Siinyamda

Siinyamda

Author: Britton Watkins, William S. Annis

MS Date: 10-29-2014

FL Date: 11-01-2014

FL Number: FL-000026-00

Citation: Watkins, Britton, & Annis, William S. 2014.

«Siinyamda.» FL-000026-00, Fiat Lingua,
. Web. 01 Nov. 2014.

Copyright: © 2014 Britton Watkins & William S. Annis. This

work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
License.

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Fiat Lingua is produced and maintained by the Language Creation Society (LCS). For more information
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Introduction – bádì’\sya

The primary reason that Siinyamda exists is as a function of production design and world-building
for Senn, the 2014 indie sci-fi film (http://sennition.com). The fact that it is a functioning con-
lang and not just visual “decoration” is a byproduct of my (Watkins) interest in conlanging both
as a hobby and professionally. There was never any idea that the language would be spoken
extensively on camera, but everyone involved felt that it should play an important role in the
audience’s experience of the film.

Departure Points — Ĕmda

As the director, Josh Feldman had to approve the look of the language in every context that it
would appear on screen. The initial designs were all based on its look and not the way it might
sound. Josh wanted it to have an “original” feel in the sense that it should not look like any readily
identifiable script. The majority of viewers should not consistently say, “looks like Arabic” or
“looks like Hindi,” etc. The character names Senn and Kana were decided early on, as were the
planet name Pyom and the disease name Dranitic Fever. This told me that the orthographic
system should support consonant clusters and doubled nasals at the ends of words, but there
was little other guidance and essentially no restrictions from Josh. However, we knew that there
would be a great deal of the the writing on screen, so it had to be something practical. At this
stage the working name of the language was Ĕmda, “speech.” I began prototyping with a Japanese
brush-pen.

1

After much scribbling, Josh approved these proto-letters as a feasible launchpad for a more
detailed dive into the design. I moved directly into rendering the glyphs as vector based art-
work in Adobe Illustrator. This gave me maximum flexibility to easily play with the forms and
assigning them to phonemes.

Even “fresh out of the pipe” the mapping of the phonology to the orthography was largely
complete and final. If you learn to read the language, 95% of this will be legible to you. The
most significant changes between then and now are (1) doubled nasals are no longer considered
“vocalic” so they are not subscripted as all vowels are. (2) The shapes of k (k) and g (g) changed.
(3) The romanization of ĕ (/ə/) and ŏ (/ɔ/) changed to ė and ø for the convenience of being
able to type them on Apple’s iOS. (4) The general shape of ø shifted as did the way it would be
written in handwriting. (5) The letter sh (x) did not exist yet in this state of the language. It
was added when Josh named Senn’s best friend Resh. (7) The idea for the special compound for
the first person pronoun Ød was deprecated and abandoned. (8) Highly “one off” and customized
doubled consonants (with the exception of the nasals) were re-conceived as being produced with
a special leading diacritic, reducing the total number of glyphs.

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Writing Down Words

In the film Senn is reading a book. For the purpose of “keeping it real” we decided on a name
for the book’s story and explored what that title might look in print. The Tale of the Clever Yal
initially became Uddõì Yal ngo Bìnna in the language which was then named Sinya ngo Amda
(Language of Writing) using primarily Japanese grammatical structures. We assembled the words
using the glyphs you see here and ended up with the following:

Josh felt strongly that this looked too much like Chinese. This is not really surprising considering
its origins out of a Japanese brush-pen. There are two or three shots in the film that features a
scant few words in this script, but it was essentially just set aside. Josh wanted to do something
that would feel “comfortable” yet still “odd” to audiences from all regions and cultures. It does
inform Siinyamdan handwriting however. And, this was the foundation for the system of the
writing, the phonology, and to some extent the birth of the grammar.

Familiar, Yet Foreign

The production design budget would not allow for Senn to live in exotic environments that no
one had ever seen before. We felt that atmospherically everything should seem run down and
un-cared-for for at least 60 to 70 years. So we set the timeframe for the props to 1930’s~40’s US.
That then sent me looking for typeface styles that might meet that need. We never conceived of
this language as having only one typeface. That is not how the real world works. Compare these
three words (“university” mahaawithayaalai) in Thai:

If you do not read Thai, at first glance they may not even look like the same language to you, but
this is the kind of variation that you are accustomed to seeing in the Roman alphabet on a daily
basis. This is the level of realism we strived for typographically. So, the launchpad for the next
iteration of the written language was a real, slightly “old fashion” typeface.

3

Look again at the Thai above. What you likely read as a lower case “n” in the middle of the
center word is actually an aspirated “th.” The backward “u” is an “m.” The “a” with a piece
missing at the bottom is an “l.” Thai type designers embrace the ambiguity of these forms with
completely different letters in the Roman alphabet and I did the same. Where my handwriting
“t” in round one of the design was a bit extra squiggly and amorphous, I formalized it by turning
it into a backwards “s” from this typeface. It was still legible to me in that fashion, so that’s what
I did. A very angled and slightly squashed “oval” became a perfectly round ch.” The tail on the
capital “Q” became my voicing marker “head” on all of the stops that have such a counterpart.
Here is the first “real” full version of a Siinyamdan typeface:

Is this perfect? No. If it were going to be turned into a font and typed day after day by native
speakers of Siinyamda, definitely not. But, does it have enough gravitas (what Jim Hopkins’ lan-
guage Itlani has as the word brudat) to be on screen in fits and starts for 5 seconds here and 15
seconds there? Josh and I both thought so. And here it is on the cover of Senn’s book from the

actual film with the now revised title Uddõì Yal ngo Bad for the same meaning given a page or

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so back. During the process of working on the typefaces, I also was refining the vocabulary and
grammar, and the placeholder word for “tale, story” which had been bìnna became bad, and it
still is that word today—especially since it’s in the finished film. The nasalized adjectival ending
on uddõì clever has become a relic of an accent from a former age. It’s an old book.

Does it still look like Chinese? Maybe. A little. But not if you know how to read Chinese, and
particularly if you’re a native reader of the language. All of these letterforms undeniably come
from the Roman alphabet. The pieces and parts are simply arranged in a way that makes them
look distinctly not Roman. I love ligatures (in the typography and calligraphy of all scripts), so
when I have the bandwidth to make them in Siinyamda, I do, and that likely makes it all come
across as a bit more like something from Asia.

Guts and Bolts

With this level of confidence in how the language was working I set off to accomplish the next
two milestones. (A) Make fonts for other typefaces/styles that would be very useful for creating
artwork in a highly productive fashion and (B) flesh out the grammar and lexicon so that I could
also very productively translate any word, phrase, or text that was needed for prop-making. We
knew that we would print posters and use writing on wardrobe, household items, etc. There was
a lot to do.

The language did not need to be highly conceptual or out there, so I just fell back on dumping
all of the grammars and cultural contexts that are already familiar to me into something that my
brain would not need to struggle with excessively. I also found in the art direction process that it
was easier to have lots of “little” (meaning “short”) words to work with in many cases. In others it
was handy to have some that were a bit longer. Words in the shape of CVC(2)V were particularly
nice for my sensibilities. So riffing off of Esperanto and Cherokee, I decided to create an extensive
list of VC(2)(C,C) roots that could be inflected to become nouns or verbs or adjectives or adverbs. I
also imagined the language being a mashup of something polysynthetic that was spoken natively
by a population (Senn’s ancestors) that was occupied by a completely foreign culture/power who
brought in a language that was highly analytic (the corporation). This gave me the flexibility
with lexicon-building that I needed to meet the visual purpose that the writing would play on
the production. And, this lead to my simply calling the language Siinyamda, (s.iiny.amd.a [per-
son].write.speak.[noun]), “One’s speaking/communicating writing-ly.” NB: Polysynthetic words
often don’t “English” well.

The phonology is largely European. French meets Italian meets Portuguese with a touch of
Thai thrown in, but no tones. (Josh: “No tones!”). The grammar (sentence structure) is very much
like Japanese. I speak it fluently, so if I ever have any question about some complex structure I
just say it to myself in Japanese and let that guide me in codifying how it might work in Siinyamda.
The verbs borrow several ideas from Cherokee, which I’ve been studying (not enough) for well
over a year. They don’t copy it directly, but they are inspired by ideas from it. Unlike Cherokee,
which proudly generally eschews direct borrowings from other languages, Siinyamda borrowed
like crazy from the language of the occupying power. In my fictional back story, over the course
of many hundred of years, it’s all been churning around so that it works in a way that I can
fit almost any segment of text with any needed meaning into a space of any aspect ratio. If a

5

derived native concept makes a word that is too long, then I just give it a one syllable solution
from the other stock. This is essentially the Japanese relationship to Chinese, so I just accept that
things like this exist in the real world and enjoy it. Thai has the opposite. Native words are very
short. Words like mahaawithayaalai from a couple of pages ago that come from Pali/Sanskrit via
Buddhism are often very long. And guess what? English is the same. Our native Teutonic stock
terms tend to be quite short. Things borrowed from Latin via French are the opposite. Smart
(one syllable). Intelligent (four). So, in Siinyamda I fervently embrace this phenomenon. Finally,
I come from the Deep South in the United States. The language I was born into loves contractions
in everyday speech. I’m not sure how to spell “I’on’t know,” but I can say it and understand it
fluently.

Senn’s world was once wealthy and prosperous, but not in his or even his great grand par-
ents’s lifetime. There is no literary or art scene of any description. Education and literacy exist
only so that workers can know how to obey rules and follow detailed instructions. Spelling con-
ventions are essentially irrelevant to them. I also embrace this context. Many of the artifacts
seen in the film would have been created as much as 100 years prior to the events on screen, so
they would have been designed by someone who was more educated and attuned to standards,
but there is no reason to be “snooty” when making propaganda targeted at blue-collar laborers.
Apostrophes abound in Siinyamda, signifying that some kind of non-analytic conjunction has
occurred. I have lots of fun with that and if contractions are good enough for everyday Japanese,

shinakutewanaranai > shinakya
> shichatta
shiteshimatta

they are also good enough for this conlang. Japanese, no apostrophes. Siinyamda, TONS. gem
\tyav gem ttyang > ge’\tyav ge’ttyang today (see it in the wild on the poster below); gem xo wf Antf
gem sho wė antė this is a tree > gem xo w’Antf gem sho w’antė or even gem xo wa’ntf gem sho
wa’nte. This convention gives me maximum flexibility for copy-fitting and also jibes well with
the fictional context of the film’s story. Spelling, schmelling. Is’s’all good!

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A Never-ending Story

Senn is “in the can” as the industry is fond of saying and has
enjoyed almost a year of viewings at film festivals and private
screenings. It’s been both delightful and surprising that au-
dience members who know nothing of conlanging still find
the language and its use visually in the film intriguing and
worthy of inquiry. I have lived with this language in my head
(and heart) for over 18 months now and I have probably cre-
ated as much new vocabulary and missing grammatical con-
ventions during the collaboration on this document as I did
for the film itself. The more I play around with it, the more
it’s growing in size and growing on me.
I’ll move now to
more internal (fictional) context for why it is the way it is.
I hope you will find the true history of Senn’s tongue as told
within the framework of the the history of Pyom as enjoyable
to read as I do to fabricate parts of it now, even long after the
credits have rolled.

Internal History

Farewell Rora

Royddin corporate archives document in the Mizemmian year 43’097, that 9 individuals (five
females and four males) varying in age from three to 56 planetary context years (y.pc) were col-
lected from region 32’35 of candidate world 57’92’81 and transferred to Resource Evaluation Cen-
ter 379’2. Records show that “the stock is deemed sufficiently intelligent, robust, and malleable
to be retained and developed into a corporate asset.”

Records also show that those who had been collected for
evaluation referred to their world as Rlorla (sic.). They were
a socially complex people, but decidedly non-technological
and had never knowingly encountered off-world cultures as
such.

7 y.pc later the Planetary Asset Development Group of
Royddin Resources came to an agreement for transfer of
ownership with an entity known only through its broker as
Ìy (sic.). The broker produced a deed to the planet that was
deemed valid under Mizemmian Corporate Practices Law
(Sec. 78’98778’25’3’9), or more accurately, under a loophole
therein. And, for the sum of z397’09’7 the Planetary Asset
now still know as Pyom (“jewel”) became the property of Mi-
izemm ngo Roìddìnn (Mizemm ng. Royddin, or simply MngR). The Ìy signed the contract with

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this mysterious mark and the name we spell today simply as “Rora” began to vanish swiftly into
historic oblivion.

Seeing the Light

The natives never rebelled against their new corporate ownership, at least not in any great num-
bers. The acquisition brought with it technology to completely erase a person’s existence from
the individual’s brain, but to simultaneously leave them physically healthy so that it was possible
for the victim to be retrained into their humanity. Another loophole in corporate law deemed
this process humane.

However, the “zombies” produced by this brainwashing procedure were so unable to care
for themselves that they were not even capable of finding food or water and would dehydrate
and starve to death unless they were painstakingly retrained out of their second infancy. This
condition was a tremendous burden on their families and proved to be the perfect deterrent
against open rebellion. Any emergent leader not firmly under corporate control was particularly
likely to “see the light” (a reference to the bright emanations characteristic of the brainwashing
equipment), and end up naked and drooling on someone’s doorstep a day later.

Ljeyo’wahmdo

The precise pronunciation of the name has been lost, but the natives of Rora called their polysyn-
thetic language Ljeyo’wahmdo (“we speak it among ourselves”). Attempts were made briefly
around R270—equating to 270 years after the Royddinese acquisition—to reconstruct it com-
pletely, but to little avail. Too many generations had passed and the original Roran way of life
had been completely obliterated by that time. Fragments, like the philosophy of llyun & srad,
were maintained secretly in song and poems that were passed down orally to younger genera-
tions, but speakers always denied any knowledge of the old ways or preferences for them for fear
of having their minds wiped away.

8

The Royddin corporation brought with the acquisition and occupation their highly analytic
language Royddinese, a mutually intelligible dialect of its parent company’s Mizemmian Stan-
dard. Corporate policy forbade the general teaching of Royddinese to all of the newly conscripted
workforce, but as the dense and opaque structure of the Roran dialects was impenetrable for the
new ownership, the Office of Sociopsychological Resource Optimization (OSRO) devised a cre-
ole strategy for the 2nd~5th generations that proved tolerably practical and enforceable as new
generations were bred into the labor force.

By R130 two very distinct languages, both with a great deal of vocabulary from Mizemmian
Standard, were being spoken in everyday life on Pyom. Royddinese proper was artificially con-
strained to adhere to its origins and history. The 7th Mizemmian Dynasty had endured for well
over 30,000 y.pc in its current organizational paradigm and this required strict policing of lin-
guistic conventions within the corporate hierarchy. Certain drift was inevitable due to the great
distances of space, but Pyom’s location meant that at least every 7 to 9 years managers received
instruction on how to modulate their pronunciation, reporting style and vocabulary to remain
compliant and in good standing with regional and central headquarters.

A select few native Rorans who were promoted into the corporate management class learned
Royddinese for privacy and reporting requirements, but if they ever taught it to non-management
individuals without authorization, all involved were summarily exposed to the light. Linguistic
leakage was therefore extremely rare with the exception of technology-related nouns and some
abstract concepts for which it was more convenient for the corporation to just teach the working
class the words or versions of the words that they already used commonly in Royddinese. And
so it went for the first 383 years of Rora reborn as Pyom.

The Yosetlo Experiment

In R384 the linguists of the OSRO received authorization and funding to experimentally manipu-
late the common language of the indigenous workforce. This was done over the course of more
than 75 years to accomplish three primary goals:

• Study/analysis and documentation of the language in its form at the time and its natural
evolution over the course of the study period in terms of semantic drift, emergence of
slang, etc.

• Standardization/simplification of the language in order to make it more approachable for

new managers and overseers originating from off world.

• Experimentation in the role of language as an influencer of productivity and employee

complacency.

The first researchers who were actually native speakers of Royddinese named this project in the
language of their affection, Yosetlo, “Our private tinkering.”

By R450 the Yosetlo project had trained approximately 2,000,000 individuals over three gen-
erations in the language they eventually named Sishletlamda (“Reformed Universal Speech”).
This number represented roughly 40% of the population of the entire planet. The most notewor-
thy features of this semi-engineered tongue were a clarification and normalization of several

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phonemes and a highly artificial simplification and standardization of the heart of the language,
its roots. For example the R397-era disyllabic root ahsi be active; take action which belonged to the
now extinct Class 2 Apophonic Paradigm (d.ohsh.a., en.essh.e hrl.ahss.a, k.ahss.a, y.ohsh.o…)
was formalized and simplified to the new and very regular root asy (d.asy.a, n.asy.a, hl.asy.a,
y.asy.a). During the process, control groups from populations who had been “converted” to
Sishletlamda and those who still spoke the essentially unmodified tongue were tested against
each other. Records indicate there was likely a bias on the part of researchers to find their new
creation superior for the corporate goals at hand. However, in the big picture of the history of
the language that is today called Padnamda (“It is commonly spoken”), the Yosetlo experiment,
at least from the perspective of its corporate-sponsored goals agenda, became irrelevant very
quickly.

GPE I

In R452 based on massive corruption within the Office of Accounting and Facility Operations the
first Great Pyomian Econopocalypse (GPE I) began with very little warning. By R453 over 575,000
individuals had been summarily laid off and ejected from corporate controlled campuses all over
the planet. Impact on Pyom was most noticeable in the territories immediately surrounding Roy-
ddin’s HQ and Central Manufacturing. The management who caused the calamity were publicly
executed for treachery, but corporate law did not allow for the mass extermination of 100s of
thousands of innocent employees who had merely become redundant. If the layoff had involved
up to a few thousand they’d have all been brainwashed before “release” per standard operating
procedure. But, even carrying out the synaptic purges would have been impossible based on
the available staff and holding facilities—not to mention the cost of imprisonment during pro-
cessing—so they were simply let go. Roughly 60% of those who left the corporation’s employ
were speakers of Sishetlamda. The other 40% spoke the unmodified language of the late R300’s.
The vast majority of both sub-segments died of starvation and warring over scarce resources.
Royddin erected massive walls to protect their facilities and consumables, and aftershock layoffs
related to GPE I continued for another 4.5 years. By R460 the Seggrøn (extramurosian territory
outside the manufactory walls) population had stabilized at approximately 85,000 and another
creole, Pẽbamda (better known to us as Ditchling) was being born.

The people of the Ditches (the open sewers of poverty outside the Manufactory walls) found
ways to live off of the combination of waste from the corporation and rudimentary agriculture
that was still possible at that time. Total environmental devastation came in later centuries. The
quality of their life was not good, but linguistically they were free.

The Reprieve

In R474 Royddin received the most unusual order in its entire Pyomian history. An agent ap-
proached the sales division with a request to purchase 7.73% of Pyom’s atmosphere and 2.81%
of its water. There was an odd stipulation however that the resources would have to be “refur-
bished” to pre-acquisition standards, including the guarantee of “typical microscopic organism
and mineral content for an average sample from the geographic regions specified” in multiple

10

sub-sections of the agreement. The fee offered was initially thought to have been a translation
error. After it was verified, Royddin executives (no’to yi ̃ mewũ—a polite translation would
be “jumping through hoops backward”), found a way to accommodate the order. Everyone
suspected the Ìy were behind it all, but as no signature was required—only payment—the cus-
tomer(s) remain a mystery to this day. The event, known anecdotally as “The Reprieve,” while
mercilessly challenging for Royddin biochemists, is not actually significant in the long view of
corporate history except for the fact that the terms of the agreement necessitated a speed for
which the corporation had no choice but to employ roughly 19,000 individuals from the Seg-
grøn, the Ditches—temporarily only, of course—for approximately 7.5 years. During this time
work crews mixed and everyone’s language began to blend and change a bit further.

GPEs II & III and the 721

Beginning in R591 and R680 respectively, Pyom experienced two additional planet-wide eco-
nomic catastrophes. The layoffs, mass expulsion of workers, and rehiring cycles that ensued
ensured that Ditchling and Padnamda mixed with each other like pebbles tossed about together
in a jar.

Near the beginning of GPE III in R682, the unthinkable (from the Royddin corporate intelli-
gence perspective) happened. 723 executives who were fluent in Royddinese (allegedly over 600
of them having it hereditarily from their own parents as their native tongue) were detained and
told they were being transferred off-world to other professional assignments. In reality, their
salaries had been deprecated and they were scheduled for brainwashing. Through a clerical er-
ror, the brother of a deprecated sister learned of this planned action and he was in a position to
sabotage the cerebral purges, but only by smuggling all of the deprecated into the Seggrøn—into
the filth of the Ditches outside the towering walls. In the darkness of night they all changed into
rags and began their escape. During the mayhem, two were killed, but 721 of them vanished
into the Ditches and no further accounting of them has ever emerged in corporate records. The
treacherous and heroic brother who instigated the escape was executed. It is supposed that up

11

to several hundred had secreted away enough wealth that they were able to flee Pyom entirely,
but many remained and became integrated into the Royddin-loathing masses who wake and fall
asleep every day and night to “the eternal stench” (Ditchling: givyikha). They have passed their
linguistic gold down to their offspring. Though the vast amount of information that historically
flowed through the corporation’s information systems is no longer there, the espionage economy
on Pyom still thrives.

