhdheñ – (trans.) to know (someone)

8.7 Houses, Buildings, and Decor

cwilyf wilyph – tree top, canopy, roof

cbwor bwor – wall, fence

cfjet phiet – floor, ground

cvTaen bhdhaen – door, gate

cNwyn ñwyn – window

cvTaenyf bhdhaenyph – doorstep, small porch

cinegreM inecrem – entrance

cohekreM ochecrem – exit

caervwroM aerbhwom – balcony

caerfjet aerphiet – terrace

cCjeryT shieryth – fireplace, firepit, campfire

cgruzur gruzur – furnace, fireplace (vulgar)

cCjeron shieron – chimney

chaemyh chaemych – device for catching rain water, drain

cTaf thaph (bh) – attic, storage area

caeT aeth – floor, story, level

covaeT obhaeth – underground, lower story, basement

cvrot bhrot – room (general)

cGelvrot ghelbhrot – sleeping chamber, bedroom

chjovrot chiobhrot – place of cooking, kitchen

chjoryN chioryñ – to cook

cTumvrot thumbhrot – private study

cveL bhel – step, stair

czfeL zbhel – stairs

claeryT laeryth – temple

cCiL shil – bed

8.8 Clothing, Ornaments, and Color

ckryf cryph (cirbha) – clothing, outer garments (made from other


cDuNgyr dhuñgyr – armor (made from metal)

crapseN rapseñ – (trans.) to sew, to weave

ckozyN cozyñ – (trans.) to value, to shine

ckozyM cozym – value, money

ckozmih cozmich – jewel, precious metal or mineral

cteryN teryñ – (trans.) to decorate, to adorn, to adjust

cresyN resyñ – (trans.) to decorate one’s skin, to tattoo

cresyL czedriS resyl zedris – sacred words that ornament the skin of a clan’s

drisel or the bark of their father tree

chaTyN chathyñ – (trans.) to adorn one’s hair/head with flowers

cdaereN daereñ – (trans.) to addorn, to wear (jewelry)

cdaermih daermich – jewelry, jewels or metals for addorning

chriN chriñ – (trans.) to wear (clothing)

:-ap -ap – suffix for a gem, jewel, or crystal

chworap chworap – emerald

clunap lunap – sapphire

cpewap pewap – diamond

cvozap bhozap – ruby

cJelap zhelap – cinnabar crystal

cmaelap maelap – quartz

cpyTap pythap – obsidian

chin chin – (adj) silver (color)

chur chur – (adj) gold (color)

chin ckozmih chin cozmich – silver metal, general metal

chin cdaermih chin daermich – silver jewelry

chur ckozmih chur cozmich – gold metal

chur cdaermih chur daermich – gold jewelry

cJeL ckozmih zhel cozmich – granular cinnabar

cJeL cdaermih zhel daermich – cinnabar (for reddening cheeks or lips)

cmilih milich – (general) metal, mirror

chin cmilih chin milich – iron, nickel

ckor cmilih cor milich – copper, bronze

czagor cmilih zagor milich – bronze

caerTih aerthich – (general) mineral

cbTelin bdhelin – color

chwar chwar – white

cJeL zhel – red, infra-red

czaJeL zazhel – dark red, maroon

cfaJeL phazhel – light red, pink

cfaryn pharyn – cyan, turquoise, blue-green

czaryn zaryn – indigo, blue, blue-purple

ckor cor – orange, amber

cfagor phagor – light orange, yellow

czagor zagor – dark orange, brown, redish-orange

csfur sphur – green

cfasfur phasphur – light green, yellow

czasfur zasphur – dark green, blue

cviGeM bhighem – purple, violet

cfaviGeM phabhighem – light purple, lavendar

czaviGeM zabhighem – dark purple

ctreh trech – ultraviolet

cfadreh phadrech – light ultraviolet

czadreh zadrech – dark ultraviolet

cpyT pyth – black, pitch black

cpCoL pshol – gray, black

cfabCoL phabzhol – light grey, white

czabCoL zabzhol – dark grey, black

*Most dryads are tetrachromats and are able to distinguish four fundamental

wavelengths of light and, thus, have much more effective color vision than humans.

Their interpretation of color depends on two sets of photoreceptors; the low-frequency

low-red (red-infra-red) light and amber (yellow-orange) light photoreceptors, and the

high-frequency green light and ultraviolet light photoreceptors. This allows them to

distinguish many hues of green and to see ultraviolet light and some infra-red light.

This is thought to better allow them to distinguish between different types of plants

and their respective fruits and flowers, a skill that is quite important on a planet

dominated by plant-like organisms. The following is a diagram showing their

photoreceptors and the light spectrum which they can see.

8.9 Body Parts and Sensing

cDaNyh (co-) dhañych – branch, arm

cstan (co-) stan – root, foot

cGaS (co-) ghas – split in branch, hand

cstaNGaS (co-) stañghas – split in root, foot

crovyn rovyn – thorn, needle, nail

cnreL (co-) nrel – eye

cwaer (c-) waer – ear

celoS (c-) elos – nostril

cmloT mloth (dh) – head

cveryM bherym – leaf, hair

cif iph – mouth

cGaer (co-) ghaer – lips

cTmaL thmal – tongue

cgaeL gael – throat

cDar dhar – tooth

cresyM resym – epidermis, skin

cbaeT (co-) baeth – stomach, container

ceryS erys – blossom, flower; protandrous, pollen producing, undeveloped


caeryk aeryc – lung(s)

clibyS libys – fat, body fruit, internal fruit

cindraeM indraem – bone(s), bone structure, skeleton, internal lignous structure

for body support and the transport of water and nutrients

cstan’aryV stan’aryzh – brain, nervous system, internal root-system that

cordinates actions and transmits signals, primary ‘center’ located in the head

cpros’aryV pros’aryzh – heart, ventrical, central circulatory organ that

circulates the chlorocruorin plasma

cDaNh’aryV dhañch’aryzh – heart, secondary circulatory organs that help the

ventrical or central heart

caerTy’baeT aerthy’baeth – stomach, food stomach, digestive organ with thick

lining that contains special enzymes and bacteria to break down food

cmilaery’baeT milaery’baeth – pinoculum, water stomach, organ with a

special lining full of tiny hairs for osmosis and storing water

caDyN adhyñ – to deficate, to vomit, to expel waste by shedding the lining of the

stomach and regurgitating it and its contents through one’s mouth

caDmyf adhmyph – waste, feces, vomit (expelled through the mouth)

cboN boñ – (intrans.) to breath

cgsaN gzañ – (trans.) to see

cgsaN gzañ – (intrans.) to look like, to seem like

czegsaN zegzañ – (trans.) to glance, to get a look of

cnugsaN nugzañ – (trans.) to watch quietly or intently

czlegsaN zlegzañ – (trans.) to stare (at)