The GSE and Pyom Today

As much as Pyom suffered from GPEs I through III, it did not completely collapse. By R742 it had
been so depleted of resources and fallen so low on internal forecasting projections that it was vir-
tually unknown at Royddin headquarters, and even less so in the grand boardrooms of Mizemm.
To seal the already rapidly declining backwater’s fate, on the last day of Hnasàì, the Miizemmian
“Festival of Assets” a frenemy corporation economically eviscerated System 92, including Pyom,
by reallocating funds that had been slated for a loan promised to Royddin. It is rumored that the
entire debacle was precipitated by a snide comment made to one heir by another over cocktails
and thyurian snail canapés at a private dinner party. The true cause will likely never be officially
revealed.

Since the Great System-wide Econopocalypse (GSE), Pyom has become a riwa in Ditchling par-
lance, a barely extant “shade” on the verge of passing completely out of human awareness. Fewer
than 190,000 people still eke out an existence on the forlorn world. More people in the Ditches
speak Royddinese than in the corporate offices of the Manufactory. “Tunngem sed estė” the
walls now wither is the new status quo. The last linguist left Pyom over 60 years ago and the
Padnamda dialect of the barely-have’s who still labor for a wage and the Ditchling of the utterly-
have-not’s have mixed quite freely for decades. Welcome to Senn’s world.

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Phonology and Orthography – samdonra \de sinyamda

The romanization of Siinyamda is mostly straightforward, but a few choices for the vowels were
motivated by what was available on a tablet computer. Unless otherwise marked, the consonants
have their IPA values:

Bilabial Alveolar

p p
b b

m m

t t
d d
s s
z z
n n
r r
h hl [ɬ]
l l

Palatal
c ch [tʃ]

x sh [ʃ]
j j [ʒ]

Velar
k k
g g

v ng [ŋ]

y y [j]

w w

The vowels, using their initial form in the native script:

ii [i] I

ì [ɪ] Ì

e [ɛ] E

ė [ə] F

u U

o O

ø [ɔ] Ø

a A

Note the IPA values of ė and ø especially, as well as ii for [i] and ì for [ɪ].

In addition to the simple vowels are the diphthongs au [aʊ̯] Ä, oì [oɪ̯] Þ, øì [ɔɪ̯] Ò, ey [eː] Ey,1

and ai [aɪ̯] Ay.

In the native script, when following a consonant the vowels are written under the consonant,
as in dde \de, ngo vo. The initial forms are simply a double-bar prop element to which the normal
subscribed vowels are attached.

The vowels a, e, ì, o and u, as well as the diphthongs au and oì, can be nasalized, ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ,
ãu, and õì. In the native script, this is marked by a small horizontal dash to the left of the vowel,
~. Occasionally a sloppy speller will write ĩĩ instead of ĩ for that nasalized
as in ddẽ \de
vowel.

~ and bãu bä

See Appendix E (p. 85) for different typefaces created for the film.

1Sometimes written é in the romanization, this is most commonly found in the female diminutive -lé

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Geminates – niv tilsa
Any consonant except hl, w or y may occur doubled, not only medially but initially. For the
digraphs in the romanization gemination is indicated by repeating the first letter, ssh for [ʃː]. In
the native orthography non-nasal geminates are marked with the prefix \, as in dde \de and. The
nasals have separate geminate forms, a following vertical dash: nn N, mm M, nng V.

Word Shapes

Valid onsets include any vowel or diphthong, any single consonant or geminate, as well as:

• b bb d dd g gg k kk m mm n nn nng p pp s ss sh ssh t tt z zz + r
• b bb ch cch d dd g gg hl j jj k kk l ll m mm n nn ng nng p pp s ss sh ssh t tt z zz + w
• b bb d dd g gg hl k kk l ll m mm n nn ng nng p pp r rr s ss t tt + y
• sl, sn, sp

The valid intervocalic clusters are: bbl bbr bby bd bg bhl bj bl bm bn bz chhl chk chl chm
chn chng chp chr db ddl ddr ddw ddy dg dhl dl dm dn dz gb gd ggl ghl gl gm gn gz jb jd jg
jhl jjl jjr jjy jl jm jn jng jr jy kch khl kkhl kkl kks kksh kky kl km kn kp ks ksh kt lb lch ld lg
lhl lj lk llb llch lld llg llhl llj llk llm lln llng llp llr lls llsh llt llz lm ln lng lp lr ls lsh lt lz mb
mch md mg mhl mj mk ml mmb mmch mmd mmg mmhl mmj mmk mml mmn mmng mmp
mms mmsh mmt mmz mn mng mp mr ms msh mt mz nch nd ndr ngch ngd nghl ngj ngk
ngl ngm ngp ngs ngsh ngt ngz nhl nj nl nn nn nnb nnch nnd nng nngb nngch nngd nnghl
nngj nngk nngl nngm nngp nngs nngsh nngt nngz nnhl nnj nnk nnl nnp nnr nns nnsh nnt
nnz ns nsh nt nz pch phl pk pl pm pn png pp pphl ppl ps psh pt rb rch rd rg rhl rj rk rl rm
rn rng rp rrb rrch rrd rrg rrhl rrj rrk rrl rrm rrn rrng rrp rrs rrsh rrt rrw rrz rs rsh rt rw
rz shhl shk shl shl shm shn shng shp sht shy sk sl sm sn sng sp sr ss ssh sshhl sshk sshl sshl
sshm sshn sshng sshp sshr ssht sshy ssk ssl ssm ssn ssng ssp sst ssw st t thl tk tl tm tn tng
tp ts tsh tthl ttl tts ttsh tty zb zd zg zhl zl zm zn zng zy zzhl zzl zzm zzn zzng zzy.

Valid word-final codas are: any vowel or diphthong, m mm n nn ng nng l (ll) r (rr) d j sh.

The sh is marginal, restricted to certain grammatical constructions and a few names.

The Elision Mark

The elision mark, which looks much like an apostrophe in the native orthography, marks three
distinct phenomena in Siinyamda. In all but a few special cases, the mark is used when different
words are merged into a single stress unit (effectively, one word), so the mark is written between
the parts without spaces. It’s w’Antf w’antė not *w’ Antf *w’ antė. The main exception to this
is yu
~’ yũ’ that (conj.), and when the perfective -ó and attributive o merge in the nominalization
construction o yu (p. 34).

While the elision mark may appear in the same position as the deleted element, it is just as
likely for the elision mark to be placed in such a way that the writing is simplified. In particular,

14

~’dadfkwf yãu’dadėkwė is
the mark will be placed to avoid writing an independent vowel. So, yä
preferred to yãud’adėkwė y~
äd’Adfkwf. This avoidance of initial vowels has been generalized, so
that the elision mark may simply be written after the most recent vowel before any sort of elision
or assimilation.

The elision mark is used for the elision of a final vowel, as in the example of wė antė becoming

w’antė.

The elision of wė is usually written w’ to prevent interpretation as the ordinal prefix (p. 29).
~ yu’ssã interface from
It is also used to mark consonantal assimilation or deletion, as in yu’\sa
yud translation + sã machine. Note the position of the elision mark, not *yud’sa. In the native
orthography, yu’\sa

~. An example of deletion is Ø’ngo from Ød ngo.

~, or even just yu\sa

When independent lexical items and/or roots are grouped together so strongly that they
create a single phonetic word, that is usually indicated with the elision marker. This happens in
“philo-proclivity” (p. 17) as well as in certain fixed idioms, such as yãu’dìw. be mimsy (of people)
from yãud .ìw.

Digits

Siinyamda uses a base 10 system. The digits are:

1 1 .al.
2 2 .iils.
3 3 .et.
4 4 .onn.
5 5 .uny.

6 6
.õj.
7 7
.ėrp.
8 8
.aunw.
9 9
.øìbr.
10 10 .uy.

0
100
1,000
10,000
100,000

0
.ìr.
100 .ezl.
.iisr.
.olt.
.ery.

Numbers are inserted into text in their digit form, with appropriate grammatical markers

attached directly to the number form, as in:

tuN’Ej geNra’x t345f.
Tunn’ej gennra’sh tetezlonnuyunyė.
There are already 345 of them here.

Punctuation
The equivalent of the comma is a single raised circle, ,, and the equivalent of the full stop (period)
is two horizontal circles, .. The equivalent both the colon and the semicolon is two vertical
circles, ;. The question mark is a raised circle with a vertical line under it, ? and the exclamation
is an inverted triangle of circles !. Quote marks are mid-level horizontal circles at a slight angle
“ ”.

“Capitalization” is marked with a small dash above the initial letter. This is not used at the
beginnings of sentences, but is confined to proper names, Resh Rex, and the first and second
person singular pronouns, Ød Ø`d and Ẽ E`

~.

15

Stress – sam’dayonra
In non-derived words, the accent is on the penultimate. Otherwise, the stress accent will go on
the master root (see section XXX), unless:

• if the negative -ìr- ·Ìr· is present, that takes the stress, except
• if the future -én ·En· or perfective -ó ·O· is present, that takes the accent, but
• if the exclamatory suffix -yá ·ya (and various allophones), which is always verb final, occurs,

that takes the stress

Morphophonology – zadi\cwakev
The interrogative clitic -nu ·nu causes regressive assimilation on nasals, abem + =nu gives abennu.

The intensive verbal suffix -yá can also occur as -á and -ayá. The rules are,

• For the present, remove the -ė. The other tense and aspect markers are not changed: darė

> daryá I know!

• If the form ends in a vowel, add -yá: onndiinwa + -yá > onndiinwayá.
• If the resulting form ends in a single or geminate consonant other than y or w, add -yá.
• If the resulting form ends in y, whether alone or as the final element of a consonant cluster,

add -ayá.

• If the resulting form ends in w whether alone or in a cluster, add -á.
• If the form ends in a consonant cluster with l, hl, r, or z as the final element, add -á.
• Otherwise (i.e., on all other clusters), add -yá.

The imperfective -wa and the prohibitive -wìnn have an epenthetic vowel -a- or -ė- after
certain clusters. If the stem ends in w, y, or a consonant cluster ending in hl, l, r, w or y, the
epenthetic vowel is used. For example: .ugr. + wa > ugrėwa or ugrawa, but .ugg. + wìnn >
uggwìnn.

In compounds, a final i or ì will be connected to a following root with y if it begins with a
vowel, krĩ + ũnng > krĩyũnng. The diphthong oì becomes oy before a vowel, shoì + e > shoye.
The diphthong au becomes aw before a vowel, rau + -oì > rawoì.

In compounds, final stops are very likely to assimilate completely to the initial consonant of

the second element, as in zød + benn > zøbbenn, zød + tal > zøttal, zød + gyė > zøggyė.

Similarly, final l will assimilate completely, as well, ngwol + gyė > ngwoggyė, ngwol + bbol

> ngwobbol.

After a nasal vowel, word-initial g turns into the velar nasal ng, as in chyũ + gyė > chyũngyė

shirt.

The short demonstratives gem, gon and gal (p. 20) sometimes lose their final consonant,
which can cause gemination in the initial consonant of the following word (if that consonant is
not part of a cluster),

16

gem zìn > ge’zzìn
gal zawsã > ga’zzawsã
gal bemm > ga’bbemm

If the initial consonant is g or gg it may become the velar nasal,

gem ggii > ge’nngii
gon ggyo > go’nngyo

“Philo-Proclivity” – mÔldamya
The consonants p, b, t and d have a particular likelihood to form consonant clusters with r and
w. Since d is a valid word-final consonant, sometimes words ending in d combine with particles
following them if those begin with r or w. For example, from a sickness is usually written ddìd’re
rather than ddìd re, and is stressed as a single word.

If such a combination would result in an unnatural stress pattern (primarily penultimate), it

is less likely to occur. So,

Kyod’re is very likely
Jobód’re is very likely
Llyunsrad’re is less likely (but not impossible)

The elision of final -a or -ė is also a cause of this, dwad wė antė > dwad’w’antė, and the most
likely cause for consonants other than d.

The Noun – kyaga

~ n’wondra

Though there are vestiges of a more extensive gender system which are confined to certain story-
telling contexts, in contemporary Siinyamda there is only the basic distinction between animate
and inanimate nouns. Neither animate nor inanimate nouns are marked for number, though
animates do have separate pronouns for singular and plural, which includes subject marking on
the verb. So, apart from explicit use of quantifiers, the only signal that an animate noun is plural
is agreement marking on verbs:

Roì
hlerswa.
roì
hl-ers-wa
man
3SG-sleep-IPFV
The man was sleeping.

Roì
terswa.
roì
t-ers-wa
man
3PL-sleep-IPFV
The men were sleeping.

Siinyamda has root, derived and phrasal nouns. Each type takes a different construction

when possessed.

Root nouns, such as kku room and roì man, are not derived from other words, or at least no
derivation is recoverable. Such nouns may be either native to Pyom or come from Mizemmian.