cgsaM gzam – sight

cgsiryM gzirym – figure, appearance

ckwaerax csyN cwaera syñ – (trans.) to listen

ckwaerax cnusyN cwaera nusyñ – (trans.) to listen quietly, to eavesdrop

cGoryS ghorys – voice

csnwor snwor – song, chant, sound

csnwormiL snwormil – music, ‘sea of song’, ‘sea of sound’

csweN sweñ – to swim

cfjoN phioñ – to float

csnwormilin csweN snwormilin sweñ – (intrans.) to actively listen to


csnwormilin cfjoN snwormilin phioñ – (intrans.) to passively listen to


cfloN phloñ – (trans.) to intake, to swallow, to drink, to eat, to taste

cfloN phloñ – (intrans.) to taste (like)

cfloM phlom – taste, consumption

cmilaerax cfloN milaera phloñ – (trans.) to drink (water)

caerTax cfloN aertha phloñ – (trans.) to eat (food)

csfeN spheñ – (trans.) to touch

czesfeN zespheñ – (trans.) to brush, to touch lightly

czlesfeN zlespheñ – (trans.) to hold

csfeM sphem – touch

celosax csyN elosa syñ – to smell

chjaN chiañ – fragrance, smell

chjaNax cfloN chiaña phloñ – to smell

csoryN soryñ – (intrans.) to feel warm, to feel hot

csoryN soryñ – (trans.) to warm (up), to heat (up)

csoryM sorym – warmth, heat

chlevyN chlebhyñ – (intrans.) to feel cold

chlevyN chlebhyñ – (trans.) to cool (down)

chlevyM chlebhym – coldness, cold

cNureN ñureñ – (trans.) to hurt

czeNureN zeñureñ – (trans.) to prick, to poke

czleNureN zleñureñ – (trans.) to chronically hurt, to fatally wound, to torture

cNureM ñurem – physical pain

cNuryh ñurych – physically painful

8.10 Speaking, Sleeping, and Gardening

cdriS dris – word, tree

czedriS zedris – words, language, trees

cTmaL thmal – tongue

czedriS cTmalyx zedris thmaly – language

cstoN stoñ – (trans.) to plant, to speak, to learn

croJiN rozhiñ – (trans.) to harvest

cmeN meñ – (trans.) to exchange

choN choñ – (trans.) to share

carDeN ardheñ – (trans.) to grow, to expand, to nurture

czedrisax cstoN zedrisa stoñ – to speak, to write, to plant trees

czedrisax croJiN zedrisa rozhiñ – to read, to study

czedrisax cmeN zedrisa meñ – to speak (with someone), to converse

czedrisax choN zedrisa choñ – to read aloud, to give a speech

czedrisax carDeN zedrisa ardheñ – to teach, to explain

czedrisax cnustoN zedrisa nustoñ – to talk under one’s breath, to

mumble, to talk to one’s self

cmloDinex cstoN mlodh(in)e stoñ – to learn, to plant (in)to one’s head

cCoN shoñ – (trans.) to bury

cwaT wath (dh) – seed, idea, word, dream, goal

cswaDax cCoN swadha shoñ – to tell, to plant seeds

cswaDax cnuCoN swadha nushoñ – to whisper (deceitfully), to tell secrets

croJiskax rozhisca – garden, field (plot of plants for harvesting), paragraph,

passage, document

csTur sthur – blank, empty, lacking

csTur croJiskax sthur rozhisca – empty field, (blank) paper

cpuCtax pushta – forest, collection of trees, book, story

cpuCtax cstoN pushta stoñ – to write a book

cpuCtax croJiN pushta rozhiñ – to read a book

cwaDmeL wadhmel – fruit, seed barrer, idea/secret barrer, knowledge

cswaDmelax croJiN swadhmela rozhiñ – to harvest fruit, to attain

knowledge, to learn something new

cGeL ghel – dream

cGelax carDeN ghela ardheñ – to dream

cGelax cstoN ghela stoñ – to sleep

cGelax cCestoN ghela shestoñ – to fall asleep

cGelax clestoN ghela lestoñ – to wake up

cGelax chilyN ghela chilyñ – to wake up

cGelax czestoN ghela zestoñ – to take a nap

cGelax czlestoN ghela zlestoñ – to pass away, to never wake

cGelstoM ghelstom – sleep

cswarax cGelax carDeN cgavaex swara ghela ardheñ gabhae –

good night, sweet dreams, ‘grow a sweet/spring dream’