17

There can be doublets, where a Mizemmian word is more likely to be used by corporate manage-
ment, with a native or derived word used by the workers, such as Mizemmian yud translation and
suryamda translation (< .ury. convert, .amd. speak). The possessor of root nouns takes the relational particle ngo (English ’s, Japanese no): Ø’ngo Ød-ngo 1SG-POSS kku kku room my room Resh Resh Resh ngo ngo POSS kku kku room Resh’s room What most readers will recognize as nouns are very often constructed from verbs and verb phrases in Siinyamda. Determining the correct possessive construction for these must take into consideration both the structure of the nominalized verb or verb phrase, as well as the larger structure of the clause in which the “noun” is occurring. In the simplest case, object nouns are created by prefixing the indefinite animate subject marker s- and adding the nominalizing suffix -a, as in sara knowledge from .ar. to know. With these, possession is usually marked by changing the subject prefix to match the possessor, Dara d-ar-a 1SG-know-NMNL my knowledge Noun possessors will be part of a nominalized phrase, with the verb agreeing, Resh Resh Resh hlara hl-ar-a 3SG-know-NMNL Resh’s knowledge Roì roì man tara t-ar-a 3PL-know-NMNL (the) mens’ knowledge A phrase like Resh ngo sara is extremely marked, adding a clinical—or perhaps sarcastic—tone, distancing Resh from actual knowledge. A few verb roots create object nouns without the indefinite animate prefix s-, such as asya action. These still take subject prefixes for possession, Resh hlasya Resh’s action(s). The inanimate indefinite z- is used especially to form abstract nouns from stative verbs, such as zìsma shadow from .ìsm. be dark. These may take possession with ngo, but other constructions are possible. For example. Pyom Pyom ngo POSS zauta economy the economy of Pyomm Pyom Pyom ye at o ATTR zauta economy the economy of/on Pyom zawsã robot Gal zamda’sh that speech-TOP It’s hard to understand when that robot talks. søyolpė. one-understands-with-difficulty ngo POSS 18 Nouns with z- can be rather idiomatic. Finally entire verb phrases may be used as nouns, such as jãul momja cancer, (literally, “the body consuming itself”). For these, the noun element is frequently the target for possession, so that patacha’delda terrible handwriting, from patacha adeldė ABCs are confused, leads to hlo ngo patacha’delda his monstrous handwriting. Other Noun Derivations Agent nouns, as in runner from run, are created by prefixing sõn- to a verb with the -a nominaliz- ing suffix, as in sõnawa worker, laboror from .aw. work, labor. If the verb stem begins in o or õ, the prefix sõ- replaces them, as in sõmja diner (as in a restaurant) from .omj. eat. For some speakers, verb stems starting in ø would also have sõ- replacing the ø, as in sõrrsa owner from .ørrs. The resulting meaning may be idiomatic, sõnìchra a snake, a snitch, from .ìchr. poisonous. Very rarely, and effectively confined to formal language, the indefinite animate s- combines with the passive to for nouns such as spedwa one who is owned, spossha victim (of an attack or accident). Nouns for machines often end in sã machine. This suffix can reshape the root in unpredictable ways, as in yu’ssã interface from yud translation. Diminutive There are gendered diminutive suffixes, -da for masculine (-ta after names ending in -sh, Reshta, not *Reshda) and -ley (léy) for feminine (sometimes written -lé in the romanization). These are primarly used on names and other forms of address (Loda dude). Originally -da was a non-gendered first person possessive suffix, as in niiyiinda my precious little one. This use persists in a few situations, and has even extended to -ley, so that in referring to their own brains (sense), a man would say bãuda but a woman would usually say bãuley, unless making a jest or mild insult to a man. Another example, dẽzìramdũ, d-ẽz-ìr-amd-ũ 1SG-lie-not-speak-ADV zawsã pyøda Ló, zawsã pyø-da ló robot eye-1SG.POSS dude I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded in front of my very eyes. mamm, mamm before iilsa iils-a 2-NMNL ona ona self ona ona self uppyó. uppy-ó explode-PFV Pejorative The suffix -cha marks a noun with contempt or disapproval, zen zen ACC Ngãucha ngãu-cha hooch-PEJ I don’t drink that shit. domjìrė. d-omj-ìr-ė 1SG-consume-NEG-PRES 19 Ge’drũcha gem drũ-cha this Open this damn door! nãunn! n-ãunn door-PEJ 2SG-open See also the resignation idiom for a use with verbs (p. 35). Demonstratives and Indefinites The demonstratives fall with a correlative series: General Particular Place Point in Time This, here gem this, here gema this ge’pìnn this one ge’nnra here gemyan this point in time Period of Time ge’zra Day Kind Reality this period of time ge’ttyang today ge’sshwu this kind tunngem this reality That, there gon that, there gona that go’pìnn that one go’nnra there gonyan that point in time go’zra that period of time go’ttyang tomorrow go’sshwu that kind ìnngon that reality Yon, yonder gal yon, yonder gala yon ga’pìnn yon one ga’nnra yonder galyan yon point in time ga’zra yon period of time ga’ttyang some day; long ago ga’sshwu yon kind zanngal yon reality The simple forms gem, gon and gal do duty as both locatives and simple demonstratives most of the time. The forms with adjective endings (gemoì, etc.), as well as the longer locatives (ge’nnra) are used mostly in more formal settings, or to resolve an ambiguity. The gema forms are used more as independent pronouns, though the simple gem forms may also be used for that purpose when there is no ambiguity. gen’nu Gem this what What is this? antė? is gen’nu what w’antė? Gema this PRED-is What is this (thing)? roì man Gema gã this thing This (thing) is the thing (we got) from the man. w’antė. PRED-is o ATTR rã from 20 The temporal adverbs refer either to the past or the future, according to context, except for go’ttyang which is only tomorrow. Without other context, ga’ttyang would be assumed to refer to the distant future. Attributives Most of what English speakers recognize as adjectives are in Siinyamda stative verbs. The ending -oì on such a verb creates an attributive form. Detailed discussion of -oì is with the verbs (p. 36). In addition, nouns of material in -e may take -oì, which contracts into -ey, giving adjectives of material, as in triing ceramics, triinge ceramic material, triingey ggyo tool made of ceramic. The Noun Phrase The order of the noun phrase is: Demonstrative/Determiner – Attributive – noì – Noun Where the first slot may have either a demonstrative such as gem or words such as dro some, chon a certain, etc. Note the the attributive slot includes simple stative verbs acting as adjectives as well as larger attributive clauses acting like relative clauses. The position of noì all, every, each is fixed. gem eshmoì this loud this loud tongue ddũ tongue aurroì green gon that all those green papers jwa paper ngo POSS epa totality tunn now gem this this man who is sleeping ersoì sleep roì man tunn now chon ersoì certain sleep a certain man who is sleeping roì man ìtoì no’jĩ sufficient each-analysis all sufficient analyses dro aujoì jwa some blue paper some blue papers gal no’jje yon each-woman each of those women tunn now ersoì sleep gal yon All those men who are sleeping no’roì each-man tunn now chon certain a certain idiotic man who is sleeping odyoì idiotic ersoì sleep roì man 21 The Pronoun – kyage ~'rba Siinyamda pronouns are organized not along a singular-plural axis, but in a minimal-augmented pattern. This plays out in the second row below, the 1st + 2nd pronoun. In the minimal form this is a dual inclusive, “the two of us, you and me,” and in the augmented it is the 1st person inclusive plural, “you all and me.” For the other pronouns, minimal is singular and augmented is plural. 1st 1st + 2nd 2nd 3rd animate 3rd inanimate Minimal Ød, Ø’ nyẽ dual inclusive Ẽ hlo2 Augmented yø, exclusive lyẽ plural inclusive lẽ to pìnn The first and second person singulars are always capitalized, both in the romanization and in the native script. Both are also somewhat likely to be written contracted with certain particles. Ø’ngo for my is far more common than Ød ngo. The inanimate third person pronoun does not distinguish number at all, and isn’t much used except for tangible or easily named things. Generic uses of “it” will typically use some form of the noun kya, so that the question who did it will use sõnu gon kya (zen) hlenoyá, with gon kya where English speakers will want to use “it.” The first person plural pronouns may be used in apposition with a noun to mean “X and I.” So, in answer to the “who did it” question above, one possible answer is Pasro yø! Pasro and I! Intensive pronouns, “myself, herself,” etc., are formed with the word ona actuallity. The com- binations are not entirely regular, Minimal Augmented Ø’dona 1st nyõ’na 1st + 2nd 2nd Ẽ’nona 3rd animate hlo’na yø’na lyõ’na lõ’na to’na Sõrra hlo’na duló. overseer himself I-saw I saw the overseer himself. zen ACC 2In Senn’s world, there are almost no animals to talk about, but hlan is still used in Hlannu tantė? What are they? while pointing at the family of deer. Hlan would also be used in slangy speech in place of hlo in the contexts of male familiar relationships, even with hlanda, he (that guy who is my good friend). Hlanda yĩntyã’nerìryá my guy don’t talk no BS, now, arright? It’s often the pronoun used by males in vulgar speech about a male or female they are having casual sex with. Usnottyang etũ, hla’zznn dakkó I fucked him/her three times yesterday. It implies that the sex is hot and dirty. If you were challenging another male about his intention to have sex with your partner, you’d only use hlo, however. Hlo’zznn nakkén yũ’ napna’sh nepauhloyá you’ve gone apeshit crazy if you think you’re gonna fuck her. It would be disrespectful to refer to her as hlan in this context. 22 For the third person inanimate, the word ona is simply used, dẽzìramdũ, I-not-lying-ly Ló, ona uppyó. Dude self exploded I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded in front of my very eyes. mamm, before, pyøda eye zawsã robot iilsa both ona self Indefinites Siinyamda relies on nouns and pronouns with the article dro some and dyėn any for indefinites (“someone, anyone”). hlo Dro zen some 3SG ACC I saw someone. duló. I-saw zen ACC Dro hlan some being I saw something. duló. I-saw zen ACC Dro gã some thing I saw something. duló. I-saw Ø’pren dro to-me some Something woke me up. hlan being hlelnobó. woke-up zen ACC Dyė’ngã some-thing Did you see anything? tanya Q nuló? you-saw Ø’pren dro to-me some Something woke me up. gã thing elnobó. woke-up dro some nra place Gem antė. here it-is It’s here somewhere. Note the use of dyėn with the indefinite animate pronoun sõ one, dyėn any Ron sõ if one If anyone talks, I’ll go crazy. samdau, one-speaks dujauhlén. I-will-go-crazy Indefinites are not used when a particular item is in mind, gã thing (Aloì) (one) Take something. (From a known collection.) nìpyau. choose zen ACC But, zen ACC Dro gã some thing Take something. nellau. take Dyėn is used for free choice, 23 yũ’ yũ’ QUOT Dyėng’ya dyėn kya any matter Say anything you want. nujmamdau. n-ujm-amd-au 2SG-prefer-say-POT Dyė’ngã zen dyėn gã zen any thing ACC Take anything. nìpyau. n-ìpy-au 2SG-choose-POT And with negation, zen ACC Dyė’ngã dulìró. any-thing I-didn’t-see I didn’t see anything or I saw nothing. Relational Particles Siinyamda has a large collection of relational particles, which follow the noun or pronoun they go with. They have a wide range of functions, some marking core elements of a clause, such as zen for direct objects, and many others filling in for English prepositions. Below we discuss a few of the most important particles, as well as a few that deserve special attention due to their use or meaning. Discussion of the many remaining particles is saved for the dictionary. Core Arguments: “Zen, Pren, Wė” The direct object marker, zen, was grammaticalized from a root meaning something like “focus on, tackle a problem.” So zen has a slight implication of intentionality, though that is very weak these days. For most contemporary speakers zen simply marks any direct object without refer- ence to intention, but older speakers might resort to other particles for a clearly non-intentional act. For example, san chemical Dro some Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. hlìmnìzzró he.soon.died hlennlũ he.breathed Trann Trann zen ACC An older speaker might immediately ask whether Trann had committed suicide. If he had not, they would prefer this: san chemical Dro some Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. hlìmnìzzró he.soon.died hlennlũ he.breathed Trann Trann pren DAT Some of these expressions have since become fixed phrases, such as pren .egg. bump into, while zen .egg. is simply hit. Unlike datives in many languages, the particle pren is not used in a benefactive sense. Sii- nyamda has a separate particle for that, prã for, on behalf of. Both pren and prã are ultimately derived from a verb meaning “give.” 24 prã for Ẽ hlo 2SG 3SG I will tell him for you. pren to datén I.will.tell Prã is also used with nominalized phrases for purpose clauses, in order to (p. 41). The particle wė marks the noun predicate of the copula (.ant.) and similar verbs. It readily elides to just w’ before vowels. It is often omitted when the context is clear, sõga spy Tonro Tonro Tonro is a spy. wė PRED hlantė s/he-is sõga spy Tonro Tonro Tonro is a spy. hlantė. s/he-is It may also be seen with the verbs .ìtt. become, .at. seem to be, .etr. transform into, and .ìbby. con- tinue, persist, remain. Possession and Attribution: “Ngo” and “O” The particle ngo is used for possession in all the senses familiar to speakers of English: ownership, whole-part relationship (my arm), kinship, attribute (my temper), orientation or location (the front of the building) and association (my teacher). Ngo POSS Yud Kkenng translation office Bureau of Translation Ø’ngo 1SG-POSS ngẽ mother my mother ngo POSS iiwasã ttyud nudge-rod end tip of the nudge-rod sìppra management ngo POSS pwed vehicle management(’s) vehicles However, keep in mind that ngo is only appropriate most of the time for root nouns, and that derived nouns often show possession differently (p. 17). The pre-Mizemmian stages of the language used the particle o, wo after -au, (spelled Ä au and wä wau) for all of these functions of ngo, but remains now only to allow phrases to be used as the attributes of nouns. pobbra p-obbr-a PASS-clean-NMNL Bãu rũ bãu rũ brain as I certainly have no interest in living as a zombie. sora’sh s-or-a-shė 3INDEF-live-NMNL-TOP o o ATTR dopìryá. d-op-ìr-ė-yá 1SG-want-NEG-PRES-EMPH la like o ATTR Ẽ 2SG a sell-out like you mauta sell.out 25 abbasã loader Gal that There’s something funky going on with that robot in front of the loader. mamm in.front.of ìwøsrė. ain’t.right zawsã robot o ATTR In non-Ditchling varieties of the language, ngo is starting to intrude into noun attribute func- tions, such as the start of a preference for V.a ngo to V.oì (p. 36), as in, zen zen ACC hliida hl-iid-a 3SG-read-NMNL Ggii ggii book I see a man reading a book. ngo ngo POSS roì roì man zen zen ACC dulė d-ul-ė 1SG-see-PRES for the more expected ggii zen tunn hliidoì roì zen dulė. In Ditchling the difference in meaning beween ngo and o has so collapsed that they are treated as allophones, ngo after a vowel (especially after o) and o after a consonant, ga pwet o ḷṛwu the dust on that vehicle, ø ngo tō ngo ḷṛwu the dust on my hand. Topic: “Shė” The topical relational shė almost always takes the form ėsh or simply ’sh. The topic relational identifies the matter about which the rest of the statement somehow pertains. Nẽza’sh n-ẽz-a shė 2SG-lie-NMNL TOP Your deception really saddens me. dadaugrė. d-ad-augr-ė 1SG-true-be.sad-PRES Ga’kku’sh noìgã gal kku shė noìgã that room TOP everything Everything about that room is a disaster! epìndrìryá! ep-ìndr-ìr-ė-yá complete-be.in.order-NEG-PRES-EMPH No’pẽba’sh noì pẽba shė all ditch-TOP The ditches are rife with little things that’ll get’cha. epiizyė. ep-iizy-ė complete-be.dense-PRES syumiiyor syumiiyor bugs Tunn ũna’sh tunn ũn-a shė now be.a.problem-NMNL TOP The problem is my damn stomach. Ø’ngo Ød-ngo 1SG-POSS lwacha. lwa-cha stomach-PEJ The Siinyamda topic relational is also used to draw attention to contrasts. zen zen ACC Mriing mriing candy I want candy. Any kind at all will be just fine. dopė. d-op-ė 1SG-want-PRES sshwu sshwu sort Dyėn dyėn any bbaun’ėsh bbaun shė kind TOP ìteddė. ìt-edd-ė suffice-be.able-PRES 26 Hløsrobó’ hl-øsr-ob-ó-o 3SG-be.broken-CAUS-PFV-ATTR That’s not the computer he broke. dennsã’sh dennsã shė computer TOP gona gona that w’antìrė. wė ant-ìr-ė PRED be-NEG-PRES The topic can be used in part of the whole constructions which in English are often possessive. The topic marks the whole, so so arm Ø’sh Ød shė 1SG TOP My arm hurts. adlė. adl-ė hurt-PRES The Verb – ta'Asya The Siinyamda verb can be quite complex, with both adverbial roots as well as control verbs all part of the verb, along with the expected person and TAM (tense, aspect and mood) marking. Here is the full template. (REF) agent - ADV1 - ADV2/NEG - V - V.GOV ((cid:2) 3) - NEG - TAM - EMPH The “REF” slot is filled by a referent, a requirement certain verbs have to complete their meaning. The “agent” slot holds person marking, as well as some voice markers. There are two slots for adverbial roots, which may also be negated. The main verb comes next, followed by up to three governing verbs, which are for verbs of mood (“want”), aspect (“begin, stop”), and so forth. Next comes verb negation, then tense, aspect and mood (TAM). Finally, an intensive marker optionally comes last. The simplest verb will only fill two or three template slots, but it is not uncommon to see verbs with four to six slots filled. We will now cover each slot of this template in order, except for the referent which we save for last. Agent Marking The agent slot has prefixes marking the subject of the verb. 1st 1st + 2nd 2nd 3rd animate 3rd inanimate Minimal d- ny- (dual inclusive) n- hl- Augmented y- (exclusive) ly- (plural inclusive) l- t- (none) Like the independent pronouns (p. 22), the agent markers are aligned in minimal-augmented system, and the third person inanimate doesn’t distinguish number. If a first person plural pronoun is used with an overt noun subject, it means “Subject and I,” 27 hladarryũ, hl-ad-arry-ũ 3SG-true-be.beautiful-ADV Etu Etu Etu Pasro and I agree that Etu is really pretty. Pasro Pasro Pasro yeblė. y-ebl-ė 1PL.EX-agree-PRES lyãdén. ly-ãd-én 1PL.INCL-remain-FUT Resh Resh Resh Resh and us will be staying, Resh will be staying with us. In addition to the person marking, the agent slot may be filled with one of five other prefixes. p- m- s- z- w- passive reflexive indefinite animate abstract inanimate, wholistic ordinal (used only on numbers) Passive and Reflexive When the passive or reflexive are used, the verb doesn’t take person marking. møsshó m-øssh-ó REFL-hurt-PFV Ød Ød 1SG I hurt myself. pøsshó m-øssh-ó REFL-hurt-PFV Ød Ød 1SG I was hurt. The reflexive is also used for an intransitive sense of .er. verbs, which are otherwise transitive, terė. t-er-ė 3PL-DO-PRES Kiimm kiimm alarm They sound the alarm. Indefinite Subjects merė. m-er-ė REFL-DO-PRES Kiimm kiimm alarm The alarm sounds. The indefinite animate subject may be used in general statements, zawsã zawsã robot Gal gal that It’s hard to understand when that robot talks. zamda’sh z-amd-a shė 3INDEF-speak-NMNL søyolpė. s-øy-olp-ė TOP ngo ngo POSS 3INDEF-difficult-understand-PRES Dulhlamda d-ulhl-amd-a 1SG-odd-speak-NMNL Because I speak with an accent it is common for people to misunderstand me. sadnolpìrė. s-adn-olp-ìr-ė 3INDEF-normal-understand-NEG-PRES Ø’sh Ød shė 1SG TOP re re because 28 The inanimate indefinite z- is practically confined to the creation of nouns (p. 18), but is oc- casionally used in a totalizing sense, emphasizing the broadness or complexity of circumstances around an event, ubbrė. ubbr-ė Zepa zepa universe mysterious-PRES The universe is mysterious. Zepa zubbrė. zepa z-ubbr-ė universe 3INAN.INDEF-mysterious-PRES The universe is infinitely mysterious. Dapa d-ap-a 1SG-grow.up-NMNL Every facet of my childhood was abysmal. zadongwa. z-ad-ong-wa 3INAN.INDEF-true-terrible-IPFV Ordinals Prefixing w- to a numbers creates ordinals, Wiilsoì w-iils-oì ORD-two-ATTR The second sun began to set behind the stable. yaumm yaumm sun esshya esshy-a settle-NMNL drėl drėl behind dwuj dwuj stable ìssyó. ìssy-ó being-PFV In the native orthography the prefix is simply written attached to the digits, w2þ wiilsoì. Adverbials The verb roots in the adverbial slot cover a large range of functions, some highly idiomatic. When verb roots have adverbial meanings that are not necessarily immediately obvious, they have a separate defintion for their adverbial use in the lexicon. For example, the root .ad. be true means very when used adverbially: Hladagyė hl-ad-agy-ė 3SG-be.true-be.rude-PRES He’s very rude. Stative verbs themselves may also take adverbial roots, Ìweshė ìw-esh-ė be.wishy.washy-be.red-PRES It’s reddish. Idiomatic combinations such as 29 Onndiinyá onnd-iin-ė-yá be.large/fat-be.good-PRES-EMPH It’s awesome! are defined in the dictionary under the main root. Some compound stems may also slot into adverbial position, yũ’ yũ’ QUOT Yìr! hlosyobesó. yìr hl-osy-ob-es-ó no 3SG-be.afraid-cause-smirk-PFV “No!” he responded with a sinister grin. Adverbial roots can be negated with the standard negator .