cswarax cGelax swara ghela – good night, sweet dreams

ctaen taen – early

cTeL thel – late

8.11 Time, Seasons, Flavors, and Direction

caeryT aeryth – earth, land(s), food

cswar swar – (adj.) spring, sweet, west, lively

cJor zhor – (adj.) summer, salty, north

caryM arym – (adj.) autumn, sour, east

cNuL ñul – (adj.) winter, bitter, south, deadly

cswar caeryT swar aeryth – sweet food, western lands

cJor caeryT zhor aeryth – salty food, northern lands

caryM caeryT arym aeryth – sour food, eastern lands

cNuL caeryT ñul aeryth – bitter food, southern lands

cswar caer swar aer – spring air, sweet air, spring

cJor caer zhor aer – summer air, salty air, summer

caryM caer arym aer – autumn air, sour air, autumn

cNuL caer ñul aer – winter air, bitter air, winter

cswar cnweT swar nweth – spring breeze, sweet breeze, spring

cJor cnweT zhor nweth – summer breeze, salty breeze, summer

caryM cnweT arym nweth – autumn breeze, sour breeze, autumn

cNuL cnweT ñul nweth – winter breeze, bitter breeze, winter

cJorswar zhorswar – (adj.) salty-sweet, northwest

cJoraryM zhorarym – (adj.) salty-sour, northeast

cNulswar ñulswar – (adj.) bitter-sweet, southwest, life-or-death

cNularyM ñularym – (adj.) bitter-sour, southeast

cJorswar caeryT zhorswar aeryth – salty-sweet food, northwestern lands

cJoraryM caeryT zhorarym aeryth – salty-sour food, northeastern lands

cNulswar caeryT ñulswar aeryth – bitter-sweet food, southwestern lands

cNularyM caeryT ñularym aeryth – bitter-sour food, southeastern lands

cNulswar czaer ñulswar zaer – life-or-death situation

8.12 Natural Bodies and Phenomena

caer aer – air, atmosphere

caerok aeroc – air, gas

caeryT aeryth – earth, ground, dirt

cartyM artym – (full) moon, month

cbraS bras – peble

ceryh erych – rainbow

cfjuL phiul – mountain

cfjulyf phiulyph – hill

cgeL gel – boulder

cgelok geloc – solid

cGaeryT ghaeryth – desert

cGyr ghyr – dry

cGreN ghreñ – (trans.) to dry

cGreN ghreñ – (intrans.) to dry out

chaeM chaem – rain

chaemax ckreN chaema creñ – (intrans.) to rain

chelvar chelbhar – blue sky, clear skies

chelyS chelys – sky, skies

chlisaer chlisaer – weather

chliCjer chlishier – lightning

chlisnwor chlisnwor – thunder, cough

chlisnworax czeN chlisnwora zeñ – (trans.) to cough

chilviF chilbhish – comet

cmjeryk mieryc – night

chreTmjeryk chrethmieryc – tomorrow night

cCeTmjeryk shethmieryc – yesterday night

cneTmjeryk nethmieryc – tonight

chroS chros – time

chrosaeryT chrosaeryth – space-time, universe

ckaryS carys – shore

ckojar coyar – sun, bright sun

csor sor – sun

ckuryn curyn – cloud

ckyr cyr – rock, stone

claer laer – deity, god

cloT loth – ice

cloTfiuL lothphiul – glacier

clun lun – moon

cGelun ghelun – lunar eclipse

cgruzlun gruzlun – lunar eclipse

cGelsor ghelsor – solar eclipse

cgruzilsor gruzilsor – solar eclipse

cmiL mil – sea, ocean

cmilyf milyph – lake, pond

cmilviF milbhish – river

cmilok miloc – liquid

cmilvar milbhar – blue sea, clear seas

cnarot narot – negentropy, life

cnarotux cg’arDevaex narotu g’ardhebhae – thank you

cnarotux narotu – thanks

cgruJot gruzhot – entropy, chaos

cJyL zhyl – day

chreJyL chrezhyl – tomorrow

cCeJyL shezhyl – yesterday

cneJyL nezhyl – today

cnof noph – snow

cnraZ nraz – sand

cnruT nruth – beautiful, natural, of narot, lucky

cnruTeN nrutheñ – (trans.) to bless, to have/give luck

cnruTeM nruthem – beauty, elightenment

cnruTmeL nruthmel – beautiful person, elightened person

cnweT nweth – wind, breeze

cNarhelyS ñarchelys – sunrise

cpaeron paeron – infinity

cpaerwen paerwen – finiteness

csjuL siul – world, planet, physical universe

csmir smir – world, universe, everything

csjur siur – storm

csormiL sormil – hot spring, natural spring

cvet bhet – light

csfedar sphedar – pure light, zero

csfuraT sphurath – earth, greenery

cCjervjuL shierbhiul – volcano

cToNyL thoñyl – cave

cTuryn thuryn – hole

csmirveL smirbhel – number

cvibyF bhibysh – coast

cwisyf wisyph – island

cwisyp wisyp – peninsula

cpyTmer pythmer – darkness, shadow

cgruJeL gruzhel – fire, chaos

cGars’aeryT ghars’aeryth – earthquake

cGiryS ghirys – drought

cJevGelyS zhebhghelys – sunset

8.13 Emotion, Moral, and Perception

carDel’evuN ardhel’ebhuñ – enjoyable, indulgent

caryV aryzh – heart, soul

carJax cGreN arzha ghreñ – (trans.) to worry (one’s heart)

carJysnwor arzhysnwor – laughter

caTyh athych – clear-sighted, neutral, unbiased

caTyN athyñ – to abandon

cbiryN biryñ – to judge

cbugyr bugyr – shy, nervous

cbCoT bzhoth – fun, interesting

cbCoTeN bzhothen – boring, uninteresting

cdaharJuN dacharzhuñ – clever, curious

cdeTyr dethyr – virtue

cDelyk dhelyc – modest

cekaT ecath – impure, blemished, tarnished

celyf elyph – together, joint, united

celyN elyñ – (trans.) to combine, to join

celyN elyñ – (intrans.) to come together

cersax cbruN ersa bruñ – (trans.) to apologize

cfilot philot – ambitious, motivated

cfTelyN phthelyñ – to surprise

cfTelyS phthelys – surprised

cgeruN geruñ – (intrans.) to be indecision

cgeruN geruñ – (trans.) to confuse

cgeruS gerus – undecided, confused

cgoDyM godhym – meaning, purpose

cgrunyM grunym – failure

cgrunyN grunyñ – (intrans., trans.) to fail

cgrut grut – evil

cgruTyh gruthych – danger

cgruThuN gruthchuñ – dangerous

cgruJeh gruzhech – painful, uncomfortable

cgruJevN gruzhebhñ – (trans.) to make someone uncomfortable, disrupt

cgruJit gruzhit – lie, deception

cGaer ghaer – truth, fact, lip

cGaryM gharym – matter, affair, wager

cGaryN gharyñ – (intrans., trans.) to matter, to wage

cGen ghen – brave

cGeS ghes – reason

cGor ghor – awesome, good, nice

cGwyn ghwyn – safe, secure

cGwyN ghwyñ – (trans.) to secure

cGwyM ghwym – safety, security

chjeL chiel – unwavering, faithful, eternal

chilyp chilyp – consequence, result

chjur chiur – sick, unwell

chrenyS chrenys – forbidden

chreN chreñ – (trans.) to forbid, to be against

chrevN chrebhñ – (trans.) to change, to switch

chrevN chrebhñ – (intrans.) to change (over time), to be dynamic

chos’arJuN chos’arzhuñ – punctual

chruV chruzh – amazing, wonderful

chTuN chthuñ – (trans.) to scare

chTuS chthus – scared

chwer chwer – perfect, pure

chwereM chwerem – perfection

ciryN iryñ – (trans.) to mean, to equate to

cizyn izyn – strange, weird

ckabyF cabysh – sudden, unexpected

ckaeL cael – cute, small and kind

ckawroN cawroñ – (trans.) to observe

ckluT cluth – attractive, interesting

ckrelN crelñ – (trans.) to cheer for

crelN crelñ – (intrans.) to cheer, to yell loudly in support

ckseraN cserañ – (intrans.) to act, to behave

clasyp lasyp – nervous, uncomfortable, excited

clegruzyS legruzys – ugly, burnt

cersax carDeN (sierin) ersa ardheñ – (trans.) to feel

cmah mach – bracing, cold, rough

cmilax cwuryN mila wuryñ – (trans.) to cry endlessly

cmjoS mios – curiosity

cmjosyh miosych – curious

cmiryS mirys – smile

cmirs’seN mirs’señ – (trans.) to smile

cmloV mlozh – scary, horrific

cmuryn muryn – carefree

cnor nor – young

cNuluryh ñulurych – lachrymose, of or causing tears

cNweT ñweth – true, certain

cNwor ñwor – bad, horrible

cobTih obdhich – greedy

codreN odreñ – (trans.) to condition, to accustom

cpeDor pedhor – abrupt, random, interrupting

cpeGoN peghoñ – (intrans.) to tire

cpeGoS peghos – tired, faded, worn out

cpeTyh pethych – accident

cpoTyn pothyn – normal, average, usual

cprehyN prechyñ – (trans.) to concern

cpsoN psoñ – (trans.) to help

cpsoM psom – help

cpsomwen psomwen – helpless

cpTireN pthireñ – (intrans.) to succeed

cpTireM pthirem – success

cpweN pweñ – (trans.) to lose, to misplace

cpweS pwes – lost

cpwezmeL pwezmel – lost being, lost person, person without a purpose

cpwezyM pwezym – lost item

csaeL sael – important, precious, valuable

cseloN seloñ – (trans.) to steal

cseloS selos – stolen

cselyf selyph – crazy, insane, mad

csheN scheñ – (trans.) to long for (painfully)