ìr. following them, Talìreyė. t-al-ìr-ey-ė 3PL-be.single-NEG-be.together-PRES They are not unified (they are together, but not in a singular fashion). Note that the roots .ep. complete(ly) and .ad. tru(ly) are irregularly negated when used adverbially, .ìr.ep. not completely and .ìr.ad. not truly. Describing Motion Following Talmy’s terminology, Siinyamda is modestly a V-language. That is, the path of motion is encoded in the main verb, and the manner of motion is expressed some other way. In English, we say “John ran into the house,” but in a V-language you have to say something more like “he entered the house runningly.” In Siinyamda, the core verb will be a path verb (.ìj. enter, .uw. go back, return, etc.) with manner encoded as an adverbial (.anl. run, .emb. follow, etc.). ggãu ggãu facility Kõìhlan kõì-hlan air-creature The flying critter floated back to the facility. hlauyuwó. hl-auy-uw-ó 3SG-float-return-PFV iid iid to sho sho tree zen Jjẽdra zen jjẽdra ACC Jjẽdra The Jjẽdra walked up the tree. hlaungìló. hl-aung-ìl-ó 3SG-walk-ascend-PFV renn renn from taungulló. t-aung-ull-ó 3PL-walk-depart-PFV Zìn zìn party They walked from the party. hlanluwó. hl-anl-uw-ó 3SG-run-return-PFV Senn Senn Senn Senn ran back. Aspect Adverbials Several roots used in adverbial position interact with verb aspect. With the future, .ìmn. be soon means “about to.” 30 Hlìmnawũrén. hl-ìmn-aw-ũr-én 3SG-be.soon-work-collapse-FUT She’s on the verge of work-collapse. With the future, .ìnng. be close also means “about to,” but it can also mark the recent past, Ìnnganngrén. ìnng-anngr-én be.close-end-FUT It’s about to end. Ìnnganngró. ìnng-anngr-ó be.close-end-PFV It just ended. The root .al. be one with the perfective marks an experiential, to have had the experience of doing the action of the main verb, ngo ngo POS zanngal Mra zanngal mra distant.reality wealth Have you ever imagined being rich? tanya tanya Q zen zen ACC nalosló? n-al-osl-ó 2SG-be.one-imagine-PFV zen zen ACC dalomjìró. Sswemm d-al-omj-ìr-ó sswemm 1SG-be.one-consume-NEG-PFV insect I have never eaten bugs, I haven’t eaten bugs Main Verb Siinyamda verbs can have very labile transitivity, with the presence or absence of a direct object the only sign of verb’s transitivity. For example, .uly. may mean either like or please, be pleasing depending on how the participants are marked: pren DAT Roì dulyė man I.am.pleasing Men like me, I am pleasing to them. dulyė I.like Roì zen man ACC I like men. Also possible for this verb is: roì roì man Ø’pren Ød-pren 1SG-DAT I like men. tulyė. t-uly-ė 3PL-please-PRES On the other hand, the verb .ujm. prefer will always be used with zen. The possibilities of any given verb will be given in the dictionary where necessary. 31 Governing Verbs – wi There may be up to three “governing verbs” in the V.GOV slot. These include such verbs as can, cause/make, want, need, seem, intend, start, stop, try, like, hate, know (how), allow, refuse, pretend. i vo Ì\pra Siinyamda Siinyamda Siinyamda I want to start learning Siinyamda. durrjìssyopė. d-urrj-ìssy-op-ė 1SG-learn-begin-want-PRES zen zen ACC In slangy Siinyamda, and standard in Ditchling, verbs for “go” and “come” can be used as gov- erning verbs with the notion of travel for a purpose, zen zen ACC Mriing mriing candy I went out in order to buy candy. dautelløngó d-aut-ell-øng-ó 1SG-do.business-get-be.off-PFV A governing verb may be pulled out of the complex. This was a literary device in an earlier stage of the language, but is most common now as a way to speak deliberately, letting the listener know they should take the speaker seriously. The governing verb is inflected to agree with the nominalized clause: Damdìssyó. d-amd-ìssy-ó 1SG-speak-begin-PFV I started to speak. but, Damda d-amd-a 1SG-speak-NMNL I started to speak. ìssyó ìssy-ó being-PFV Since the nominalized phrase damda is an inanimate noun there is no overt subject marker on ìssyó. See the first line of The Story of the Clever Yal (p.43) for another example. Governing Neutralization When a verb that has governing uses is needed in its base sense it is from time to time necessary to signal that. In particular, when combined with adverbial roots. For example, døìdauzén I will try to fight. To take .auz. as the main verb, -o’ is suffixed to the stem, giving døìdauzo’wén I will perseveringly strive. The present suffix is used normally, hløìdauzo’ė s/he perseveres, as it is with the perfective hløìdauzo’ó, the imperfective hløìdauzo’wa and the nominalizing suffix søìdauzo’a. With the future and potential, w appears before the suffix, hløìdauzo’wén and hløìdauzo’wau. 32 In these, the -o typically takes the main stress accent, falling as it does in penultimate po- sition. However, when the emphatic -yá is used, the secondary stress occurs on the main verb stem rather than the -o, as in nøìdauzo’wauyá just hang in there! Tense and Aspect – ta'Asya môMa vo AVra There are six markers of tense, aspect and mood. • -wa the past imperfect (ubrãwa ngo wa) • -ó the perfective (manngroba ngo ó) • -ė the present persistent (tunngem ubra ngo ė) • -én the future (ttyiil ìssyìra ngo én) • -au the potential (zwẽ edda ngo au) (in Ditchling, -ā) • -wìnn the prohibitive (in Ditchling, -irā) The past imperfect marks ongoing events in the past, the perfective marks singular acts: sõga sõn-og-a AGT-spy-NMNL yũ’ Senn yũ’ Senn QUOT Senn He actually said that Senn used to be a spy? hlantwa hl-ant-wa 3SG-be-IPFV wė wė PRED onũ on-ũ be.real-ADV tanya tanya Q hlamdó? hl-amd-ó 3SG-say-PFV The present persistent is used for things that are generally true, rrìnn rrìnn than Resh Resh Resh Senn is taller than Resh. Senn Senn Senn hlayelwė hl-ay-elw-ė 3SG-be.more-be.tall-PRES A present progressive is marked by the adverb tunn now immediately before the verb, Tunn tunn now domjìbbyopė. d-omj-ìbby-op-ė 1SG-consume-continue-want-PRES I want to keep eating. Hlo hlo 3SG zen zen ACC tunn tunn now darrė. d-arr-ė 1SG-cut.off-PRES I’m not talking to him/her. The future is straightforward, tũ tũ horizon Pwed renn pwed renn vehicle from The craft will come from the horizon. unén. un-én come-FUT Ẽ pulén. Ẽ p-ul-én 2SG PASS-see-FUT You will be seen. But also see its use in conditions (p. 42). The potential has a number of functions. The adverb zwẽ expects the potential for present tense statements, 33 noyau. n-oy-au 2SG-be.correct-POT Zwẽ zwẽ may You may be right. But it is also used in conditions (p. 42) and in commands (p. 38). Finally, see the section on commands for use of the prohibitive -wìnn, p. 38. ~ vo A Nominalization – kyaga A verb phrase is nominalized by suffixing -a to the verb instead of a tense or aspect marker. It is an extremely common and productive process in Siinyamda, not only in forming nouns (p. 17), but in working phrases into complex sentences. For example, Hlũtìnya hl-ũt-ìny-a 3SG-be.bad-stop-NMNL You cannot make him stop being bad. zen zen ACC dobeddìrė. d-ob-edd-ìr-ė 1SG-cause-be.able-NEG-PRES Here the phrase hlũtìnyė he stops being bad is turned into a noun to make it the object of “you cannot cause...” This sort of structure pervades the language. Because the nominalization suffix removes any trace of tense or aspect, the clause final con- struction o yu is available when precision is required. zen zen ACC yu nullén Pyom yu n-ull-én Pyom NMNL 2SG-leave-FUT Pyom I absolutely forbid you to leave Pyom. o o ATTR zen zen ACC depiigghlayá. d-ep-iigghl-ė-yá 1SG-complete-forbid-PRES-EMPH In the perfective, the attributive o contracts with the final -ó and is written -o’ yu. Nìnngamdo’ n-ìnng-amd-ó-o 2SG-just-say-PFV-ATTR What you just said really hurts me. yu yu NMNL Ø’zen Ød-zen 1SG-ACC adøsshyá. ad-øssh-ė-yá true-would-PRES-EMPH Internally Headed Relative Clauses A rare usage for nominalized clauses is as relativizers, with some noun within the nominalized phrase acting as the head of the relative clause. For example, Roì roì man daulla d-aull-a 1SG-love-NMNL hlerswa. hl-ers-wa 3SG-sleep-IPFV The man (whom) I love was sleeping. 34 zìn zìn party Eyád Eyád Eyád Seems like all’s good to go for the hang-out Eyád is planning. hlerìbba’sh hl-er-ìbb-a-shė 3SG-do-intend-NMNL-TOP noìta noìta everything adìndratė. ad-ìndr-at-ė true-be.in.order-appear-PRES This sentence could also be worded as follows, using the more usual attributive in -oì for rela- tivization, Eyád Eyád Eyád hlerìbboì hl-er-ìbb-oì 3SG-do-intend-ATTR zìn’ėsh zìn party noìta’dìndratė. ... ... This construction is most common with .er. expressions, given a tendency to regard the order of zin .er. as fairly fixed. To modern speakers, using the construction with other verbs seems old-fashioned. Independent Clause Nominalization A nominalized clause may be used as the sole verb of a clause. By using this form, the speaker is telling the listener that he is reporting information he believes or knows to be true. This most likely to be seen for statements about the future, and with the governing verb .ølm. be required, w3’5nr Tudøngó, weto ngo unyo’ nrõ t-ud-øng-ó 3rd POSS 5 nrõ 3PL-separate-go.out-PFV They went out separately, but they’re both due back together at 3’5. teyuwølma. t-ey-uw-ølm-a 3PL-together-return-must-NMNL ang ang at nn nn but Or answering the question zwĩ ggii rii’mmu what color is the book (we’re looking for), ashølma it’s supposed to be red. This construction originally had antė or some similar form of .ant. to be as the main verb. Resignation A nominalized phrase may take the suffix -chá (related to the pejorative, p. 19), which conveys the sense of “not a damn thing can be done about it,” in an atmosphere of quiet reservation, as in hlerrdachá he’s pretty damn predictable. If tense is needed the form o yuchá is used. tunén t-un-én 3PL-come-FUT Ssssa, ssa well Well, they’re coming and there’s not a damn thing we can do about it. yuchá. yuchá NMNL.PEJ o o ATTR It can also be attached to a noun that’s the final element in a clause. Tunn ũna’sh tunn ũn-a shė now be.a.problem-NMNL TOP The problem is my damn stomach. Ø’ngo Ø-ngo 1SG-POSS lwacha. lwa-cha stomach-PEJ 35 Action Nominal – A~'n Era vo An The action nominal, -an, creates nouns that name the action, as in Sodwa s-odw-a 3INDEF-be.healthy-NMNL Running is good for one’s health. zen zen ACC sanlan s-anl-an 3INDEF-run-ANMNL atrė atr-ė help.PRES In Ditchling this form is used as a present progressive, as in Senn nṛl ̣awa ga huwan Senn is returning to the manufactory now (h-uw-an 3SG-return-ANMNL). Adverbial – cyo In the simplest case, the -ũ adverbial suffix turns a stative verb into a simple adverb, ~ Era vo U~ onũ on-ũ true-ADV Nn nn but But they were actually a couple, right? tiilseyedwawa, t-iils-ey-edw-wa 3PL-two-together-possess-IPFV onwey? onwey right? Øssnũ øssn-ũ be.limited-ADV We’ve lived such limited lives. yėlwa. y-ėl-wa 1PL.EXCL-live-IPFV More often the adverbial is used with a full clause which comes before the main clause. It can set up a temporal context, or the background information, for the following clause, merũ, m-er-ũ REFL-do-ADV Kiimm kiimm alarm The alarm sounds, and everyone lines up. serrdiichė. s-errd-iich-ė 3INDEF-naturally-line.up-PRES Dro dro some san san chemical zen zen ACC Trann Trann Trann hlennlũ hl-ennl-ũ 3SG-breathe-ADV hlìmnìzzró. hl-ìmn-ìzzr-ó 3SG-soon-die-PFV Trann breathed in some chemical and (then) soon died. See also the section on temporal clauses (p. 40). Attributive – Ensa vo Þ The attributive ending -oì serves a number of functions, all of which attribute a verbal expression to a noun. In the simplest case, stative verbs turn into what are effectively adjectives, 36 dro dro some aujoì auj-oì be.blue-ATTR jwa jwa paper some blue paper(s) Note that these will not generally take agreement marking, so that one says aushoì roì a meek man rather than hlaushoì roì. However, older speakers are somewhat likely to use subject marking for plural nouns, tonnoì chyẽ four dogs, where a younger speaker would be content with on- noì chyẽ. Anyone not trying to sound old-fashioned will come off as snooty if marking singular agreement, hlaushoì roì. The attributive is also used to form the equivalent of relative clauses, Ggii ggii book zen zen ACC tunn tunn now hliidoì hl-iid-oì 3SG-read-ATTR roì roì man zen zen ACC dulė. d-ul-ė 1SG-see-PRES I see the man (who is) reading a book. Taulloì t-aull-oì 3PL-love-ATTR ngẽ ngẽ mother hlìzzró. hl-ìzzr-ó 3SG-die-PFV To to 3PL zen zen ACC hlaulloì hl-aull-oì 3SG-love-ATTR ngẽ ngẽ mother hlìzzró. hl-ìzzr-ó 3SG-die-PFV The mother whom they love(d) died. The mother who loves/loved them died. Referent Verbs Some verbs require a noun or pronoun in the immediately pre-verbal slot to complete their meaning. These include such things as .amy. be friends with and .ẽjy. give birth to. The adver- bial element .ey. together, with each other, however, removes that requirement, teyamyė they are friends (with each other). Note that the referent is so tightly bound to the verb that the question marker tanya comes in front of the referent, Epoì ggii ep-oì ggii be.complete-ADJ book Could you translate an entire book? tanya tanya Q zen zen ACC yud yud translation nereddau? n-er-edd-au 2SG-DO-be.able-POT Clauses – zimú'\kev The basic word order of Siinyamda is verb-final. The order SOV (subject - object - verb) is not uncommon, but OSV can be found, too. The relational particles make the roles clear. Ditchling, on the other hand, is SOV. 37 Questions Yes-no questions are formed with the particle tanya either at the beginning of the sentence or immediately before the verb. The final a may elide, as in tany’antė. gem this Tanya Q Is this a tree? sho tree wė PRED antė? is wė PRED Gem sho this tree Is this a tree? tany’antė? Q is With questions that have a verb marked with the potential, -au, the particle may be tanyo (spelled *tanyau in the native orthography, tanyä), Ẽ 2SG Tanyo onyoì Q proper Shall I teach your proper Padnamda? Padnamda Padnamda prã for zen ACC doggrau? I.may.teach Use of tanyo is slightly more polite with questions in -au. Siinyamda content questions are often in-situ, that is, the question word is not moved to the head of the clause as it would be in English, gen’nu Gem gen’nu gem what this What is all this? w’antyá? wė ant-ė-yá PRED be-PRES-EMPH sõnu sõnu who Ga’lló gal lō that dude Who is that dude? hlantė? hl-ant-ė 3SG-be-PRES Indirect questions simply put the question into the normal report clause structure (p. 41), tunén? t-un-én 3PL-come-FUT Gammu gammu how.many I wonder how many of them will come. yũ’ yũ’ QUOT dazrė. d-azr-ė 1SG-wonder-PRES Commands Giving command can be given in a broad range of expressions all the way from a few roots without final inflections to requests with .aujj.ach. humbly request. Nen! Len! Do it! Nyen! Lyen! Let’s do it! These are not necessarily rude, but would be if the context is not one of command or camaraderie. These contain an implicit -yá. If the commander is frustrated then these can go to Nenachá! Liidachá! Lolachá! Miirachá!, etc. “Do it, dammit!” (see p. 19 on the pejorative). Standard commands use the potential -au and can take -yá if the sense is urgent. 38 Pan nerau. Do so. Pan nerrsherauyá! Do so! Make it a priority to do so! Daujjachũ, pan nerìrau. I implore you, don’t do that. Pan nerìrau yũ’ tunn daujjachyá. I’m begging you to not do that. Urgency can be expressed either with the adverbial .ìnng., or with a command form ending in an unstressed -o. Gem nobbro. Clean this place up (now)! Ge’drũcha nìnngãunn! Open this damn door right NOW! The -o form is not very common. Siinyamda has a special negative imperative form, the prohibitive, -wìnn, Nullwìnn! n-ull-wìnn 2SG-leave-PROH Don’t leave! Niibbrawìnn n-iibbr-wìnn 2SG-go-PROH I told him not to go. yũ’ yũ’ QUOT hlo hlo 3SG pren pren to dojwó. d-ojw-ó 1SG-order-PFV Coordination and Disjunction Noun phrases, pronouns and full clauses may all be joined with dde and, Kana dde Senn mad- aullė Kana and Senn love each other a lot. Alternates are introduced with ba or, mrang ba ngìng serølmė it should be recycled or thrown away. To pick up after a pause, both dde and ba may be nasalized, and are prosodically separated from the reset of the clause, Ddũd dondrė. Ddẽ, Ẽ nu’sh? My name’s Ddũd. What about you? With the first person pronoun, Ød, and other words ending in d, dde may occasionally cliticize, Ø’dde Kana me and Kana, or ba’dde (< bad dde) ga’llyunsrad the story and that philosophy. In addition to dde, animate agents may be joined with the relational particle ttau with. An- swering the question sõnu go’ngya hlenoyá? who did it?, Pasro Ø’ttau implies that I helped Pasro, while Ø’dde Pasro implies that Pasro was simply along for the ride. Disjunction is handled with ėn but, more commonly found as nn, sõga sõga spy Ø’dona depantìryá, Ød-ona d-ep-ant-ìr-ė-yá 1SG-self 1SG-complete-be-NEG-PRES-EMPH I myself am absoltely not a spy, but I may know some. wė wė PRED nn nn but dro dro some to to 3PL zen zen ACC zwẽ zwẽ perhaps donsau. d-ons-au 1SG-know-POT 39 Temporal Clauses Basic temporal clauses (“when, while”) can be handled in several ways. First, with the simple adverbial form -ũ, which covers quite a range of adverbial senses. san san chemical Dro dro some Trann breathed in some chemical and (then) soon died. hlennlũ hl-ennl-ũ 3SG-breathe-ADV Trann Trann Trann hlìmnìzzró. hl-ìmn-ìzzr-ó 3SG-soon-die-PFV pren pren DAT The nominalization o yun has a range of senses, including reason, but is used temporally when the clause is a non-present continuative, Geng’ya’sh gem-kya-ėsh this-thing-TOP If/when you accept this idea, I’ll be over the moon. neblén n-ebl-én 2SG-accept-FUT zwẽ zwẽ perhaps yun, yun yun o o o depiijulyén. d-ep-iij-uly-én 1SG-completely-happy-like-FUT yũ’ yũ’ QUOT Pan yamdwa yun, pan y-amd-wa yun thus 1PL.EXCL-say-IPFV time They punished us if/when we said that. o o ATTR yø yø 1PL.EXCL potnwa. p-otn-wa PASS-punish-IPFV In the example above o yun could just as well be replaced with o yan, which gives a more strictly temporal sense. See also: o o yũ’ QUOT Pan thus They punish us when we say that. yan, yan, zen ACC yø 1PL. totnė. they-punish Finally, a nominalized phrase in -a with a durative sense can take the relational particle yeng while, øsma øsm-a clogged-NMNL Pong pong hose While the hose is clogged everybody gets a short break. noìhlan’ėsh noìhlan-ėsh everyone-TOP ìboi ìb-oi free.ADJ yeng yeng while hlwãu hlwãu time.off iishrė. iishr-ė be-brief.PRES Examples in use can be seen in the “Story of the Clever Yal,” p. 43. Reason Clauses “Because” is marked with the relational particle re with a nominalized clause, Dulhlamda Ø’sh d-ulhl-amd-a Ød-ėsh 1SG-strange-speak-NMNL 1SG-TOP Because I speak with an accent it is common for people to misunderstand me. sadnolpìrė. s-adn-olp-ìr-ė 3INDEF-common-understand-not-PRES re re because-of 40 lyadiinewa ly-ad-iin-ew-a 1PL.INCL-true-good-kiss-NMNL Jjamm jjamm rules We’re still alive due to our finesse in romancing the rules. re re because-of ttyiil ttyill still lyorė. ly-or-ė 1PL.INCL-live-PRES Additionally, jõ may be used after a sentence is complete to introduce a new sentence with additional information, Broì Broì Broì Jõ, jõ because Dadanngyá. d-ad-anng-ė-yá 1SG-true-angry-PRES-EMPH nẽzó. n-ẽz-ó 2SG-lie-PFV I’m pissed. Because, you lied to me about what Broì supposedly said. jjã’tó’ jjã ató o topic seem ATTR yũ’ yũ’ QUOT o o ATTR yu yu NMNL jan jan about Ø’pren Ød-pren 1SG-to Purpose Clauses Clauses of purpose are created with the relational particle prã with a nominalized clause, prã Yėlìbbya prã y-ėl-ìbby-a for 1PL.EX-live-continue-NMNL We will have to eat these bugs in order for us to survive! sswemm sswemm bug gem gem this zen zen ACC yomjølmenyá. y-omj-ølm-en-yá 1PL.EX-eat-must-FUT-EMPH Report Clauses Verbs of speaking and cognition use the conjunction yũ’ at the end of the reported clause, tunén? they-will-come Gammu yũ’ how-many QUOT I wonder how many will come. dazrė. I-wonder Niibrawìnn yũ’ Don’t-go! QUOT I told him not to go. hlo 3SG pren to dojwó. I-ordered Conditional Clauses Siinyamda conditions are introduced with ron, and the consequent is optionally introduced with rang. General conditions overlap with simple temporal clauses. All of the sentences below are acceptable versions of they punish us if we say that, Pan yũ’ o yan, yø zen totnė. Pan yũ’ o yan, yø potnė. Ron pan yũ’, (rang) yø zen totnén. Ron pan yũ’, yø potna adauwė. 41 And in the past, they punished us if we said that, Pan yũ’ (yamdwa) o yun/yan, yø potnwa. Future conditions have the future in both the condition and the consequent, they will punish you if you say that, Ron pan yũ’ zwẽ namdén, (rang) Ẽ potnén. Note the use of the adverb zwẽ may, might in the condition. The potential can also be used in the condition instead of the future, dyėn dyėn dujauhlén. Ron ron d-uj-auhl-én if any one 3INDEF-speak-POT 1SG-certain-go.crazy-FUT samdau, s-amd-au sõ sõ If anyone talks, I’ll go crazy. The potential is used in potential conditions, pan pan thus nìnngamdó’ n-ìnng-amd-ó o 2SG-just-say-PFV ATTR Gon gon that They would punish you if they heard what you just said. yu yu NMNL toló, t-ol-ó 3PL-hear-PFV ron ron if zen zen ACC rang rang then (Ẽ) (Ẽ) (2SG) potnau. p-otn-au PASS-punish-POT The contrafactual has a more formal periphrastic form, and the more common form which has the conjunction ron moving into the clause to immediately before the verb. pan pan thus o o ATTR yu yu NMNL nìnngamdwa n-ìnng-amd-wa 2SG-just-say-IPFV gon Ron gon ron that if pujotnó’ p-uj-otn-ó PASS-certain-punish-PFV The would have punished you if they had heard what you said. y’w’antė. o yu ant-ė ATTR NMNL be-pres toló t-ol-ó 3PL-hear-PFV zen zen ACC o o ATTR And the more common, pan pan thus nìnngamdwa n-ìnng-amd-wa 2PL-just-say-IPFV Gon gon that The would have punished you if they had heard what you said. toló, t-ol-ó 3PL-hear-PFV yu yu NMNL o o ATTR ron ron if zen zen ACC rang rang then 42 y’wantau, yu ant-au NMNL be-POT rang rang then (Ẽ) (Ẽ) (2SG) pujotnó. p-uj-otn-ó PASS-certain-punish-PFV Texts The Story of the Clever Yal This text represents a more literary register of Siinyamda than most workers on Pyom these days have much exposure to. Note in particular the obsolete -énau future subjunctive, used only in story-telling, to mark the future of the past. It is very difficult to work sensible English translations into the interlinears given the in- volved nature of this particular text. The idiomatic translation is given at the end, with line numbers to help you match the translation to the gloss. ~' Yal hamdo. páru ~dra pren “gemá zwì ~, kren dyo tepáNyä wä gov pra ~ \bran wf Anten \de ~, w2þ yäM dwuj drfl E\xya Ì\xyo Ä yun |je yu ~ hwud vo Epð UdoNa pren ~' dapnf” yu wul pábren Ä sara zen herbo. Irþ pwed kyun to zen sqMa vo lyar'x mîd mórju Utrenä. mîmra \de múzra vo dyfn Ubrþ joN A\dwu ~ lá, to zen ~, cye ~ \de Qrnþ sìr kyun twaM wul Ìrtu ~ tadijenä. vo \trìn zen tembénä \de ~ zen \xyoj Oó\pya yev cwal'Fx Igu ~j Urda zon \de \son zen Ìlú ~ twaM Epúlyénä. wa ~ pîrobá'x E\da pra ~ sral to vo \ta (1) Ddẽ, ddẽ and wiilsoì w-iils-oì ORD-two-ADJ yaumm yaumm sun dwuj dwuj stable drėl drėl behind esshya esshy-a settle.NMNL ìssyó ìssy-ó begin.PFV o yun o yun as Jjẽdra Jjẽdra Jjẽdra pren pren DAT “gema gema this zwi ̃ zwĩ the bbran bbran night wė wė PRED antén ant-én be-FUT yũ’ yũ’ QUOT dapnė” d-apn-ė 1SG-think-PRES yũ’ yũ’ that Yal Yal Yal hlamdó. hl-amd-ó 3SG.AN-say-PFV (2) Parũ, p-ar-ũ PASS-know-ADV kren kren morning dyo dyo by tepannyau t-ep-anny-au 3PL-complete-be.docile-IRR wo o ATTR gong gong goal prã prã BENEF hlwud hlwud herd ngo ngo of epoì ep-oì total-ADJ udonna ud-onn-a divided-four-NMNL pren pren to wul wul drug pabrén p-abr-én PASS-give-FUT o o ATTR sara s-ar.a one-know-NMNL zen zen ACC hlerbó. hl-erb-ó 3SG-reference-PFV kyun kyun into to to 3PL zen zen ACC sømma s-ømm-a S-place-NMNL ngo ngo POSS lyar’sh lyar-shė system-FOC mìd mìd almost morjũ m-orj-ũ REFL-create-ADV pwed pwed vehicle (3) Iiroì iir-oì transport-ATTR utrénau. utr-én-au occur-FUT-POT 43 ~ dde dde and (4) Mìmra m-ìmr-a REFL-protect-NMNL pìroba’sh p-ìr-ob-a-shė PASS-NEG-want-NMNL-FOC muzra m-uzr-a REFL-save-NMNL edda edd-a possible-NMNL ngo ngo POSS dyėn dyėn any prã, prã for ubroì ubr-oì remain-ATTR jonn jonn instinct addwũ addw-ũ easy-ADV chyẽ chyẽ dog la, la like to to 3PL zen zen ACC wul wul drug ìrtũ ìrt-ũ trick-ADV twamm twamm smell epulyénau. ep-uly-én-au be.complete-please-FUT-POT (5) Wãj wãj just urda urd-a bend-NMNL zon zon via dde dde and sson sson ramp zen zen ACC ìlũ ìl-ũ ascend.ADV dde dde and ørnoì ørn-oì be.crowded-ADJ sìr sìr room kyun kyun into twamm twamm smell ngo ngo POSS ttrìn ttrìn signal zen zen ACC tembénau t-emb-én-au 3PL-follow-FUT-POT ddẽ ddẽ and, sral sral even to to 3PL ngo ngo POSS ttã ttã rump zen zen ACC sshyoj sshyoj gate oppya oppy-a slam-NMNL yeng yeng when chwal’ėsh chwal-shė condition-FOC iigũ iig-ũ be.fundamental-ADV tadiijénau. t-ad-iij-én-au 3PL-be.true-be.happy.FUT-POT (1) And as the second sun began to set behind the stables the Yal said to the Jjẽdra, “I think this is the night.” (2) Of course, he was referring to the fact that a full quarter of the herd was going to be drugged so that by morning they’d be fully docile. (3) The procedure for moving them into the transport vehicles would happen virtually automatically. (4) They could be tricked by the drug into being obsessed by a smell, like hounds, so that any remaining sense of self defense and preservation could be deftly nullified. (5) They’d simply follow the olfactory beacon around the bend and up the ramp into the crowded chamber and even as the gates were slammed on their hindquarters they’d be essentially in a state of bliss. The Twins Ruyún and Sarát at the Stream Though it is by no means in the original, pre-acquisition language, this wisdom tale preserves a number of archaic features and will “sound old” to contemporary speakers. First, there is an (imperfect) avoidance of words from Mizemmian. Second, the direct object relational zen is never used. Third, ngo is replaced by o in all contexts. Fourth, the animate, lower-sentient marker r- (plural tr-) is used in conjugations and nominalizations. Fifth, locative relationals are only used to clarify details, and are often omitted. ttyang ttyang day Chon Sarát chon Sarát a certain Sarát One day the twins Ruyún and Sarát Ruyún Ruyún Ruyún dde dde and o o O.ATTR niing niing sibling tiilsa t-iils-a 3PL-be.two-NMNL 44 lyoslula o ly-osl-ul-a o 1PL.INCL-imagine-see-NMNL O.ATTR were walking in the invisible forest. trelwaurra tr-elw-aurr-a 3L.AN-tall-green-NMNL taungwa. t-aung-wa 3PL-walk-IPFV rãwãbyó’ r-ãw-ãby-ó o R-precede-fall-PFV ATTR ralelwaurra r-al-elw-aurr-a R-one-be.tall-be.green-NMNL rerswa r-ers-wa R-sleep-IPFV o o ATTR tẽ tẽ water Zzran zzran fate o yun, o yun, ATTR time riibbra r-iibbr-a R-travel-NMNL riiyamdan r-iiy-amd-an R-be.small-talk-ANMNL They happened upon a burbling stream over which lay a fallen tree. teshró. t-eshr-ó 3PL-find-PFV Riiyamdan r-iiy-amd-an R-small-talk-ANMNL dde dde and kõì kõì air iizya iizy-a rich-NMNL o o ATTR twamm twamm smell hlìbbũ, hl-ìbb-ũ 3SG-intend-ADV In order to (listen to) the burbling and (smell) the rich air, ralelwaurra r-al-elw-aurr-a R-one-tall-green-NMNL rokãja Ruyún r-ok-ãj-a Ruyún R-half-long-NMNL Ruyún Ruyún walked half way along the trunk and sat down. o o ATTR hlaungó hl-aung-ó 3SG-walk-PFV dde dde and hliisló. hl-iisl-ó. 3SG-sit.down-PFV osũ, os-ũ be.the.same-ADV Zra tẽ zra tẽ time water Meanwhile Sarát began to pick up stones and throw them into the water. hlellìssyó hl-ell-ìssy-ó 3SG-take-begin.PFV encha ench-a few-NMNL Sarát Sarát Sarát bii bii stone dde dde and kyun kyun into hlupó. hl-up-ó. 3SG-throw-PFV. bii bii stone Ruyún Gonu Ruyún gonu Ruyún why “Why do you throw stones, Sarát” asked Ruyún. nupė, n-up-ė 2SG-throw-PRES Sarát? Sarát Sarat yũ’ yũ’ QUOT hlejyó. hl-ejy-ó 3SG-ask-PFV Dasa go d-as-a go 1SG-play-NMNL reason “Because it is fun and maybe I will hit a waterling tẽhlan tẽ-hlan water-being o o ATTR ddẽ ddẽ and degga d-egg-a 1SG-hit-NMNL eddũ, edd-ũ be.possible-ADV lyomja ly-omj-a 1PL.INCL-eat-NMNL zar zar surface hluggamũ hl-ugg-am-ũ 3SG-emerge-pierce-ADV hlauyén hl-auy-én 3SG-float-FUT yũ’ yũ’ QUOT Sarát Sarát Sarát bbran bbran night o o ATTR unén un-én come-FUT hlolló. hl-oll-ó 3SG-reply-PFV and our supper will float to the surface,” answered Sarát. 45 “Nosya n-osy-a 2SG-fear-NMNL o o ATTR go’ gon that yun yun time lyomja ly-omj-a 1PL.INCL-eat-NMNL hliitra hl-iitr-a 3SG-flee-NMNL eddau edd-au be.possible-POT yũ’ yũ’ QUOT tanya tanya Q nosló?” n-osl-ó 2SG-imagine-PFV “Did you consider that perhaps you would just frighten supper away,” tiilsa t-iils-a 3PL-be.two-NMNL yũ’ yũ’ QUOT the twin countered. o o ATTR hlala hl-al-a 3SG-be.one-NMNL hlollejyó. hl-oll-ejy-ó 3SG-answer-ask-PFV We now enter a section in a poetic form used for parables, øwìla escalation. After a section of everyday prose there is an inflection point at which a rhyming scheme ussa is established. In this work it begins on (u1) Bii dupodla yā yũ’, which is then followed by the “lowing line” (ommla), which levels the tone back down to prose (temporarily). The number of rhyming lines builds to a sustained tempo and then there is an abrupt ending (ausrendra) This is a u1, u2, u3x3 øwìla—the most classic form. [u1] Bii bii stone dupodla d-up-odl-a 1SG-throw-be.good-at “I am good at throwing stones,” yā yā it.is.certain yũ’ yũ’ QUOT hlesó. hl-es-ó 3SG-smile-PFV Sarát Sarát Sarát Sarat said with a smile. [u2] Ralelwaurra r-al-elw-aurr-a R-one-tall-green-NMNL o o ATTR jjon jjon arm iipa iip-a sharp-NMNL nejũ, n-ej-ũ 2SG-use-ADV [see next line] lyomja ly-omj-a 1PL.INCL-NMNL Gongeng gongeng that.way “You are better at procuring dinner with a sharp stick,” nella n-ell-a 2SG-acquire-NMNL ayodlė ay-odl-ė be.more-be.good.at-PRES yũ’ yũ’ QUOT Ruyún iiyũ Ruyún iiy-ũ Ruyún small-ADV remarked Ruyún quietly. hlamdó. hl-amd-ó 3SG-say-PFV 46 [u3.1] Ssa, ssa well bbran bbran night nomjén n-omj-én 2SG-eat-FUT o o ATTR zona z-on-a 3INDEF-be.real-NMNL eshũ, esh-ũ be.noble-ADV [see next line] zantén?, z-ant-én, 3INDEF-be-FUT, ge’nnu gem-nu what “Well, so what in the world will you have for dinner, Ruyún? diizũ, d-iiz-ũ 1SG-address-ADV Ruyún Ruyún Ruyún Note the vocative use of .iiz. in the line above. In the contemporary language it always indicates the speaker “means business.” Tanya llyã tanya llyã Q again “More berries again?” myum myum berry rayén? r-ay-én R-increase-FUT o o ATTR yũ’ yũ’ QUOT hladoppyeppró. hl-ad-oppy-eppr-ó 3SG-true-slam-challenge-PFV Sarát Sarát Sarat taunted Sarát. [u3.2] Kõìhlan kõì-hlan air-being o o ATTR tiilsa t-iils-a 3PL-two-NMNL møìmra m-øìmr-a REFL-wash-NMNL tìbbũ, t-ìbb-ũ 3PL-aim-ADV [see next line] nwa nwa near tesshyawa t-esshy-wa 3PL-settle.down-IPFV tẽ tẽ water While watching a pair of airling land in the water for a bath, osũ, os-ũ same-ADV o o ATTR yan yan time lwada lwa-da belly-1SG.POSS myum myum berry “Berries solve my belly’s crying just fine,” hleshma hl-eshm-a 3SG-cry-NMNL radìtobwa r-ad-ìt-ob-wa R-true-suffice-cause-IPFV yā yā it.is.certain yũ’ yũ’ QUOT hladaushamdó. hl-ad-aush-amd-ó 3SG-true-meek-say-PFV Ruyún Ruyún Ruyún said Ruyún meekly. [u3.3] ddẽ and “Ddẽ myum berry myum r-usn-én R-be.used.up-FUT rusnén, n-eshr-edd-ìr-ũ 2SG-find-be.able-NEG-ADV neshreddìrũ. [see next line] 47 Ga’ttyang gal-ttyang yon-day And what will you do one day when you can find no more berries, Ruyún? diizũ. d-iiz-ũ 1SG-address-ADV nasya’nu?, n-asy-a-nu 2SG-act-NMNL-Q Ruyún Ruyún Ruyún Trehlaurra tr-ehl-aurr-a R.PL-flat-green-NMNL treshũ tr-esh-ũ R.PL-be.noble-ADV ttyiil ttyiil yet lwa lwa stomach hliijìrũ hl-iij-ìr-ũ 3SG-happy-NEG-ADV [see next line] Nulreddìra n-ulr-edd-ìr-a 2SG-argue-be.able-NEG-NMNL The righteous leaves do no the belly so delight, do they? tan’yìr?” tan’yìr right? yā, yā, it.is.certain And we return to prose. Ruyún Ruyún Ruyún Ddẽ ddẽ and And Ruyún answered Sarát, Sarát Sarát Sarát hliizó: hl-iiz-ó 3SG-address-PFV Zanngal zanngal distant.reality “When that day ever comes, o o ATTR yan yan time ennwa ennw-a confident.NMNL dadiipobén d-ad-iip-ob-én 1SG-true-be.sharp-CAUS-FUT jjonda jjonda stick I will sharpen my stick.” yā’o yā-o it.is.certain-ATTR yun yun time 48 Contract Excerpt This is a single paragraph of a contract for selling an infant to the company as labor. ~dra So ~j helpobo Ä \taM ba dyom zon Ä pìmra\taM ba Pyom vo Ondrþ Pedwabem vo ~beXra So A`lð Dyom’jaM vo w385'78þ \jaM vo w23'7þ \læv vo w9þ m/wer zon So draj vo spedwa ~j helpobo Ä \taM wf hantìrä, \saN ge'hur ~dra ~beXra So hanta Ä yu zen Äru Ä se\rga vo yan sekna vo wir pì\xrølmén. ~ haslê. ron So Sõbesshra sõn-ob-esshr-a AGENT-cause-surrender-NMNL pìmrattamm p-ìmr-a-ttamm PASS-protect-NMNL-child Sõdrãj sõ-drãj one-authority hlelpobó hl-elp-ob-ó 3SG-be.born-cause-PFV o o ATTR ttamm ttamm child ba ba or dyom dyom law zon zon following o o ATTR ba ba or Pyom Pyom Pyom ondroì ondr-oì be.named-ATTR ngo ngo POSS Jjamm jjamm law Pedwabem p-edw-a-abem PASS-possess-NMNL-world w23’7oì w-23’7-oì ORD-23’7-ATTR Llaung llaung subset ngo ngo POSS Aloì al-oì one-ATTR ngo ngo POSS w9oì w-9-oì ORD-9-ATTR Mwer mwer paragraph zon zon following Dyom’jamm Dyom-jjamm law-code ngo ngo POSS w385’78oì w-385-78-oì ORD-385’78-ATTR Sõdrãj sõ-drãj one-authority ngo ngo POSS spedwa s-p-edw-a 3INDEF-PASS-own-NMNL wė wė PRED hlanta hl-ant-a 3SG-be-NMNL o o ATTR yu yu NMNL zen zen ACC aurũ aur-ũ official-ADV hlaslė. hl-asl-ė 3SG-promise-PRES Ron ron if Sõbesshra sõn-ob-esshr-a AGNT-cause-surrender-NMNL Sõdrãj sõ-drãj one-authority hlelpobó hl-elp-ob-ó 3SG-be.born-CAUS-PFV o o ATTR ttamm ttamm child wė wė PRED hlantìrau, hl-ant-ìr-au 3SG-be-NEG-POT ssann ssann then serrga s-errg-a 3INDEF-sign-NMNL ge’hlur o gem hlur o this above ATTR pìsshrølmén. p-ìsshr-ølm-én POSS-submit-must-FUT ngo ngo POSS yan yan time sekna s-ekn-a 3INDEF-give.away-NNL ngo ngo POSS wiir wiir permission The Personal Authority certifies that The Surrendered is the biological issue of “The Personal Au- thority” or is a legal ward-guardian or is recognized as “property” of “The Personal Authority” under The Unified Legal Code of the Planetary Possession of Pyom: Code 385.78, Section 23.7, Paragraph 9. If The Sur- rendered is not the biological issue of The Personal Authority, then documentation of transfer rights shall be submitted at the time of the signature below. 49 A Lexicon – pálámd'Ìndreya This is a partial lexicon of Siinyamda. The translations of the examples are often idiomatic rather than literal. This is a feature, not a bug. Verbal roots are presented with periods on either side, .õy. Verbs that expect a referent (Referent Verbs, p. 37) are marked v.ref. Verbs with idiomatic senses when used as adverbial roots have those definitions marked with v.adv., and governing verb meanings have v.gov. Adjective senses are marked with adj. Phrasal nouns are defined under the verb they are created from. A · A · A · A · A is irregular. v. .ãd. leave); Resh lyãdén Resh and us will be staying. stay in a place (especially when others 2. slang, a guy .addw. v. be easy. ã n. process. .ab. v. feel; be in an emotional state. .abb. v. to lift (a heavy load). abbasã 1. n. loader (equipment). who’s strong but not so brilliant. a. abbasã .er. v. run a loader; sssaaaa, Jabód ggwẽ abbasã hløsmeratė sooo, I guess Jabod’s not a pro at running the loader either. abem n. planet; world; abennu’sh arjó which planet did these come from? .abr. v. give. .aby. v. crave (for food and sex). a. .ory.aby. v. crave (to eat). b. .uzy.aby. v. crave (to drink). .ãby. 1. v. trip and fall; fall; Yal pẽba kyun hlãbyó the Yal fell into the ditch. fall, manner marker for path of motion verbs, Yal pẽba ngo tyã renn hlãbyuggó the Yal fell out of the mouth of the ditch. 2. v.adv. .ach. v. ask for; request; Daujjachũ, pan nerìrau I implore you, don’t do that. .ad. 1. v. be true. would be very happy; ìradeshė it’s not so red. 2. v.adv. very, tadiijénau they a. o yu .ad.ad. v. actually, Tan. Yũ’ hlamdo’yu adadė. Yes. He actually said that. b. .ìr.ad. v.adv. not really, also usable as a solo verb with a nominalized phrase, sõga wė hlanta ìradė he’s not really a spy. The position of .ìr. here 50 .adl. v. hurt, be painful; Ø’sh so adlė my arm hurts; also with different particles to locate the pain, Ø’ngo so ye adlė it hurts in my arm; Ø’ngo so al adlė my arm aches; Ø’ngo so nnau adadlė my whole arm hurts. 1. v. be common; be normal; be typical. .adn. 2. v.adv. normally, commonly; dulhlamda re Ø’sh sad- nolpìrė because I speak with an accent it is common for people to misunderstand me. gem sìppra ngo pwed rrii’mmu w’adnantė? typically what color are man- agement vehicles around here? .adz. v. transgress against. .ag. v. smuggle; secretly transport. .agm. v. be 10,000. v. .ahl. ahlayá his monstrous handwriting is utterly hilarious! laugh; hlo ngo patacha’delda’sh sep- .aj. v. be amazing. a. nra’daja n. wonderland, paradise. .ãj. v. be long. ãjmĩj n. sofa, couch. .ajl. 1. v. sing (a song). 2. of an insect, chirp. .ajw. v. esteem; value. .ajy. v. hold (still) in the hands or arms; embrace; cra- dle (a baby). wsã ona uppyó I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself ex- ploded before my very eyes. .agy. 1. v. be rude; hladagyė he’s very rude; sõrra zen sagyó’ sõ’sh Ø’wė dantìrė it’s not me that was rude to the boss! 2. v. break, cheat on rules, with zen or mar; jjamm zen/mar hlagyė she breaks the rules. 2. v.adv. .akk. 1. v. fuck, a vulgar term for having sex (see .