csjeL siel – quiet

csmeN smeñ – (trans.) to long for, to want

csoL sol – honest, truthful

csoleM solem – honesty

csorelyf sorelyph – nice, comfortable, warming

csorelyN sorelyñ – (trans.) to comfort, embrace

csulfeM sulphem – sadness

csulyf sulyph – sad

csulyV sulyzh – dissapointing

csulJeM sulzhem – dissapointing

csfur’arDeS sphur’ardhes – successful

cers’sen cdavaex ers’sen dabhae – I’m sorry

cCeh shech – nice, kind

cCjeS shies – clean, tidy

cCik shic – loud, obnoxious

cCiNCiryS shiñshirys – bored

cCiNCiryN shiñshiryñ – (trans.) to bore

ctejoh teyoch – ridiculous, impossible, stupid

cteyoN teyoñ – (trans.) to ridicule, to make fun of

cTelS thelys – mean, cruel

ctrah trach – angry, furious

cTaer thaer – loyal

cTaereM thaerem – loyalty

cTweh thwech – annoying, hastling

cveT bheth (dh) – careful, meticulous

cviraT bhirath – extremely beautiful, sublime

cvseT bhzeth – strong, macho

cvsularJin bhzularzhin – selfcentered, stupid, naive

cwovjaN wobhiañ – to fear

cwuryN wuryñ – (trans., intrans.) to cry

czaL zal – gentle

czalen zalen – rough

czarfeM zarphem – happiness

czaryf zaryph – happy

czilax zila – jealousy

czileh zilech – jealous

cJeNyt zheñyt – serious

8.14 War, Government, and Clans

caerTax cseloN aertha seloñ – (trans.) to invade, to take land

cbiN biñ – (trans.) to beat, to hit

cbrevyN brebhyñ – (trans.) to take by force

cbwor bwor – wall, barrier

cdaen daen – offer, proposition, agreement

cdusyN dusyñ – (trans.) to conquer, to subjugate

cenaeL enael – unbreakable, powerful, omnipotent

cfjeL phiel – medicine, healing

cfsemeL phsemel – leader, guide, general

cfseN phseñ – (trans.) to guide, to lead

cgaevN gaebhñ – (intrans., trans.) to gather, to bring/come together

cgelif geliph – shield, shell

cgruzyN gruzyñ – (trans.) to burn, to destroy

cguL gul – health

cgulduryM guldurym – healing place, hospital

cGen ghen – brave, rash

cGuseN ghuseñ – (trans.) to call out to, to give orders to

cheryN cheryñ – (trans.) to keep, to maintain

chiliV chilizh – weapon, tool for killing

chilyp chilyp – consequence, result

chjubeN chiubeñ – (intrans.) to happen, to arise, to come to pass

chjubeN chiubeñ – (trans.) to cause, to bring to pass

ckraT crath – realm, inhabited land, nation, clan, social sphere

ckraTeL crathel – citizen, clan member, inhabitor of a crath

ckraThoM crathchom – politics, active sharing or interaction between members

of a crath

ckraTsaeM crathsaem – war, fight between craths

cmilyN milyñ – (intrans.) to force one’s way, to march

cmilyN milyñ – (trans.) to push, to force away

cmlur mlur – clan, village, family (living within a crath)

cNureN ñureñ – (trans.) to physically hurt (something)

cNureM ñurem – physical pain

cNuryh ñurych – physically painful

cpoDyh podhych – bomb, explosion

crovnyk robhnyc – knife, small blade

csaemeL saemel – warrior, fighter

csaeN saeñ – to fight

csjaver siabher – sword, long blade

csfozluryN sphozluryñ – (trans.) to kill, to make one die

csfozlurmeL sphozlurmel – murderer, killer

cTin thin – device, instrument

cTuN thuñ – (intrans.) to explode

cTuN thuñ – (trans.) to blow (something) up, to explode

cvseT bhzeth – strong, sturdy

czluryN zluryñ – (intrans.) to die

czluryM zlurym – death

cJer zher – sap, blood

cJuvN zhubhñ – (trans.) to prepare

casnat Asnat – Asnat dryads, Tephric clans

cmeljat Meliat – Meliat dryads, Thalassic clans

carjat Ariat – Ariat dryads, Selenic clans

cheljat Cheliat – Cheliat dryads, Uranic clans

cTaeL cgruzur Thael Gruzur – ‘the Great Inferno’, ‘the Great War’

8.15 Entertainment, Music, and Art

carJin carDeN arzhin ardheñ – (trans.) to imagine, to think deeply about, to

daydream about

cbimyh bimych – percussion, drum

cbuN buñ – (trans.) to play (an instrument)

cder der – string

cderyh derych – string instrument

cdraemyh draemych – dryadic double-sided harp

cezel’evuN ezel’ebhuñ – creative

cezel’ef ezel’eph (bh) – creativeness, imagination

cezeN ezeñ – (trans.) to make, to create, to compose

cGorsyf ghorsyph – dryadic flute, small woodwind instrument

cGoryS ghorys – voice

cGoryS csnworyx ghorys snwory – melody, tune

ckriM crim – picture, painting

ckrimax czeN crima zeñ – (trans.) to draw, to paint (a picture of)

ckriN criñ – (trans.) to imagine, to picture

ckrelgriM crelgrim – memory

ckseraN cserañ – (intrans.) to act

ckseraN cserañ – (trans.) to imitate, to show

cmrezeN mrezeñ – (trans.) to remake, to reproduce, to copy

cnweTyh nwethych – wind instrument

csnwor snwor – song, chant, story

csnwormiL snwormil – music

csnworyh snworych – instrument (general)

csnworax choN swora choñ – (trans.) to sing (a song)

cteryN teryñ – (trans.) to tune (an instrument), to adjust

caryh arych – dryadic lute

czeraN zerañ – (intrans.) to dance, to flutter

czestoN zestoñ – (trans.) to practice (general)