ũy.). fucking, a vulgar intensive with something of the same tone as English “fucking”- It is not, however, ever used in cursing infixing. someone (for which see .ucch.); dakkarìrau how the fuck should I know? .akl. v. be pressureized; have pressure. al part. inside; kõì al lwu auyawa dust was floating in the air; Ø’ngo so al adlė my arm aches. 1. v. be one; be single; 1. .al. 2. v.adv. once; with the perfective, has the experiential sense of ever, mra ngo zanngal zen tanya nalosló have you ever imagined being rich? sswemm zen dalomjìro I have not ever eaten bugs. .ãl. v. be precise; specific. v. fare; get along; zo’nnaldė? .ald. how are you? zo’nnaldwa? how have you been getting along? ta’nnodwė are you well? .ãll. v. kiss (lips). .ally. v. rain. .aln. v. remember. .alr. v. be sweet. 1. v. rock (back and forth); undulate. .alt. liquid, make/have waves. .alw. v. be lucky, be fortunate. 1. v. pierce, penetrate. .am. 2. v. pass through, Yanoppsã ngo sed chĩ yauyamó we floated through the walls of the Polychronom. a. samda n. speech (in general). b. sìbbamda n. speech, given by a presenter. c. siinyamda n. orthography, writing. d. sõnamda n. speaker. e. suryamda n. translation (see yud). speech, specifically, producing f. sounds; gal zawsã ngo zamda’sh søyolpė it’s hard to understand when that robot talks. zamda n. amdol n. letter (of the Patacha). .amm. v. be yellow. v. release; .amr. let go; surrender; depamrìrũ, zonnu nemlo’ yu zen dubrulrá “I will oppose your decision ’til my dying day!” .amy. v.ref. be friends with; Yunn Ø’pren Chomma o ló hlamya zen hlozó Yunn introduced me to this dude Chomma that he’s friends with. .an. v. be logical; follow reason; make practical sense; tany’anė? make sense? .ãn. v. be hot. a. .iiy.ãn. v. be warm. v.ref. resemble, Senn Lann hlãndìrė Senn .ãnd. does not resemble Lann. .ãny. v. be ironic; a. zãnya n. irony, in the Pyomian, cynical sense. ang part. in, at (temporal); Sìppra 1’5 ang tunén yũ’ Praled Ø’pren hlìnngoggró Praled just informed me that Management is coming at 1’5. 2. of .angr. v. symbolize; represent; palamda papna ngo angra wė antė a word is a symbol of a thought. .ãngy. v. be sick; be ill. a. sãngya n. illness, in a person or population. sãnãngya n. fever, occurring live in a human(oid) body. a. zãngya n, illness; for inanimates, deformity. .amd. v. speak; Senn sõga wė hlantwa yũ’ onũ tanya hlamdó he actually said that Senn used to be a spy? ló, dẽzìramdũ, pyøda iilsa ona mamm, za- .anl. v. run; hurry; iilsoì chyẽ yø iid tanlunó two hounds ran out at us; sodwa zen sanlan atrė running is good for one’s health. 51 ann n. female waist and hips. .anng. v. be angry; be upset. .arrm. v. equate to; equal. .arry. v. be beautiful; handsome; comely. .anngr. v. end; soranngra cchã w’antė the end of life is death. anngyė n. skirt. .anny. v. be docile. .anr. v. be tired; fatigued. .ant. 1. v. be, exist; Say ddyod wė hlantė Sy is an 2. idiom, have, with possessor in topical, animal. Ø’sh ggii antė I have a book; but see, ga’jjė dõrrsa wė hlantė that cow is mine. .any. v. appreciate; be thankful; be grateful. v. age; be an age; grow up; grow old; dapa .ap. zadongwa every facet of my childhood was abysmal. v. .apn. think, be of the opinion, with yũ’ for re- ported thought, gema zwi ̃ bbran wė antén yũ’ dapnė I think this is the night. .apr. v. know; understand (through shared experience or empathy). .apw. v. be high, be up high. v. know (common knowledge); thoroughly; inti- .ar. mately; with confidence. a. parũ adv. of course, “as is known;” Ttiinng parũ, jjamm al hlennlė Ttiing is a notorious suck- up. v. be from; come from; originate from; nranu .arj. narjė? where are you from? a. pamda’rja n. etymology. .arn. v. be old. .arr. 1. v. be private; exclusive; kku arrė (this) room is private, a “do not enter” sign. 2. v. shut down communication, cut someone off, stop talking to some- one, hlo zen tunn darrė I’ve cut her off, I’m not talking to her; yø meparró we broke up (likely for good). .ary. 1. v. be other; be another; A: Tanya Radá zwĩ sõga zwẽ hlantau? B: Pan auwìrė. Hlaryė yũ’ desnė A: Could Radá be the spy? B: Likely not. I be- lieve it’s someone else; gem bbaun aryė this is another 2. v.adv. otherwise, differently, naryollau genre. try again (try a different answer, as when guessing). Dulyau. Tanya llyã daryonnreddė? Please. Could I select again? aryá! another one (when asking for a different selection). .as. v. play; have fun. v. have an epiphany; see the light; tii nãsolpó .ãs. you finally got it! .ash. v. be red; ìradashė it’s not so red; zwĩ riimm asha dde dwad’w’antė the colors (we were discussing) are red and brown. .asht. v. be safe. .asl. v. promise. .assh. v. bring; deliver. .assw. v. riot; protest. .ast. v. send (out); transmit; dro keng ìwũ zwĩ zelo- jja Yanoppsã rã tunn pastė the phenomenon is being transmitted somehow or other from the Polychronom. .asy. v. act; take aciton. asya n. action. .at. 1. v. seem like; appear to be; may take predi- cate complement with wė; gal sho la atė that looks like a tree. 2. v.gov. to seem to; gem ìjjìkkató this seems to have putrified; nadawusnatyá you look really exhausted. .atl. v. message; communicate; convey; tell. .atr. v. help; assist; sodwa zen sanlan atrė running is good for one’s health. .ãrr. v. take a bath; bathe; shower. .aty. v. expect. .arrb. v. watch. .auch. cheat, trick. 1. v. be unfair, feel unfair. 2. with zen, 52 .aucch. v. be electrified; produce electricity. .aurr. v. be green. a. zauccha n. electricity. .aud. v. nurse; suck (of a baby). .ãud. v. complain; bitch about X. .audr. v. need; be in need of; sozdan, lyadaudrá we all need forgiving; dro sshwu ãuyaja zen lyaudrė we need a miracle; ge’jjã prã iimmhloì iirpwed paudrė we’ve gotta get a powerful tug in here for this. .augr. v. be sad; feel sad; nẽza’sh dadaugrė your deception really saddens me; nẽza Ø’zen dadaugrobė your lying really brings me down. .auj. v. be blue. .aujj. nerìrau I implore you, don’t do that. v. be humble; be meager; Daujjachũ, pan .aull. v. love; taulloì ngẽ hlìzzró the mother whom they love(d) died; Kana dde Senn madaullė Kana and Senn love each other a lot. a. aulla n. love. b. meyiilsaulla n. a couple in love. .auhl. v. lose one’s mind, go insane, become paranoid, be not right in the head; ron dyėn sõ samdau, du- jauhlén if anyone talks, I’ll go crazy. .aum. v. be wrong; be in violation. .aump. v. promise. .aumy. v. glow, give off light; shine. a. zaumya n. light source. v. .aunl. forget; Chomma hlujaunlén o yu jan hlowayá he’s convinced himself that Chomma will cer- tainly forget. .ãunn. door! v. open; ge’drũcha nãunn open this damn ãunngyo n. key. 1. v. walk. .aung. 2. v.adv. walk, manner marker for a path of motion verb, Jjẽdra sho zen hlaungìló the Jjẽdra walked up the tree. .aunw. v. be eight; 8. .aur. v. be official. .aury. v. wander (aimlessly). .aus. v. lock; secure. aussã n. lock. .aush. v. be meek; be complacent. .ausr. v. be fast; be quick. v. .aut. trade, exchange; do business; mriing zen dautelløngó I went out to buy candy; yauta tunn iinyá our business is doing great! a. mauta n. sell-out, “rat.” b. zauta n. economy. c. .usn.aut. v. “dump,” sell for a pittance; Pyom zen tusnautén o jjã’tė supposedly they’re going to dump Pyom. .ãut. v. be horny; dadãuta zen obė it makes me re- ally horny. .auw. v. be likely; be probable; A: Tanya Radá zwĩ sõga zwẽ hlantau? B: Pan auwìrė. Hlaryė yũ’ desnė A: Could Radá be the spy? B: Likely not. I believe it’s someone else. .auy. 1. v. float, Yanoppsã al yauyawa we were 2. v.adv. float, floating around in the Polychronom. manner marker for path of motion verbs, Yanoppsã ngo sed chĩ yauyamó we floated through the walls of the Polychronom. .ãuy. 1. v. be magic, be supernatural. 2. v. be in- explicable; dro sshwu ãuyaja zen lyaudrė we need a miracle. ãuyaja n. miracle. .auz. strive; døìdauzo’wenyá I will perse- 1. v. veringly strive. try; dro sìppra Ẽ zen hleshrauzwa some management dude was trying to find you. 2. v.gov. .aw. v. manufacture; work. ge’ttyang dawa ttyiil ìrepė my work for the day is still unfinished. .ãw. v. precede; come before. awa 1. n. work. 2. n. role. 53 2. v.adv. .ay. 1. v. increase; be more; become more; llyã’nayá (when you want more of the same another one! thing). -er, used to form a compara- tive, with rrìnn for the comparand; the verb may be used independently with a nominalized stative verb for the same sense, ron tunngem epetrau, rang ìnngon iina ayìrén if this reality completely changes, then that one won’t be any better. a. .ot.ay.V. v.adv. approximately, roughly; bo nerũ, Gyann donrõ’nu hlotayunén when are you expecting Gyann, roughly? otayaurra a more or less green color; the expression otáy may be used in- dependently, otay ìwaurratė it’s kinda green-ish somehow. .ãy. v. be interesting. .az. v. be permanent; eternal; consistent. .azm. 1. v. be white. color words. 2. v.adv. light, with other .azr. v. wonder; ponder; with jan for the thing won- dered about, or with zen for very intense concentra- tion, more in the ponder sense; hlo jan dazrė I won- der about him (he might be good for this); hlo zen dazrė I really wonder about him (either through ob- session or suspicion, for example); with yũ’ for a full clause, gammu tunén? yũ dazrė I wonder how many of them will come. .azz. v. be precious; be valuable. .azzng. v. be dangerous. b · B · b · B · b ba conj. or (see also tamba). bã conj. or, adverbial. bad n. story, dramatic portrayal. getting that tool dealt with (due to this being his re- sponsibility somehow). bbyod 1. n. bison enormous penis. 2. n. slang for a man with an 2. n. bãu 1. n. brain. (good) sense; in this meaning it often takes a diminutive bãuda for men, bãuley for women. Ø’ muzra ngo bãu(da/ley) epodlìryá my sense of self-defnese is terrible. bem n. planet; world (slang, see abem). bemm n. paperwork. a. bemm .er. v. do paperwork. bbãu n. gas; vapor. benn n. neck. bbaun n. type, kind; genre; gem bbaun aryė this is another genre. bbiinng n. mole bbo n. hole. bbol n. inner elbow. bbran n. night; gema zwi ̃ bbran wė antén yũ’ dapnė I think this is the night. bbung n. worry; concern, specifically about some- thing being done properly due to accountability in response to obligation. a. bbung .er. v. worry; Kyemm gal ggyo pobwa zen bbung hlerén Kyemm is going to worry about beng part. from now; in the future. bii n. stone, rock. bìd n. tooth. bo n. estimate, prediction, guess; a. bo .er. v. estimate, guess; bo nerũ, Gyann donrõ’nu hlotayunén when are you expecting Gyann, roughly? brad n. throat (front, external); see also shũj. braj n. jar. brėn n. trough. brĩggyė n. kilt, sarong, lungi. 54 brĩj n. male waist and hips. bwøng bwøng four days ago. part. before, prior; ago; onnoì ttyang bwu n. pot; vat. byõ n. tower. byur n. atlanto-occipital joint and atlas (C1). c · Ch · c · Ch · c cchã n. death; soranngra cchã w’antė the end of life is death. ccho n. nipple (male). cchwaumm n. grin, smiling mouth full of teeth; has an aroma of subservience, with the nuance “if you’re not grinning you’re going to make yourself a target for trouble.” a. cchwaumm .er. v. grin, sõnìppra re cch- waumm teró they grinned for the manager; to sìp- pra prã cchwaumm merobó they forced them- selves to grin at the behest of management; to prã sìppra mamm cchwaumm teró for their own good they grinned in front of the management. cchwìd n. eel; eel-like creature. chau n. vagina. Polychronom. chiir n. knee. choì n. penis. chon art. a certain; the aforementioned; use of chon signals a certain unwillingness to name something specifically, and assumes the listener does know what is being (obliquely) referred to; gon iiwasã ngo ttyud øsrũ, nn chon hløsma’sh hleponsìratė that tip of the nudge-rod is broken, but a certain wonder- dude seems clueless (about it). chud n. shit; excrement (profanity). chyẽ n. hound; dog (animal); iilsoì chyẽ yø iid tan- lunó two hounds ran out at us. chyõ n. context. part. chĩ through (penetrating), Yanoppsã ngo sed chĩ yauyamó we floated through the walls of the chyũ n. torso, of human(oid) body. chyũgyė n. shirt (but see nwõ). d · D · d · D · d dã 1. n. egg. 2. n. nut. 3. n. testicle. ddũ n. tongue. dang n. gun; phaser. dde conj. and, connects items immediately (but see ddẽ); Kana dde Senn madaullė Kana and Senn love each other a lot. ddyãu n. jam; jellie. ddyod n. beast, animal. ded n. finger; ssa, hlo’sh ded ãdetó’ jẽ’nubrė well, at least he has three fingers left. conj. and, picks up an interrupted thought ddẽ (but see dde). denn n. algorithm. ddõj n. sex; gender. ddonng n. male shoulders dennsã n. computer (algorithm machine). ddan n. (male) pectoral muscle. 55 ddìd n. bug, in the sense of sickness, Pebã rã o ddìd’re hlìzzró he died from a bug he caught in Ditch- land. dĩj n. freckle. do n. time period dõ n. the back, the rear (of a thing or area). dõì adj. rear. dõìd n. thumb. dõìddedũnng n. the fingers and thumb. donrõ’nu (do + nrõ + ’nu) adv. what time? tunn donrõ’nu’nó what time is it now? bo nerũ, Gyann donrõ’nu hlotayunén when are you expecting Gyann, roughly? drã n. seed. drãj n. authority. drėl part. behind. art. dro some; indefinite marker; dro san zen Trann hlennlũ hlìmnìzzró Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. Liid! Nomaley dro ttyonn zen hlìnngorjó Look! Little Noma has just made something amazing! drũ n. door, ge’drũcha nãunn open this damn door! dũ adv. back, moving back, toward the rear (see dõ). dwad n. brown; a borrowing from colloquial Royd- dinese; zwĩ riimm asha dde dwad’w’antė the colors (we were discussing) are red and brown. a. dwad .etw. v. be brown dyėn art. any; kiimm tera ngo dyėn yan lyii- chølmė whenever they sound the alarm we must all line up. dyo part. by; before and not after. dyom n. law. dyul n. “tain’t,” perineum. E · E · E · E · E e n. material, stuff, substance. .eb. v. be excessive; be wasteful. .ẽb. v. dig a hole or trench. .ebbr. v. act; perform. .ebl. v. agree; accept; Pasro ttau deblė I agree with Pasro; Etu hladarryũ, Pasro yeblė Pasro and I agree that Etu is really pretty; Etu hladarra’sh Hlellod mar Pasro yepeblìrė Pasro and I completely disagree with Hlellod about Etu’s beauty; with pren for nominalized clause complement, go’ttyang Pẽba kyun nyønga pren deblė I agree to go out into the ditches with you tomorrow. oniitreddan øssnė the possibility of our actually get- ting away is so limited that we shouldn’t even dream (about it). be able to, can; gem sshwu pwed’ėsh ge’nnra sepejeddìrė this type of vehicle is useless here. v.gov. .edr. v. compare. .edw. v. own; possess; dominate, hlwud Ttadda zen tedwũ, yìrhlan topìra nwayá hlepodyayá Ol’ Ttad there is such an utter moron that nobody wants him to belong to their team; ga’jjė dedwa wė hlantė that cow is mine (I’m in carge of it, feed it, or milk it); nranu (pìnn zen) nedwa hlantė where’s yours? (vehicle, or whatnot). .eby. v. tap; pat; fondle. .ech. v. be different. .eg. 1. v. be liquid. ega n. liquid; juice. ecchyũngyė n. shawl; makeshift shirt; torso wrap. egėya n. effluent, (liquid) toxic waste. .edd. v. can; be possible; nyoslìrølma nwayá ny- 56 .egg. v. hit; strike; bump. a. X pren .egg. v. bump into X, Kana pren hleggó she bumped into Kana. v. .ell. take, acquire, get; procure, possibly even “snag;” mriing zen dautelløngó I went out to buy candy. .egn. v. make sense. ej part. up to; until. .ej. v. use; jjiir zen nejwìnn don’t use your hand. gem sshwu pwed’ėsh ge’nnra sepejeddìrė this type of vehicle is useless here. .ejj. v. be fresh. .ejjw. v. be industrius; hard working. .ejr. v. share; with prã or pren for person shared with; Broì’sh pomja zen Gìd prã hlejró Broì shared food with Gìd; Broì dde Gìd pomja zen teyejró Broì and Gìd shared their food (with each other); Broì ttau Gìd pomja zen tejró Broì and Gìd shared their food (with someone else). .ejy. v. ask (for an answer); question. .ẽjy. v. give birth to (referent). referent .ek. v. be skilled (at) takes zen. .ekl. v. keep; store. .ekn. v. transfer ownership; give away. 1. v. rust; be rusty; decay. 2. v. be (rust) .ekr. brown. .ėkw. 1. v. be down; be low; 2. of character, poor, unsavory, “trashy;” hlo(’sh) yãu’dadėkwė he’s really trashy. 1. v. be current .el. 2. v. be relevant; with zen or pren, tunn nyẽ pren/zen dyėn jjamm elìrė the rules are not relevant to us now. .ẽl. v. be careful. .eld. v. be confusing. a. siinya’deld. (siinya .adeld.) v. to have incom- prehensible handwriting; also patacha’deld; hlo ngo patacha’delda’sh sepahlayá his monstrous handwriting is utterly hilarious! .elk. v. expect. .ellt. v. be intense; industriuous. .ellz. v. fly. v. be awake; Ø’pren/Ø’zen dro hlan hlel- .eln. nobó something woke me up. .elp. v. be born. .els. v. be lost. .elt. v. be fresh. .elw. v. be tall (in stature); to rrìnn hlepayelwė he is the tallest of them all. .ely. v. be missed; be longed for. .ehl. v. be flat. .emb. v. follow; Ẽ’nona’sh to zen tanya nembó? you yourself followed them? noì jjamm zen sembìra pobbrė he who does not follow all the rules is purged. .eml. v. decide. a. pemla n. decision. .emml. v. be clear. .emms. v. make a note of; notate; lessén o nra jan nujemmsau make a precise note of where you are. .emy. v. assemble; put together. diijũ noìta mer- rdemyė happily, everything’s coming together accord- ing to its true nature. a. pamda mazemya n. stable derivation, a de- rived word that is regularly used by everyone. b. pamda mõwemya n. ad-hoc derivation, a one- off formation coined for the occasion. v. do; ggyo yìn nenauzau try doing it with a .en. tool. .ench. v. be few; wãj nrõzad enchó just a few min- utes. .endr. v. compare; comparative infix (trailing); Etíímm ngo zwõj dde ddonng onndendrũ, hlwud siing “Abbasã” tondrė Etíímm is pretty well built through the arms and shoulders so the crew calls him 57 “Loader.” .ẽng. v. sample, have a taste of, try something on; smell something. syum zen dẽngopė I want to try a bit. 2. v.adv. according to one’s going to lose who I am. nature; diijũ noìta merrdemyė happily, everything’s coming together according to its true nature. .ėng. v. drab; gray; grey. .enn. v. touch. .ennl. 1. v. breathe; kõì zen lyennlė we breathe air; dro san zen Trann hlennlũ hlìmnìzzró Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. 2. of rules, obey slavishly, with zen or al; Ttiinng parũ, jjamm al hlennlė Ttiing is a notorious suck-up. .errg. v. sign; stamp. .errj. v. sumarize; tally. .errsh. v. matter; be important. .ers. v. sleep. .ery. v. be 100000; 100000. .es. v. smile; smirk. .ennw. v. be confident. .ens. v. describe. .esh. v. be noble; be righteous; do the right thing. .ẽsh. v. squirt; spew. .eny. v. acknowldege; validate; recognize. .eshm. v. cry; make a loud sound. .ep. 1. v. be complete. 2. v.adv. totally, completely, 3. adj. entire, whole, hlepagyė he’s a total asshole. epoì ggii zen tanya yud nereddau? could you trans- late an entire book? a. epa n. totality; gon aurroì jwa ngo epa all those green papers. b. zepa n. the universe, the cosmos. c. .ìr.ep. v. be incomplete; ge’ttyang dawa ttyiil ìrepė my work for the day is still unfinished. The po- sition of .ìr. here is irregular. d. .ìt.ep. v.adv. quite, “bloody,” a high-register or snobbish usage; gem nre’rsa’sh dìtepiijė I’m quite pleased with these accommodations. .epp. v. be much; a lot. .eppr. v. challenge (validity); contest. .eshr. v. find, discover; dro sìppra Ẽ zen hleshr- auzwa some management dude was trying to find you. .