czebuN zebuñ – (trans.) to practice (an instrument)

czleporoN zleporoñ – (trans.) to be horrible at, to never get the hang of

8.16 Miscellaneous

caerTur aerthur – food stand, place of distribution of food

caeveN aebheñ – (intrans.) to appear, to surprise

caeveM aebhem – surprise appearance

canuN anuñ – (intrans.) to sit

:-ux carDeS cwiN (-u) ardhes …wiñ – (number) plus (number) equals

:-wen carDeS cwiN (-wen) ardhes …wiñ – (number) minus (number) equals

carJux arzhu – very, really

cbelN belñ – (trans.) to pull

cbevN bebhñ – (trans.) to break, to crack (something)

cbevN bebhñ – (intrans.) to break, to crack

cbilbiL bilbil – dizzy, confused

cbilyh bilych – tight, compact

cbjuL biul – horn; large, pointy lignous structure found on some animaplants

cboN boñ – (intrans.) to breath

cboraN borañ – (trans.) to pick (a flower), to take, to accept (a promise)

cbruh bruch – light, unheavy

cbrun brun – fan, hand-held instrument that displaces air

cbuseN buseñ – (intrans.) to fall apart

cbCaN bzhañ – (trans.) to do

cbCilyN bzhilyñ – (trans.) to assess

cbsuL bzul – near, close

cbsut bzut – weak, junky, old, falling apart

cd’arJaex d’arzhae – oh my god, oh dear, alas

cdaen daen – grand, magnificent

cdah dach – tall, overlooking

cderyN deryñ – (trans.) to stop, to cancel

cduS dus – every, all

cdweN dweñ – (intrans.) to stand

cDaroN dharoñ – (intrans., trans.) to pause, to stop

cDe: dhe- (number) – (sides) -gon

cDeDaN dhedhañ – pentagon

cDehrowax dhechrowa – triangle

cDepaeron dhepaeron – circle

cDerawax dherawa – hexagon

cDevaebsax dhebhaebza – octogon

cDesjuN dhesiuñ – quadrilateral

caryM cDesjuN arym dhesiuñ – right kite (shape)

cJor cDesjuN zhor dhesiuñ – square

cswar cDesJuN swar dhesiuñ – rhombus

cNuL cDesjuN ñul dhesiuñ – isocelese trapezoid

cDesyk dhesyc – block

cDoryf dhoryph – opening, whole

cDoryN dhoryñ – (trans.) to open

cDrowax dhrowa – dirty

cDur dhur – hard, difficult

cDusfureN dhusphureñ – (intrans.) to survive

cDwoN dhwoñ – (trans.) to become

ceGroS eghros – humid, wet

celoT eloth – low

cfarun pharun – rare, uncommon

cfjoN phioñ – (intrans.) to float

cfTelur phthelur – shop, store

cfTelyN phthelyñ – (trans.) to surpise

cfTelyN phthelyñ – (intrans.) to shop, to browse

cfTilisex phthilise – at last, finally

cg’narodisex g’narodise – hello, goodbye (contraction of ‘ge narodise’)

cgaT gath (dh) – same, identical

cgjer gier – repair, correction, fix

cgjerax czeN giera zeñ – (trans.) to repair, to fix

cgilisex gilise – again

cgruveN grubheñ – (intrans., trans.) to hide

cguT guth (dh) – straight

cGalvuS ghalbhus – always, forever

cGlif ghliph (bh) – pocket

cGoT ghoth – soon, in a moment

cGoS ghos – item, thing

cGur ghur – whole, complete, all

chjodeL chiodel – example

chjodelin chiodelin – for example, for instance

chowux chowu – wow, my goodness

:-ux chroS cwiN (-u) chros …wiñ – (number) times (number) equals

:-wen chroS cwiN (-wen) chros …wiñ – (number) divided by (number)


chropaeron chropaeron – sphere

chuN chuñ – (trans.) to describe

chwaraZ chwaraz – dust, ash

ciTyh ithych – skinny, thin

cityr ityr – fresh, new

ckeDjun cedhiun – box

ckeliN celiñ – (trans.) to bend

ckeliS celis – crooked, bent

clanuN lanuñ – (intrans.) to stand up, to get up

cleDoryN ledhoryñ – (trans.) to close

clef leph – deep

clegruN legruñ – (trans., intrans.) to choose, to decide

clehryN lechryñ – (trans.) to take off, to remove

clekreN lecreñ – (intrans.) to arrive

cleCnyN leshnyñ – (trans.) to find

clezeN lezeñ – (trans.) to finish

cloh loch – faint, dull, weak

cersur ersur – blossom shop, flower stand

cluryN luryñ – (intrans.) to get up, to sit up (after having fallen)

cmax ma – well, well then

cmaeN maeñ – (trans.) to tie

cmaetyN maetyñ – post, pole

cmelyN melyñ – (trans.) to hope

cmelyN melyñ – (trans.) to hold

cmendriS mendris – algebra

cmeNgsiryM meñgzirym – geometry

cmesyk mesyc – bowl

cmilTuryn milthuryn – waste hole, toilet

cmoL mol – far away, far

cmodeL model – adventure, excitement

cmreDoryN mredhoryñ – (trans.) to reopen

cmweN mweñ – mud

cmyDeM mydhem – difference

cmyT myth – different, other

cmyDisex mydhise – instead, conterarily

cnalDjun naldhiun – bag

cnavyN nabhyñ – (trans.) to hint to, to lightly expose

chreDehrowax chredhechrowa – scalene triangle

cneDehrowax nedhechrowa – equilateral triangle

cCeDehrowax shedhechrowa – isocelese triangle

cniV nizh – still, yet

cnreZ nrez – way, method

cnrezyN nrezyñ – (trans.) to explore, to discover

cnukreN nucreñ – (intrans.) to sneek, to tiptoe

cnur nur – game

cnurax cmeN nura meñ – to play a game

cnuryN nuryñ – (intrans.) to lie down

cnwoN nwoñ – (trans.) to put down

cnyf nyph – short

cnyven nybhen – long

cNeL ñel – left

criN riñ – right

cNruM ñrum – knowledge

cNrumin ñrumin – sensible, knowledgeable

cNruN ñruñ – (trans.) to know

cNulholsuN ñulcholsuñ – selfish, selfcentered, lonely

cNweL ñwel – so, correct, such

cNweloT ñweloth (dh) – also, too, equally

cgwoN gwoñ – (intrans.) to play

ckreN creñ – (intrans.) to go, to come

ckreN creñ – (trans.) to move

cvwoN bhwoñ – (intrans.) to walk

cpaNyN pañyñ – (trans.) to bend, to turn to the side

cpembeN pembeñ – flat

cpjeT pieth – paste, cream

cpoL pol – more, a lot, plenty

cporoN poroñ – to try, to attempt

cpren pren – shallow

cpsireN psireñ – (trans.) to lock, to confiscate

crobeN robeñ – (trans.) to pull

cselyF selysh – explanation

cselCax cbruN selsha bruñ – (trans.) to explain, to give an explanation

csevN sebhñ – (intrans.) to wait

csevN sebhñ – (trans.) to wait on (someone)

csihreT sichreth (dh) – then, thereafter

csihroS sichros – now, at this time

csihrosuN sichrosuñ – recently, nowadays

csmof smoph – always

csmoven smobhen – never

cvedyk bhedyc – light, torch, lamp

csyM sym – Eunomic year

cCaveN shabeñ – (trans.) to edit, to fix, to make suitable

cCtoN shtoñ – (trans.) to start, to begin

cCekreN shecreñ – (intrans.) to leave

cCesfureM shesphurem – history, past

csfureN sphureñ – (intrans.) to live, to be alive

csfureM sphurem – life

cCnyN shnyñ – (trans.) to find, to look for, to learn

cCuryN shuryñ – (trans.) to wash

cCwen shwen – bottle

cTryfet thryphet – device, machine

ctoh toch – exact

ctweL twel – many, a lot

cTuNeN thuñeñ – (intrans.) to work

cTuNeM thuñem – work

cTuNmeL thuñmel – worker

cTuryn thuryn – hole

curyN uryñ – (intrans.) to fall down

cvaeL bhael – wide, vast

cvalyn bhalyn – bright

cvermiL bhermil – tea

cveV vezh – quote, saying

cvihroS bhichros – that time, at that moment, then

cvreN bhreñ – (trans.) to need, to require

cvTuh bhdhuch – everything, all, entirity

cwiN wiñ – (trans.) to be, to exist

czajun zayun – free, unrestricted

czanuN zanuñ – (intrans.) to sit for a moment, to rest

czTiryN zdhiryñ – (intrans.) to take a break

czehrosuN zechrosuñ – sometimes, from time to time

czekreN zecreñ – (intrans.) to go for a walk, to go for a moment

czlekreN zlecreñ – (trans.) to delete

czlekreN zlecreñ – (intrans.) to never return

cznalyN znalyñ – (intrans.) to jump

cznalyN znalyñ – (trans.) to jump over (something)

cnalyN nalyñ – (intrans.) to fly

cnalyN nalyñ – (trans.) to fly over (something)

czuL zul – possibility

czuluN zuluñ – possibly, maybe

czuyN zuryñ – (intrans.) to trip

cJaeL zhael – proud

cJoL zhoñ – type, kind

cJun zhun – slow

cpalyk palyc – quick, fast

cCehryN shechryñ – (trans.) to put on

czehryN zehryñ – (trans.) to try on

9. Literature and Excerpts

9.1. Dryadic Myth: Song of the Universe

csnwor cGursmiryx

cwaDisex cpaeronisjex chwynax cvedjax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex csmirex cdrisax chliseL ,

cbewuNisex carJisex cnagCurodax cstoTaN cersaL ,

cviL csnworax chros’aerTjax cCeTaN csfedarisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex chwarax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex czmjergex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaN caryx cersaL ,

cviL csnworax cartemjax cCeTaN cartymisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex ckorax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex cJlex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaN ckojix cersaL ,

cviL csnworax ckojarjax cCeTaN ckojarisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex csfurax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex cspustex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaN csfix cersaL ,

cviL csnworax csfuraTjax cCeTaN csfuraTisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex cfarnax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex cskurnex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaN chlix cersaL ,

cviL csnworax chelvarjax cCeTaN chelvarisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex czarnax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex cskarsex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaM cmilyx cersaL ,

cviL csnworax cmilvarjax cCeTaM cmilvarisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex cpColax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex cTamsex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cnarodisjex czeS ciTaM cpTix cersaL ,

cviL csnworax cpyTmerjax cCeTaM cpyTmerisaL .

cwaDmelisex cvedisjex cJelax chwynax chliseL ,

ctwelux czhasux cdusex czlurmex cdrisax chliseL ,

carJisex cgJurodisjex czeS ciTaN cCjeryx cersaL ,

cviL csnworax czlaerjax cCegrusTaN cgruJelisaL .

Snwor Ghursmiry

Wadhise paeronisie chwyna bhedia chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse smire drisa chlisel,

Bewuñise arzhise nagzhuroda stothañ ersal,

Bhil snwora chros’aerthia shethañ Sphedarisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie chwara chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse zmierge drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes ithañ ary ersal,

Bhil snwora artemia shethañ Artymisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie cora chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse zhle drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes ithañ coyi ersal,

Bhil snwora coyaria shethañ Coyarisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie sphura chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse spuste drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes ithañ sphi ersal,

Bhil snwora sphurathia shethañ Sphurathisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie pharna chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse scurne drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes ithañ chli ersal,

Bhil snwora chelbharia shethañ Chelbharisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie zarna chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse scarse drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes itham mily ersal,

Bhil snwora milbharia shetham Milbharisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie pshola chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse thamse drisa chlisel,

Arzhise narodisie zes itham pthi ersal,

Bhil snwora pythmeria shetham Pythmerisal.

Wadhmelise bhedisie zhela chwyna chlisel,

Twelu zghasu duse zlurme drisa chlisel,

Arzhise gzhurodisie zes ithañ shiery ersal,

Bhil snwora zlaeria shegrusthañ Gruzhelisal.

Song of the Universe

From the seed of eternity a sprout of light grows,

With many branches stretching to the whole world the tree grows,

From a split heart the blossoms give birth to good and evil,

And Sphetaris begins to sing her song of space and time.

From the fruit of light a white sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all nights the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the first blossom gives way,

And the song the moon, Artymis begins to play.

From the fruit of light a yellow sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all days the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the second blossom give way,

And the song of the sun, Coyaris begins to play.

From the fruit of light a green sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all forests the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the third blossom gives way,

And the song of the earth, Sphurathis begins to play.

From the fruit of light a cyan sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all clouds the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the fourth blossom gives way,

And the song of the sky, Chelbharis begins to play.

From the fruit of light a blue sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all shores the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the fifth blossom gives way,

And the song of the sea, Milbharis begins to play.

From the fruit of light a black sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all shadows the tree grows,

From the heart of virtue the sixth blossom gives way,

And the song of nothing, Pythmeris begins to play.

From the fruit of light a red sprout grows,

With many branches stretching to all death the tree grows,

From the heart of malice the burning blossom gives way,

And the song of the Gods, Gruzhelis begins to disarray.