ẽsht. v. ejaculate (semen). a. pẽshta n. semen. .esk. v. swat. .esn. v. believe (veracity), with yũ’, A: Tanya Radá zwĩ sõga zwẽ hlantau? B: Pan auwìrė. Hlaryė yũ’ desnė A: Could Radá be the spy? B: Likely not. I believe it’s someone else. .ess. v. be in; at; occupy (a location); zranu Kana gem hlessén when will Kana be here? byõ’sh nranu essė? where is the tower? lessén o nra jan nujemm- sau make a precise note of where you are. .esshp. v. sprinkle; pour dash of liquid; splash. .er. v. do, expects referent to complete sense. .esshr. v. surrender; turn over. .erb. v. reference; indicate; tunn nerba zen yìnnra dulìrė I don’t see what you’re talking about anywhere. .erl. v. wait; be patient. .err. 2. of 1. v. be young. derrė I am young. inanimates, be new-ish, of things that have some use left in them. v. 1. .errd. be true to one’s nature; tantang tunngem Ø’sh noìta adũtũ, nn tyiil derrdė even though everything is horrible for me right now, I’m not .esshy. 1. v. settle (down). 2. of celestial objects, set; wiilsoì yaumm esshya ìssyó the second sun began to set. .essw. v. take a break; rest. .est. v. be thin; emaciated. .et. v. be three; be triple; 3; ssa, hlo’sh ded ãdetó’ jẽ’nubrė well, at least he has three fingers left. .ẽt. v. spew; squirt. 58 .etl. v. be empty. .etr. v. change; modify; may take predicate comple- ment with wė; zawsã zen detró I modified the robot; ìnngon etró the most recent reality has changed. .ett. v. prohibit; regulate against; condemn; wuyon- noì jjamm seyaulla zen epettė rule 14 completely forbids love relationships; tantang nepettũ, nn zwĩ yauta onũ utrén even though you’re completely op- posed to it, the deal will go through. .ẽttr. v. offload; unload (cargo). .etw. v.ref. be the color of, with the referent for the comparand, gal pwed jur etwė that ship is the color of steel. zonn’wetwė v. a. n’wetwė (nun hletwė) v. be what color, of in- trisic color. b. be what color, of some- thing intentionally colored; Q: Ga’bbemm zonn’wakketwė A: Põyìrurtó. Q: What color was that fuckin’ paperwork again? A: It was improperly coded as blue/purple. .ew. v. kiss; lick; suck genitals/nipples; jjamm lyadi- inewa re ttyill lyorė we’re still alive due to our finesse in romancing the rules. .ey. 1. v. be together; accompany. 2. v.adv. with, co-, com-, do an action together; zìn teyeró they had a party together. 3. idiom, hello, nyey! for two peo- ple meeting, lyey! for more. .ez. v. treat; care for; tend to. .ẽz. v. lie, tell lies, deceive; nẽza’sh dadaugrė your Jõ, Broì deception really saddens me; Dadanngyá. yũ’ o jjã’tó yu jan Ø’pren nẽzó. I’m pissed. Be- cause you lied to me about what Broì supposedly said; ló, dẽzìramdũ, pyøda iilsa ona mamm, zawsã ona uppyó I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded be- fore my very eyes. .ezl. v. be 100; 100. .ėzn. v. suffer. .ezy. v. broadcast (as story or report). F · Ė · F · Ė · F v. live (a life), pass through life; teyėlė they live .ėl. together; øssnũ yėlwa we’ve led such limited lives. ėn conj. but; among the workers more often seen as nn. .ėng. v. be drab; be gray. .ėrp. v. be seven; 7. .ėy. v. be dirty, be unclean. a. zėya n. filth. g · G · g · G · g gã n. (physical) thing; (see kya). gãgã slang, “widge,” widget. gal adv. there, (distant). gala prn. that, distant from both speaker and lis- tener. gamm n. number. gammu adv. how many? gammu antė? how many are there? gammu tunén? yũ dazrė I wonder how many of them will come. gãmoì n. locker; cabinet. gau n. joint (of the body). gãul n. source. 59 gẽ adv. slang form of gem. gon adv. there (near listener). gem adv. here. gong n. goal, target. gema prn. this (near speaker); often just gem. gongeng adv. that way, by that method. gen’nu prn. what? geng n. valve. ger n. the bottom, lower (part or area or direction). gerũ n. down, downward. ge’ttyang adv., n. today. ggãu n. facility; building. ggẽ n. suction. ggẽsã n. vacuum. a. ggẽsã .er. v. vacuum, kku zen ggẽsã deró I vacuumed the room. ggii n. book; ggii zen dørrsė I own a book. ggwãur n. flavor. ggwẽ adv. also, too; sssaaaa, Jabód ggwẽ abbasã hløsmeratė sooo, I guess Jabod’s not a pro at running the loader either. go’ttyang adv., n. tomorrow; go’ttyang ttyiil ter- rén they will still be young tomorrow. gonu adv. why? grã adv. soon. grad n. male back. graunn part. beyond. grẽ n. film; movie. gremm n. ear. gremm’ra n. ear plugs. gren n. rubber, latex. grene n. rubber or latex material. greney adj. made of rubber or latex. groì adj. lower, down low. grũ n. “dissident, thorn; fly in the ointment.” ggyo n. tool; ggyo yìn nenauzau try doing it with a tool. gyė n. clothing. gyìr part. from across. go n. reason. goma prn. that (near listener). gyõ part. nomobau separate these widges from those. from among; gem gãgã zen gala gyõ gyumm n. muscle tissue (in any creature). .iib. v. burn. .iibbr. 1. v. go. 2. v. travel. I · Ii · I · Ii · I .iich. line up; kiimm tera ngo dyėn yan lyi- ichølmė whenever they sound the alarm we must all line up. v. .iicchw. v. connect; auja dde amma zen niicch- wau connect the yellow one to the blue one; auja dde amma zen neyiicchwau pair the yellow and blue one together; auja yun amma zen hiicchwau connect the yellow one to the blue one; auja kyun amma zen niic- chwau snap/fit the yellow one into the blue one. iid part. to, toward; in lower registers ye is pre- ferred to iid. Senn nrawa iid tunn hluwė Senn is returning to the manufactory now; iilsoì chyẽ yø iid tanlunó two hounds ran out at us. .iid. 1. v. look at, regard; examine. 2. of reading 60 material, read, ggii zen tunn hliidoì roì zen dulė I see a man who is reading a book. a. .ẽl.iid. v. analyze; tanya yud zen nẽliidó? did you analyze the translation? .iidd. v. be valid. .iig. v. be basic; fundamental. .iigghl. v. forbid; Pyom zen nullén o yu zen de- piigghlayá I absolutely forbid you to leave Pyom; Pyom zen lyulla pepiigghló We’ve all been forbidden to leave Pyom. .iij. v. be happy; tadiijénau they would be very happy; diijũ noìta merrdemyė happily, everything’s coming together according to its true nature; zwĩ roìda hladiijìrwa the boy was very unhappy. a. sadiij’ idiom, great! congratulations! .iijjr. v. fill. .iijm. v. identify. .iikkl. v. shimmer; glimmer. .iikr. v. be random. .iil. v. pick up; handle; go’nngyo niilauzā try liftin’ that damn tool (Ditchling). .iils. v. be two; be acouple; be dual; 2. a. niing tiilsa n. twin(s). .iim. 1. v. be fair, be just, embody justice. zen, treat fairly. 2. with .iimmhl. 1. v. be powerful. ge’jjã prã iimmhloì iirpwed paudrė we’ve gotta get a powerful tug in here 2. v.adv. strongly, powerfully; pemla’sh for this. sìppra mar diimmhlulró I argued with management about this decision (and likely got the decision re- versed); Sìppra zen shøng rìr hlullpa’nėsh Briil hliimmhlodlė Briil is a master at getting what she wants out of management without giving it up; di- immhloryuzyá I’m starving and parched! .iimml. v. allow; let; permit; gona pren diirti- immló I regret I let that happen; Joro Iissya ttau hløngo’ yu zen diimmló I let Joro go with Iissya; Kaja dde Gyann Joro hluna zen tiimmlìrė Kaja and Gyann do not allow Joro to come. .abr.iimml. v. give permission; Kaja dde a. Gyann Joro hlunén o yu zen tabriimmlìró Kaja and Gyann did not give permission for Joro to come. b. piimmla n. right, permission; gem jjã jan, sìp- pra rã o sozdan zen nacha o piimmla antìrė you don’t have the right to request management’s forgive- ness in this matter. .iimn. v. cultivate; grow (crops). v. be good; adiinyá! excellent! great! yauta .iin. tunn iinyá our business is doing great! a. ayiinũ adv. better, often the ũ drops, though the accent remains on -iin-. b. .onnd.iin. v. be awesome, be “sick,” etc.; gal zìn yeng o parrba onndiinwayá that movie during the get-together was awesome! c. otiinũ adv. less well, often the ũ drops, though the accent remains on -iin-. .iinj. v. inherit. .iinl. v. wish; long for; pan diinlė I hope so. .iiny. v. write. .iip. v. be sharp (pointed). .iir. v. transport; move; carry. .iirt. v. be accidental. .iishr. v. be brief; be short. .iisl. v. sit; sit down; ga’lló sral abbasã kwii hli- isleddìra nwayá hladonndė that dude is so fat that he can’t even fit in the loader. .iisr. v. be 1000. .iissl. v. be supreme; be ultimate. .iit. v. take time; require time; be involved/lengthy. .iitl. v. be used to; accustomed to. v. .iitr. flee, run away; hide; nyoslìrølma nwayá nyoniitreddan øssnė the possibility of our actually getting away is so limited that we shouldn’t even dream (about it). .iittr. v. submit (to a demand). .iiw. 1. v. prod, nudge. 2. v. shock, electrocute. 61 iiwasã n. “nudge rod.” .iiz. v. address (by name). .iiy. 1. v. be small; Ø’ngo ngẽ hladiiyė my mother is very small. a. .ìnng.iiy. v.adv. a little bit, dìnngiiyomjó I ate a little food. .iizy. v. be rich; thick; full-bodied; dense; no’pẽba’sh syumiiyor epiizyė the Ditches are rife with little things that’ll get’cha. Ì · Ì · Ì · Ì · Ì .ìb. v. be free of charge; gratis. .ìbb. v. aim; target (something); intend. v.gov. plan, intend; Eyád zìn hlerìbba’sh noìta’dìndratė seems like all’s good to go for the hang-out Eyád is planning; .ìbby. 1. v. continue; persist, remain; may take pred- icate complement with wė; 2. v.gov. continue, keep (on); tunn domjìbbyopė I want to keep eating; hlo pren namdìrìbbyau don’t talk to him! (ever). .ìbr. v. be generous. .ìchr. v. be poisonous. .ìdn. v. provide. .ìgd. v. copy. .ìj. v. enter. v. rot; decay; gem ìjjìkkató this seems to have .ìjj. putrified. .ìjr. v. be new. .ìkk. v. stink; smell terrible; gem ìjjìkkató this seems to have putrified. .ìkr. v. organize. .ìl. v. ascend; go up; Jjẽdra sho zen hlìló the Jjẽdra climbed the tree; Jjẽdra sho zen hlaungìló the Jjẽdra walked up the tree. .ìls. v. call to; invite; enlist; Resh zen zìn iid/prã lyìlsau let’s invite Resh to the party; Ẽ zen yedwau o ppwãu prã dìlsė I invite you to join our group. .ìmmng. v. authorize; approve. .ìmn. 1. v. be soon. 2. v.adv. be about to, hlìm- nawũrén he’s on the verge of work-collapse; see also .ìnng. .ìmr. v. protect, usually zen for the protectee, or prã if the threat is imminent; with nnau for threat if it’s too powerful to confront directly (such as Man- agement); Ẽ zen sìppra nnau dìmrén I’ll protect you against management. v.ref. .ìn. be made of, be composed of; ge’gãgã ttãune’pìnė this widge is composed entirely of plastic. v. .ìndr. be in order; ga’kku’sh noìgã epìn- drìryá everything about room is a disaster! Eyád zìn hlerìbba’sh noìta’dìndratė seems like all’s good to go for the hang-out Eyád is planning; .ìnn. v. notice; focus on. .ìnng. 1. v. be close; near (temporally). 2. v.adv. near to now, may refer to either the near future or the recent past, ìnnganngrén it will soon end, vs. ìn- nganngró it just ended; but see .ìmn. .ìnr. v. earn; merit; deserve. .ìny. v. stop; cease to be; hlũtìnya zen dobeddìrė you cannot make him stop being bad. .ìppr. v. manage; boss. a. sìppra n. management (the collective of man- agers). b. sõnìppra n. manager. .ìpy. v. choose; select. .ìr. v. be zero; be nothing .ìrt. v. trick; deceive; be sly. .ìsm. 1. v. be dark. 2. v.adv. dark (with other 62 colors). with wė. a. zìsma n. shadow; tũ hlur o zìsma’sh sshwu pwed wė zwẽ yũ’ tanya napnė? do you think that shadowy spot over the horizon might be a kind of vehi- cle? .ìsshr. v. submit (a form or payment). .ìssy. v. begin. .ìw. 1. v be indefinite; amorphous; indistinct; dro keng ìwũ zwĩ zelojja Yanoppsã rã tunn pastė the phenomenon is being transmitted somehow or other from the Polychronom. 2. v. be wishy-washy. a. cha’nìw. v. be mimsy, of things. b. yãu’dìw. v. be mimsy, of people. .ìt. v. be enough; sufficient; suffice; OK; tany’ìtó? was (it, that) enough? .ìz. v. be previous. .ìzl. v. be last; be final. .ĩt. v. urinate. a. pĩta n. urine; see also nyii. .ìtt. v. become; may take predicate complement .ìzzr. v. die; perish; taulloì ngẽ hlìzzró the mother whom they love(d) died; dro san zen Trann hlennlũ hlìmnìzzró Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. jan part. about, concerning. jje n. female; woman. j · J · j · J · j jãul n. body. jẽ n. comfort; solace. a. o jẽ’nubrė idiom, at least; the attributive o will merge with the perfective -o; to pucchìro’ jẽ’nubrė at least they didn’t get cuffed; kya re hlìz- zrìrén o jẽ’nubrė at least he won’t die from it. jĩ n. analysis. a. jĩ .er. v. analyze; tanya yud zen jĩ neró? did you analyze the translation? jjã n. matter, topic, subject; gem jjã jan, sìppra rã o sozdan zen nacha o piimmla antìrė you don’t have the right to request management’s forgiveness in this matter. a. o jjã’t. idiom, supposedly, for hearsay that’s more than just idle gossip; Pyom zen tusnautén o jjã’tė supposedly they’re going to dump Pyom; Dadanngyá. Jõ, Broì yũ’ o jjã’tó yu jan Ø’pren nẽzó. I’m pissed. Because you lied to me about what Broì supposedly said. jjamm n. a code; a specific rule; wuyonnoì jjamm seyaulla zen epettė rule 14 completely forbids love re- lationships. jjega n. vaginal fluid; lubricant. jjeyonggyė n. tampon; vaginal pad. jjė n. cow. jjiir n. hand; jjiir zen nejwìnn don’t use your hand. jjiirbenn n. wrist. jjiirgyė n. glove(s). jjuj n. metal(s). jjuje n. metal material. jjwĩ part. close by/to, near; around. jjon n. arm, specifically anything that’s an arm- like appendage including a persons arm, a tree branch, and arm on a robot or other machine, etc.; see so. jjuj n. metal. jo n. explanation. a. jo .er. v. explain, with either zen or jan. jõ conj. because, used when a sentence is com- plete and an additional thought needs to be added; 63 Jõ, Broì yũ’ o jjã’tó yu jan Ø’pren Dadanngyá. nẽzó. I’m pissed. Because you lied to me about what Broì supposedly said. of steel. jwa n. paper. jonn n. instinct. jur n. steel; gal pwed jur etwė that ship is the color jwae n. paper material. jwey adj. paper, made of paper. kad n. year. k · K · k · K · k the air. keng n. technique; method; dro keng ìwũ zwĩ zelo- jja Yanoppsã rã tunn pastė the phenomenon is being transmitted somehow or other from the Polychronom. kren n. morning. krĩ bone (generic). .a’keng or .o’keng a. idiom, how to X, sõyamdo’keng øyìrė it’s not hard to pronounce; sobwa’keng zen hlo pren natlau tell him how to fix it. kiimm n. alarm. kìr n. food (but see pomja). kkenng n. office (of X), department. kkrã n. tea. kkrann n. vertebra kkrannũnng n. spine kku n. room; kku zen ggẽsã deró I vacuumed the room. kõì n. air; kõì al lwu auyawa dust was floating in krĩyũnng skeleton . krøn part. outside; kku krøn dodén I’ll stand out- side the room. kun n. hope, dream. a. kun .er. 1. v. dream, with yun for object; ssa, ttyiil kun dereddė well, I can still dream. 2. with zen, aspire to. kwii part. inside; ga’lló sral abbasã kwii hliisled- dìra nwayá hladonndė that dude is so fat that he can’t even fit in the loader. n. kya thing, of a more abstract sense than gã, which is a physical thing; kya re hlìzzrìrén o jẽ’nubrė at least he won’t die from it. kyun part. pẽba kyun hlãbyó the Yal fell into the ditch. into (the interior of something); Yal l · L · l · L · l or land). la part. like, similar to; tantang dautũyũ, nn Ẽ la o mauta wė dantìra ngo jẽ’nubrayá! I may be a pros- titute, but at least I’m not a sell-out like you! lad n. eyebrow lẽ prn. you (plural). llyã adv. again; Dulyau. Tanya llyã daryon- nreddė? Please. Could I select again? llyã’nayá an- other one! (when you want more of the same thing). llyun n. surrender; tranquility; enlightenment;. llaung n. section; subset; area (of an organization llyunsrad n. “philosophy,” “balance.” 64 ló n. dude (Ditchling), often Loda. lyar n. system. luj n. tongue. lwa n. stomach. Ø’sh lwa syumãngyawa I had an upset stomach; tunn ũna’sh Ø’ngo lwacha the prob- lem is my damn stomach. lyẽ prn. we (pl. inclusive). lyel n. lamp, light. a. lyel .er. v. illuminate, set up lighting. lyõ n. the front (of a thing or area). lwu 1. n. powder. dust was floating in the air. 2. n. dust, kõì al lwu auyawa lyõì adj. front, forward. lyũ adv. forward, moving forward, toward the front. h · Hl · h · Hl · h hlan n. living creature; being. spot over the horizon might be a kind of vehicle? hlannu prn. what (kind of living thing)? used with sentient beings who are not clearly people. hle n. fire. hlo prn. he, she, it (animate). hlur part. above; tũ hlur o zìsma’sh sshwu pwed wė zwẽ yũ’ tanya napnė? do you think that shadowy hlwãu n. time off; when not obligated to work. hlwud 1. n. herd (of animals). 2. of work- ers, group, team (slang), hlwud Ttadda zen tedwũ, yìrhlan topìra nwayá hlepodyayá Ol’ Ttad there is such an utter moron that nobody wants him to belong to their team. m · M · m · M · m mamm part. in front of; before; gal abbasã mamm o zawsã ìwøsrė there’s something funky going on with the robot in front of that loader. ló, dẽzìramdũ, pyøda iilsa ona mamm, zawsã ona uppyó I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded before my very eyes. mar part. against, in opposition to; pemla’sh sìppra mar diimmhlulró I argued with management about this decision (and likely got the decision reversed). mra n. treasure; bounty; wealth. mrang n. something recycleable (waste) . mren n. music. mriid n. dissection; autopsy. mriing n. sweet, candy; treat; mriing zen dautel- løngó I went out to buy candy. mau n. bed, cot. menn 1. n. oil. 2. n. extract. mìd adv. almost. mìj n. chair; bench. mmyon n. family; kin; kindred. moì n. storage space. mrønn n. forest. mwer n. paragraph. mwøggyė n. turban, whole head wrap done by common laborers out of doors. mwøl n. head myum n. berry. 65 nad n. female blouse or makeshift shirt. nanna n. nipple (female). niing n. sibling. nn conj. but (see ėn). n · N · n · N · n nrawa hluwė Senn is returning to the manufactory now. n. manufactory, Senn nrawa iid tunn nrõ n. hour (approximate). nrõzad n. Pyomian minute, moment (precise length unknown); wãj nrõzad enchó just a few minutes. nnau part. across, covering (position; see wøm). nnel n. rain. nnĩj n. worry, fretting (less official than bbung). a. nnĩj .er. v. worry; Yopa zìn prã o pegomja zen tunn nnĩj hlerė Yopa is fretting over the drinks for the get-together. nnre n. pound equivalent; unit of measure. nod n. male armpit. nodwã (stress on wã) n. male armpit hair. noì adj. all; jãul momja noì sshwu hlan ngo sãngya w’antė cancer is a disease of every kind of an- imal or person; may take the diminutive suffixes, noìda’sh, nranu? where’re all the guys? noìhlan prn. everyone. noìta prn. everything. noìyan adv. always. nra’daja n. paradise, wonderland. nranu adv. where? nru n. snow. nrue n. snow material. nruey adj. made of snow. ’nu (suffixed to noun) q. part. what? which? nun prn. what? nwa part. nearby, close to, an archaic relational. conj. nwayá so X that Y, in the order: Y- nom nwayá X, nyoslìrølma nwayá nyoniitreddan øssnė the possibility of our actually getting away is so limited that we shouldn’t even dream (about it). nwõ n. shirt, typically male; slang, see chyũngyė. nwuj part. far from, distant from. nyaj n. female armpit. nyẽ prn. we (inclusive). nyii n. piss, urine (vulgar; see .ĩt.) nyìl n. wages; pay (for work). v · Ng · v · Ng · v ngãu n. hooch, homemade alcohol; ngãucha zen domjìrė I don’t drink that shit. n. mother; taulloì ngẽ hlìzzró the mother ngẽ whom they love(d) died. ngìng n. refuse; waste; trash. ngo part. of, possessive; Ø’ngo ngẽ hladiiyė my mother is very small. ngwobbol n. back of the knee. ngwoggyė n. pants. ngwol n. leg. ngwu part. below. 66 O · O · O · O · O o part. attributive particle, connecting a complex phrase to a noun. Spelled (irregularly) Ä (au) in the native script. After -au it is wo (spelled wau in the native orthography). a. o yu nominalizer. õ n. engineering. Sìppra 1’5 ang tunìra jan Praled Ø’pren hlìnn- goggró Praled just informed me about Management’s not coming at 1’5. .ogw. v. deficate; a. pogwa n. feces. .ohl. v. be surprising; surprise. .ob. 1. v. cause; hlũtìnya zen dobeddìrė you can- not make him stop being bad. 2. v.gov. causative. Kana zen dosyobó I frightened Kana. .obbr. v. tidy up, clean out junk. a. bãu pobbra n. “zombie” (from brain-washing); bãu pobbra rũ o sora’sh dopìryá I certainly have no interest in living as a zombie. .obw. v. deal with; clear away (a problem). .