9.2. Dryadic Legend: The Princess of Camellias

csnworeL cNulaDyx

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cJoruN cJevhelsuN cksalux csaeM cbasjuM ,

ckraTin csaemaeruNin csfuresiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cJoruN cJevhelsuN csmirux csaeM cbasjuM ,

carJin cvsulon chwynon cwiM cbasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

carmuN carDemjerguN clunax cCnyM cbasjuM ,

czlurmax cNulurhisex cheM cbasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

carmuN carDemjerguN cersax cseM cbasjuM ,

cGrux cwaDux cGaerax csfeM cbasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cNuluN cNarhelsuN cdurmisex ckreM cbasjuM ,

cksalux cderym’poroN cwiM cbasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cNuluN cNarhelsuN czarJelax cpweM cbasjuM ,

cgruJotux carDeS cwiM cbasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cswaruN csoriNJluN cersax clestoM cbasjuM ,

cklivnex ckwaerax czeL cevasiS .

czalax czfalax cNulaTjax cTelyh’Telyh czeraL .

cswaruN csoriNJluN cmloDiN cers’seM cbasjuM ,

csjerjax cGelax czlestoM cbasiS .

Sworel Ñuladhy

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Zhoruñ zhebhghelsuñ Csalu saem basium,

Crathin saemaeruñin sphuresis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Zhoruń zhebhghelsuñ smiru saem basium,

Arzcin bhzulon chwynon wim basis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Armuñ ardhemierguñ luna shnym basium,

Zlurma ñulurchise chem basis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Armuñ ardhemierguñ ersa zem basium,

Ghru wadhu ghaera sphem basis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Ñuluñ ñarchelsuñ durmise crem basium,

Csalu derym-poroñ wim basis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Ñuluñ ñarchelsuñ zarzhela pwem basium,

Gruzhotu ardhes wim basis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Swaruñ Soriñzhluñ ersa lestom basium,

Clibhne cwaera zel ebhasis.

Zala zbhala ñulathia thelych-thelych zeral.

Swaruñ Soriñzhluñ mlodhin ers’sem basium,

Sieria ghela zlestom basis.

Princess of Camellias

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

Under the summer sunset she fought with her mother,

Though living in a land on the brink of war.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

Under the summer sunset she fought with the world,

Despite being so young, innocent and naive.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

In the growing autumn nights she watched the moon,

Although in lachrimosity she sought death.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

In the growing autumn nights she found love,

Even though they kissed in impudence.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

With the winter sunrise she ran away from home,

Even though her mother tried to stop her.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

With the winter sunrise she lost the ones she loved,

Yet she was the one who had done wrong.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

In the warm spring days she asked for forgiveness,

Although no one could hear her.

The delicate petals of the Camellia fall one by one.

In the warm spring days she had matured,

Yet she was to give up her autonomy forever.

9.3. Short Story: The Flower King

cTaeL cpewaT

cTaelax cpewaTax csmirinex chlisesaf chrosaf .

csfuroL cfjulgoL cstoS ciTaM cbaS . cax cDox carJux

cswarx cwiN caerasyx , cnruTax cersax cTaM cbaS , cviL

cvDuhiS cshaTiS csmiruN cNweDisex cviraeDoL cwiM

cbix cersasjuM . cDox cTaelax cpewaTax cgsaN

czpasax , cmolisex cviL cbsulisex caerTisex cvTuhax

cshaTax ckreS . clevin cJand’aerTin cers’sesax

cshaTax celvisex cGaevaS . cax cviL ckabCisex cbsax

cnruTmelax cTaelaTex cpewaTaTex ckreS . cJeloL

cTaroL ckaeson carDeS czTarux , citrax csfurax

czfermax cdaereM cbaS , cviL cgsirmux cnruTjux

czerameljux czalisex cTaelex cpewaTex czedrisax

cstoM cbaS :

cehrax cmilax cgsan cdasuN chrosuN , cnraz’aerToL

chwar’novjoL cdwesax ctolsax cdjax cbelym’belyM

csfurisex carDesoN . cswarin chaemin cbax csjen

cdaS , cviL cnalin cehrin cnweTin cmurnisex csfuren

cdasajoN . cvozaT csjerax cvToryn cdaloN . cDox

cTaelux cdeTrux cgjux cswarax chjaNax cdjax

cGel’vrodaf cporoTaN cgalax , cdax csjaeTex

ckresoN . cTaelx cpewaTajoN , ctolsax cdjax

cboraTaN cgalnoN .

chreDisex , cGasux ckrentiNax cmelyN

claes’haTasax , cTaelaTex cpewaTaTex cGrisex

ckreS . cbex cwiM cpeGoS chwar czfalasx , cviL

ckelisux cpvjaTux cbax cdweS . cTaelex cpewaTex

cCehisex czedrisax cstoM cbasjuM :

claeseh cmilviCeh csfureL chworaT cwin cdaloN .

cNulex chelsex cwiM cvaeL cJand’aerTaloN , cviL

cJorex chelsex cwin cdah csfjulaloN . cdax

csfuresuN chrosuN , cdax ctwelex caerTex ckresoN ,

cviL ctwelax cartemax clarDesax cgsan cdasoN . cDox

cgax cpson cdalax , cviL cCjerux cgsirmjux cgruzyS

cwiN cgalnax , csjaerTex cdax ckresjumoN , cTaeL

cpewaTajoN .

ctaelex cpewaTex czedrisax cston cdrisaTaS :

cDelax cshaTax cgaTex ckresoN , cTaeL cpewaTajoN .

cgux cklivax csfurisex carDeloN , cviL cklivax

cGrisex carDeloN .

cTaebax cduTan cTaeL cpewaTaS :

cNweDisex czedrisax cstoN chrowaTaliF , cNjer

carJux cfarun cwiN cNweL cnruTmelaliF .

cax cNjer chrowaTax cbaTex ckreS , cviL czedrisax

cstoM cbaS :

cNweDax cTaermax cvsulux carJux cNrun cTaeL

cpewaTalaraex carJin cmelyn cdasoN , cNjer cNweL

cwiM cbalnax csihrosaf csjaerTaf caThisex cgsan

cdalajoN . chaTex cwin cnruT czfalaliS , czfalof

cwiN crovnyx cevoTalarajoN .

chworaTax cCekreS , cbiL czedrisex cbjex cTaebax

cduTan cTaeL cpewaTaS .

cNweliF , cGrax cersax czen cdaS .

Thael Pewath

Thaela Pewatha smirine chlisesaph chrosaph, sphurol phiulgol stos itham bas. A dho

arzcu swar wiñ aerasy, nrutha ersa tham bas, bhil bhdhuchis schathis smiruñ

ñwedhise bhiraedhol wim bi ersasium. Dho Thaela Pewatha gzań zbasa, molise bhil

bzulise aerthise bhdhucha schatha cres. Lebhin zcand’aerthin ers’sesa schatha elbhise

gaebhas. A bhil cabzhise bza nruthmela Thaelathe Pewathathe cres. Zhelol tharol

caeson ardhes zdharu, itra sphura zbherma daerem bas, vil gzirmu nruthiu zerameliu

zalise Thaele Pewathe zedrisa stom bas.

“Echra mila gzan dasuñ chrosuñ, nraz’aerthol chwar’nobhiol dwesa tolsa dia belym-

belym sphurise ardhesoñ. Swarin chaemin ba sien das, bhil nalin echrin nwethin

murnise sphuren dasayoñ. Bhozath siera bhdhoryn daloñ. Dho thaelu dethru giu

swara chiańa dia ghel’bhrodaph porothań gala, da siaerthe cresoñ. Tcael

Pewathayoñ, tolsa dia borathań galnoñ?”

Chredcise, ghasu crentiña melyñ laes’chathasa, Tcaelathe Pewathathe ghrise cres. Be

wim peghos chwar zbhalas, bhil celisu pobhiathu ba dwes. Thaele Pewathe shechise

zedrisa stom basium.

“Laesech milbhishech sphurel Chworatc win daloñ. Ñule chelse wim bhael

zhand’aerthaloñ, bhil zhore chelse win dach sphiulaloñ. Da sphuresuñ chrosuñ, da

twele aerthe cresoñ, bhil twela artema lardcesa gzan dasoñ. Dho ga pson dala, bhil

scieru gzirmiu gruzys wiñ galna, siaerthe da cresiumoñ, Thael Pewathayoñ.”

Thaele Pewathe zedrisa ston drisathas.

“Dhela schatha gathe cresoñ, Thael Pewathayoñ. Gu clibha sphurise ardheloñ, bhil

clibha ghrise ardheloñ?”

Thaeba duthan Thael Pewathas.

“Ñwedhise zedrisa stoñ Chrowathalish, ñier arzhu pharun wiñ ñwel nruthmelalish.”

A ñier Chrowatha bathe cres, bhil zedrisa stom bas.

“Ñwedha thaerma bhzulu arzcu ñrun Tcael Pewathalarae arzhin melyn dasoñ, ñier

ñwel wim balna sichrosaph siaertcaph athchise gzan dalayoñ. Chathe win nruth

zbhalalis, zbhaloph wiñ robhny ebhothalarayoñ.”

Chworatha shecres, bhil zedrise bie tcaeba duthan Thael Pewathas.

“Ñwelish, ghra ersa zen das…”

The Flower King

When the Flower King came into the world, he resided upon a lush hilltop. He

blossomed many beautiful flowers, as it was spring, and his blossoms were more

enchanting than any other flower in the world. Many flowers from near and far

traveled to see the Flower King. They gathered together in the deep valley, and

suddenly a charming floret approached the King. She wore vivid green clothing with

teeth like jades upon her red face, and elegantly as if dancing she began to speak with

a delicate voice.

“I have grown up very lavishly staring at the lucid sea from sandy beaches, white like

snow. I have bathed in the sweet rains of spring, and I have lived freely and carefree

in the clear, soothing wind. I am known as the Rose. Through your majesty’s great

virtue, I have come here to share with you my sweet aroma in my sleeping chambers.

Will you accept me, your majesty?”

Soon after an old flower with cane in hand clumsily approached the King. She had

faded white hair, and she stood with a crooked stem. She spoke politely to the King.

“I am the Orchid who lives by the old river. To the south stretches a boundless field,

and to the north lies towering mountains. I have traveled great distances and I have

seen many moons pass in my lifetime. I am here to serve, and to prevent your majesty

from being blinded by the poisons of appearance.”

A dryas flower then spoke to the King.

“Two flowers have approached you, your majesty… To whom will you listen and to

whom will you not?”

The King answered accordingly.

“The Orchid knows well, but such a floret of beauty is quite rare…”

The Orchid came forward and spoke once more.

“I humbly believed the wise King would recognize true loyalty, but now as I stand

here, I clearly see that is not so. A flower may have beautiful petals, but underneath

those petals may also lie thorns.”

The Orchid turned to leave, and the King responded to her words.

“Indeed, I have made a mistake…”

9.4. Classical Dryadic Poetry

9.4.1. Song of the Dryads

csnwor czedrisjadyx

clohisjex cluny’vedisjex

czedrisisjex czalisex czferymisex

cnalef cnuCon cnweTaL ,

cnruTjex cnarodjex cartymisex .

“Snwor Zedrisiady”

Lochisie Luny’bhedisie

Zedrisisie Zalise Zbherymise

Naleph Nushon Nwethal,

Nruthie Narodie Artymise.

“Song of the Dryads”

Tis from the trees’ gentle

Leaves of faint moonlight

That the wind softly whispers

To Artymis of beautiful nature.

9.4.2. Tree Never Grown

carDelen cdriS

chlevinex cholos’durginex

cprosinjex cpuCtinjex cpwelinjex

csmoven csfeN csoralen ,

csormax cshelex czTaNGalex .

“Ardhelen Dris”

Chlebhine Cholos’durgine

Prosinie Pushtinie Pwelinie

Smobhen Spheñ Soralen,

Sorma Schele Zdhañghale.

“Tree Never Grown”

Tis in the cold, lonely darkness

Of a lost forest’s heart

That the sun touches not

To branches longing for warmth.

9.4.3. My Blossom in the Wind

cd’eryS cnweTinyx

cmahisex cmil’nweTisex

chul’evalnisjex chwerisjex chronisjex

csfurmax csfeN csoraL ,

cswarisex cselosin cdarJin .

«D’erys Nwethiny»

Machise Mil’nwethise

Chul’ebhalnisie Chwerisie Chronisie

Sphurma Spheñ Soral,

Swarise Selosin D’arzhin.

“My Blossom in the Wind”

Tis from the bracing sea breeze

Of indescribable true love

That the sun brings light to my life,

Soothingly within my stolen heart.

9.4.4. A Future Together

celyf chreT

crawaTjoL crwes’valoL

cGorsux cGorjux cGeljux

chaemax chreJljax chuseL ,

chilelnjex chronjex cd’arJex .

“Elyph Chretc”

Rawathiol Rwes’bhalol

Ghorsu Ghoriu Gheliu

Chaema Chrezhlia Chusel,

Chilelnie Chronie D’arzhe.

“A Future Together”

Tis atop the dew covered lily petals

With the voice of a marvelous dream

That the rainfall of tomorrow calls out

To my heart of endless love.A Grammar of Eastern Classical Dryadic image
A Grammar of Eastern Classical Dryadic image
A Grammar of Eastern Classical Dryadic image

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