õhl. v. owe; be indebted, with rã for the lender and sor for the amount, Chomma rã ezloì zũ sor dakkõhló I went into debt with Chomma for 100 fuckin’ Z’s. .oj. v. be smart, be intelligent; Yanoppsã ponsìroì dro zoja rã o dro sshwu ttyonn w’antė yũ’ sesnė the Polychronom is believed to be some sort of technical marvel from some unknown intelligence. .och. v. be hard; firm. .ochn. v. be annoying. od v. stand, stand up; kku krøn dodén I’ll stand out- side the room. v. .odl. be good at; Sìppra zen shøng rìr hlullpa’nėsh Briil hliimmhlodlė Briil is a master at getting what she wants out of management without giv- ing it up. .odr. v. be orange. .odw. v. be well; be in good health; sodwa zen san- lan atrė running is good for one’s health. v. .ody. be stupid; dumb; hlwud Ttadda zen tedwũ, yìrhlan topìra nwayá hlepodyayá Ol’ Ttad there is such an utter moron that nobody wants him to belong to their team. .og. v. spy. a. sõga n spy; Tonro sõga hlantė Tonro is a spy. .oggr. 1. v. teach about; instruct; with either pren or prã for instructee, tanyo Ẽ pren onyoì Pad- namda zen doggrau? shall I teach you proper Pad- namda? 2. with yũ’, inform; Sìppra 1’5 ang tunén yũ’ Praled Ø’pren hlìnngoggró Praled just informed me that Management is coming at 1’5; also with jan, .õj. v. be six; 6. .ojj. v. be foreign; be alien. a. sojja n. “being a stranger.” .ojl. v. format as poetry; recite poetry. .ojw. v. order; instruct; tell (to do). .ok. v. be half. .oky. v. behave; comport oneself. .ol. v. hear. a. .ìbb.ol. v. listen to, especially music; .ol.ìbb. is more likely in a command. .olb. v. congregate with; join (a group). .oll. v. respond; answer; naryollau try again (try a different answer, as when guessing). .olp. v. understand; tii nãsolpó you finally got it! õ zen dadolpìrė I just don’t “grok” engineering; Lassu Ø’pren llyunsrad jan dazra zen hlozũ, ddẽ tunn noìta zen ayiin(ũ) dolpė Lassu introduced me to thinking about philosophy and now I understand ev- erything better; with pren to refer to understand- ing speech, to pren dolpìrė I don’t understand them (when they talk to me). .olt. v. be 10000; 10000. 67 .oly. v. be quiet (not loud; for “silent” see .oss.). .om. v. be separate; take one’s leave; gem gãgã zen gala gyõ nomobau separate these widges from those. .omj. v. eat, drink; consume; sswemm zen yomjén we will eat insects. a. jãul momja n. cancer; jãul momja noì sshwu hlan ngo sãngya w’antė cancer is a disease of every kind of animal or person. .omml. v. low; moo. .on. 2. 1. v. be real; be actual; not imaginary. v.adv. really, undeniably; gemoì roì, wo ngo tauc- chẽ prã o sõga wė hlonantė this man is undeniably a spy for a foreign corporation. a. onũ adv. actually, Senn sõga wė hlantwa yũ’ onũ tanya hlamdó he actually said that Senn used to be a spy? for confirmation on an established fact, nn onũ ti- ilseyedwawa, onwey? but they were actually a couple, right? nn denén yũ’ nìnngamdó, onwey? but, you just said that you were gonna do it, didn’t you? .ony. v. be proper; conform with protocol; tanyo Ẽ pren onyoì Padnamda zen doggrau? shall I teach you proper Padnamda? .op. v. want; desire; bãu pobbra rũ o sora’sh dopìryá I certainly have no interest in living as a zombie. a. sopa n. (personal) desire. b. sũyopa n. sexual desire. c. sepopa n. addiction, clinical dependency. d. zerrdopa n. desire, affinity, predilection, attrac- tion. .opp. v. be many. .oppy. v. slam. .ondr. v.ref. be named; name Yunn dondrė my name is Yunn; with infants, until they can say their own name, are spoken of with tondrė “they call him/her...,” roì o Pasro tondrė he’s a boy; they named him Pasro; jje o Koyo tondrė her name is Koyo. .or. v. be alive (organic). jjamm lyadiinewa re tty- ill lyorė we’re still alive due to our finesse in romancing the rules. a. sora n. life; bãu pobbra rũ o sora’sh dopìryá I certainly have no interest in living as a zombie. .ong. v. be terrible, awful. .onn. v. be four; be quartered; 4. .onnd. 1. v. be large. 2. of people, be fat; ga’lló sral abbasã kwii hliisleddìra nwayá hladonndė that dude is so fat that he can’t even fit in the loader. .onngw. v. steal. .onnr. v. select; choose; Dulyau. Tanya llyã dary- onnreddė? Please. Could I select again? .onr. v. make a (normal) sound (but not loudly). a. samdonra n. phonology. .ons. v. be conscious (of), know, be aware; gon iiwasã ngo ttyud øsrũ, nn chon hløsma’sh hleponsìratė that tip of the nudge-rod is broken, but a certain wonder- dude seems clueless (about it); Yanoppsã ponsìroì dro zoja rã o dro sshwu ttyonn w’antė yũ’ sesnė the Polychronom is believed to be some sort of technical mar- vel from some unknown intelligence. onwey (stress final, onwey) interj. right? asking .orj. v. create; originate; Liid! Nomaley dro tty- onn zen hlìnngorjó Look! Little Noma has just made something amazing! a. morjũ adv. automatically. .õrr. v. lead; direct; oversee; rule. .õrrs. v. own; ga’jjė dõrrsa wė hlantė that cow is mine; nranu (hlo zen) nõrrsa hlantė? where is yours? sawgyė’nu nõrrsa w’antė? which uniform is yours? .ory. v. be hungry. 1. v. be the same. .os. 2. v.adv. the same way, alike; if negated before the verb, .os.ìr.V. the sense is more neutral, while .os.V.ìr. means the speaker has a preference, Wanya yosìrapnė Wanya and I think differently (neither is superior), but Priinng yosap- nìrė Priinng and I do not think alike (and I prefer my way); comparand with sor implies that it is bet- ter, with mar implies that subject is better, abbasã dero’keng sor Lyau hlosìrė Lyau does not run the 68 loader the same way I do (and my way is better) vs. abbasã dero’keng mar Lyau hlosìrė Lyau does not run the loader the same way I do (and Lyau’s way is bet- ter). .osh. v. figure out. v. .osl. imagine; mra ngo zanngal zen tanya nalosló have you ever imagined being rich? nyoslìrølma nwayá nyoniitreddan øssnė the pos- sibility of our actually getting away is so limited that we shouldn’t even dream (about it). .ossht. v. be responsible. .oss. v. be silent. .osy. v. be afraid; dosyė I am afraid; Kana zen dosy- obó I frightened Kana; with pren to indicate the act was unintentional, Kana pren dosyobó. .ot. v. be less; decrease; become less. .ow. v. worry, usually with jan; Chomma hlu- jaunlén o yu jan hlowayá he’s convinced himself that Chomma will certainly forget. .õw. v. be ad hoc; emergent; spontaneous. .oy. v. meet; (greet when meeting). .õy. v. be correct, zwẽ nõyau you may be correct. Q: Ga’bbemm zonn’wakketwė A: Põyìrurtó. Q: What color was that fuckin’ paperwork again? A: It was improp- erly coded as blue/purple. v. .oz. introduce; Yunn Ø’pren Chomma o ló hlamya zen hlozó Yunn introduced me to this dude Chomma that he’s friends with; Lassu Ø’pren llyun- srad jan dazra zen hlozũ, ddẽ tunn noìta zen ayiin(ũ) dolpė Lassu introduced me to thinking about philosophy and now I understand everything better. .ozd. v. forgive; sozdan, lyadaudrá we all need for- giving. otay see .ay.. .otn. v. be brutal. .otr. v. arrive. a. mozdau idiom, oops! .ozn. v. bulge; swell. .ozz. v. be nice. Ø · Ø · Ø · Ø · Ø Ød prn. I; often takes the shape Ø’. .øìbr. v. be nine; 9. 1. v. fight; battle. .øìd. døìdauzo’wenyá I will perseveringly strive. 2. v.gov. perseveringly, nyoslìrølma nwayá nyoniitreddan øssnė the pos- sibility of our actually getting away is so limited that we shouldn’t even dream (about it); for a negative obliga- tion, the negator -ìr- goes after the controlled verb, hlo pren namdìrølmė you should not talk to him. .øìddr. v. care for; look after. .ømch. v. be lazy. .øìj. v. be black. .øìmr. v. wash, cleanse; nomja yel jjir zen nøìm- rau wash your hand before you eat. .øìz. v. do menial labor (digging, etc.). .øld. v. be special. .ømm. v. put; place; position. .ømn. v. be bold; be daring. .øng. v. leave temporarily for a purpose with the inten- tion of returning; run an errand; mriing zen dautel- løngó I went out to buy candy. 1. v. be required .ølm. 2. v.gov. must, have to; yėlìbbya prã gem sswemm zen yomjølmenyá we will have to eat these bugs in order for us to stay alive! .ønng. v. be early. .ørn. v. be crowded. 69 .ørrs. book. 1. v. own, possess; ggii zen dørrsė I own a 2. v. have dominion over. .øsm. 1. v. be clogged; stopped up; pong øsmė the hose is clogged up; gal abbasã mamm o zawsã ìwøsrė there’s something funky going on with the robot in front 2. v. suck (in the colloquial sense), of that loader. ge’zzìn adøsmė this party sucks. 3. v.adv. suck at, be bad at, sssaaaa, Jabód ggwẽ abbasã hløsmeratė sooo, I guess Jabod’s not a pro at running the loader either. idiom, have a a. bãudø’sm. brain fart. b. hløsma (Ditchling høsma) n. klutz, numbskull; gon iiwasã ngo ttyud øsrũ, nn chon hløsma’sh hleponsìratė that tip of the nudge-rod is broken, but (< bãuda .øsm.) a certain wonder-dude seems clueless (about it). v. be broken; hløsrobó’ dennsã’sh gona .øsr. w’antìrė that’s not the computer he broke. .øssh. v. injure; wound. .øssn. v. be limited; øssnũ yėlwa we’ve led such lim- ited lives. v. .øtsh. be false; fake; ga’bemm zen tepøt- shadobó they totally kludged the numbers on that re- port. .øy. v. be difficult; gal zawsã ngo zamda’sh søy- olpė it’s hard to understand when that robot talks. .øzzr. v. threaten; endanger. p · P · p · P · p palamda n. word. pan adv. so, thus; as discussed; Daujjachũ, pan nerìrau I implore you, don’t do that; Pan depenìrén! Yanìr! I won’t do it! Ever! A: Tanya Radá zwĩ sõga zwẽ hlantau? B: Pan auwìrė. Hlaryė yũ’ desnė A: Could Radá be the spy? B: Likely not. I believe it’s someone else. 1. n. presentation, demonstration. parrba 2. n. movie; gal zìn yeng o parrba onndiinwayá that movie during the get-together was awesome! patacha n. alphabet. pegomja n. drink, beverage. pel n. female back. pper n. shoe. pperũnng n. pair of shoes. pìnn prn. it (tangible; inanimate). pomja n. food (but see kìr). pong n. hose, tube, tubing; pong øsmė the hose is clogged up. ppø n. biproduct. ppronng n. problem; defect. ppwãu n. purpose, Ẽ zen yedwau o ppwãu prã dìlsė I invite you to join our group. prã 1. part. for (the sake of), benefactive (see also pren); Ẽ prã hlo pren datén I will tell him for you; to prã sìppra mamm cchwaumm teró for their own good they grinned in front of the management; Yopa zìn prã o pegomja zen tunn nnĩj hlerė Yopa is fretting over the drinks for the get-together. 2. with nominal- ized phrase, in order to, yėlìbbya prã gem sswemm zen yomjølmenyá we will have to eat these bugs in or- der for us to continue to live! pren part. to, dative (see also prã). pu n. lip (of the mouth). puwã n. moustache. pwed n. vehicle; ship; gal pwed jur etwė that ship is the color of steel. pyø n. eye; ddẽ, hlo ngo pyø’sh syung etwawayá! and, his eyes were the color of blood! ló, dẽzìramdũ, pyøda iilsa ona mamm, zawsã ona uppyó I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded before my very eyes. pyøwã n. eyelashes. pyøwìmra n. goggles. 70 r · R · r · R · r rã part. (originating) from (see renn). roì n. man. rang conj. then (of if/then); ron tunngem epe- trau, rang ìnngon iina ayìrén if this reality com- pletely changes, then that one won’t be any better. roìdrã n. semen. roìyonggyė n. jock, “cup;” protective loincloth. rau n. side. rawoì adj. side, lateral; also found as ray. rawũ adv. sideways, moving to the side; out of the di- rect path of motion. ray see rawoì. re part. because of, due to; kya re hlìzzrìrén o jẽ’nubrė at least he won’t die from it; sõnìppra re cchwaumm teró they grinned for the manager; usable with nominalized phrases, dulhlamda re Ø’sh sad- nolpìrė because I speak with an accent it is common for people to misunderstand me. red n. soil, dirt. rede n. clay. redey adj. made of clay. renn post. from (direction; see rã); pwed tũ renn unén the craft will come from the horizon. rìr part. without; lacking; Sìppra zen shøng rìr hlullpa’nėsh Briil hliimmhlodlė Briil is a master at getting what she wants out of management without giv- ing it up. rõ n. table; desk. rod conj. so; therfore. ron conj. if. royega n. semen. rriimm n. color; coloration; for “what color” ei- ther nu’wì rriimm (somewhat formal) or rrii’mmu, gem sìppra ngo pwed rrii’mmu w’adnantė? typi- cally what color are management vehicles around here? rrìnn part. than; to rrìnn hlepayelwė he is the tallest of them all. rrõ n. father. rrũ n. voice. rrun n. meaning. rryã n. essence, spirit, nature; quintessence. rryẽ n. flour. rryo n. face. rryogyė n. mask (full face). rryowã n. facial hair, beard. rũ part. as, in the capacity of; bãu pobbra rũ o sora’sh dopìryá I certainly have no interest in living as a zombie. ryãu n. ear (internal “hearing” ear) s · S · s · S · s sã n. machine. san n. chemical; dro san zen Trann hlennlũ hlìmnìzzró Trann breathed in some chemical and died shortly thereafter. sãttyonn n. technology. saujjachan n. humble request supplication; sincere begging. lit. sawgyė n. work clothes, uniform. sed n. wall, Yanoppsã ngo sed chĩ yauyamó we floated through the walls of the Polychronom. 71 Seggrøn n. The Ditches, the extramurosian terri- tories. ssann conj. then for the then-clause of an if-then construction, used only in very offical contexts. siin n. wire, cable. siing part. among; pemla jan sìppra siing yul- rawa we argued about this decision among the manage- ment. Pyom adaudroì kya’sh sìppra siing sõdya taya w’adantyá what Pyom really needs is a prolifera- tion of morons among the management. ssel n. plant. sson n. ramp. ssonng conj. otherwise; else. sswemm n. insect; sswemm zen yomjén we will eat insects. sìmrenn’sã cals). sìr 1. n. chamber. cial purpose). n. breathing gear (for toxic chemi- sud n. nose (of an animal). 2. n compartment (with a spe- a. sul .er. v. (produce) sweat. sul n. sweat (see also tìjĩta). slii n. female calf (part of the leg). snu part. after (temporal). so n. arm, primarily of a human(oid); see jjon. sõ prn. one (person); ron dyėn sõ samdau, du- jauhlén if anyone talks, I’ll go crazy; sõrra zen sagyó’ sõ’sh Ø’wė dantìrė it’s not me that was rude to the boss! sõcchã n. ghost; summũ, gem sõcchã tantė they say this place is haunted. sogyė n. arm wrap. sõìza n. common laborer. sutyã n. snout (of an animal). swã n. nose (human). swãbbo n. nostril. swãtyãngyė cloth/wrap). n. mouth and nose mask (simple swøìj n. pad; cushion. sya 1. n. flat glass. 2. n. window. syae n. glass (material). syaey adj. glass, made of glass; syaey yã pura glass phial. syamm n. friend. sõnawa n. line worker; manufacturor. syayã n. drinking glass. sõneza n. medic. sõnu prn. who? sor part. in exchange for. Chomma rã ezloì zũ sor dakkõhló I went into debt with Chomma for 100 fuckin’ Z’s. srad n. fight; resistence; bravery; (self) confidence. sral adv. even; ga’lló sral abbasã kwii hliisled- dìra nwayá hladonndė that dude is so fat that he can’t even fit in the loader. srẽ n. the right (part or area or direction). sroì adj. right. srũ adv. right, to the right, toward the right. syer n. song; tune; melody. syum n. bit; morsel; syum zen dẽngopė I want to try a bit. a. syumiiya n. a little bit. b. syumadiiya n. a very little bit. c. syumepiiya n. the teeniest tiniest bit. n. syumãngya a bout of being unwell, used quasi-verbally with the affected person in the top- ical, Ø’sh lwa syumãngyawa I had an upset stom- ach, or the part affected with possessor, Ø’ngo lwa syumãngyawa I had an upset stomach; dogwa syumãngyó I had a bout of diarrhea. syumiiyor n. microbe, germ, spore (non-technical 72 term). no’pẽba’sh syumiiyor epiizyė the Ditches are rife with little things that’ll get’cha. wawayá! and his eyes were the color of blood! syunngã n. fragment (of a physical thing). syung n. blood; ddẽ, hlo ngo pyo’sh syung et- x · Sh · x · Sh · x shẽ n. fist. sshanng n. threat. shė (and ’ėsh, ’sh) part. focus and topic marker. sshar n. male calf (part of the leg). shiim n. female shoulders. Shnasay n “Festival of Assets, mian/Royddinese holiday (< Hnasàì). a Mizem- sshnu’wì adv. what kind? sshnu’wì ddyod tantė? what kind of animal are they? sshnu’wì ggii gema w’antė What kind of book is this one? sho n. tree. shoì n. wood. shoye n. wood material shoyey adj. wooden. n. shøng genitalia; Sìppra zen shøng rìr hlullpa’nėsh Briil hliimmhlodlė Briil is a master at getting what she wants out of management without giv- ing it up. sshra n. breast. asshra sshũ n. fang. art. sshwu kind of, type of, generalizer for type/kind; dro sshwu ãuyaja zen lyaudrė we need a miracle (of some kind); jãul momja noì sshwu hlan ngo sãngya w’antė cancer is a disease of every kind of animal or person; gem sshwu pwed’ėsh ge’nnra sepejeddìrė this type of vehicle is useless here. sshyoj n. gate. shønggyė n. underwear. shũj throat (internal); see also brad. shøngwã n. any hair in the anogenital region. shwan n. clouds (the sky). shrũ n. size. shyoìn n. weight. t · T · t · T · t ta n. attribute. tã n. yes (slang; see tan). tal 1. n. nail of finger or toe. 2. n. claw, hoof . tamba conj. or, used in choice questions, zwĩ amma tamba urta zen nujmė do you prefer the yel- low one or the blue one? tan interj. yes. tantang conj. although, even though with verb in adverbial form, followed by clause with nn, tantang nepettũ, nn zwĩ yauta onũ utrén even though you’re completely opposed to it, the deal will go through. tanya part. question particle, comes at start of clause or immediately before the verb, tanya gem sho wė antyá this is a tree?! epoì ggii zen tanya yud nereddau? could you translate an entire book? tany’ìr (stress final tany’ìr) Fr., n’est-ce pas? added after the clause. tag question, right? 73 taucchẽ n. corporation. tẽ n. water. tii adv. finally; tii nãsolpó you finally got it! tiim n. female upper arm. tìjĩta n. sweat, specifically malodorous sweat (see also sul). to pro. they. tol n. symbol; glyph; mark. triing n. ceramic(s). triinge n. ceramic material. triingey adj. ceramic. ttã n. rear end; posterior. ttamm n. child. ttau part. with (accompaniment). ttãun n. resin, plastic. ttãune n. plastic material. ttãuney adj. plastic ttìd n. rag, any tattered fabric. ttrìn n. beacon. ttyang n. day. ttyaunn n. agreement; contract. ttyiil (Ditch. chiḷ) adv. yet; still. go’ttyang ttyiil terrén they will still be young tomorrow. something amazing! Yanoppsã dro ponsìroì zoja rã o dro sshwu ttyonn w’antė yũ’ sesnė the Poly- chronom is believed to be some sort of technical marvel from some unknown intelligence. ttyud n. end, soranngra cchã w’antė the end of life is death; gon iiwasã ngo ttyud øsrũ, nn chon hløsma’sh hleponsìratė that tip of the nudge-rod is broken, but a certain wonder-dude seems clueless (about it). tũ n. frontier; horizon line; pwed tũ renn unén the craft will come from the horizon. tunn adv. now. tunngem n. reality (this reality); tantang tun- ngem Ø’sh noìta adũtũ, nn tyiil derrdė even though everything is horrible for me right now, I’m not going to lose who I am; ron tunngem epetrau, rang ìnngon iina ayìrén if this reality completely changes, then that one won’t be any better. tra n. the left (part or area or direction). troì adj. left trũ adv. left, to the left, toward the left. twã adv. even. twamm n. smell. twãuj n. humor caused by botched automation. tyã 1. n. mouth. 2. n. opening, Yal pẽba ngo tyã renn hlãbyuggó the Yal fell out of the mouth of the ditch. ttyonn n. skilled creation; Liid! Nomaley dro tty- onn zen hlìnngorjó Look! Little Noma has just made tyãwã n. goatee tyal n. culture. U · U · U · U · U .ub. v. discuss; talk about. .ubbr. v. be mysterious. .ubr. con- stantly, persistently; depamrìrũ, zonnu nemlo’ yu remain; persist. 2. v.adv. 1. v. zen dubrulrá “I will oppose your decision ’til my dying day!” .ucch. v. bind, in particular handcuff. A com- mon word of verbal violence, (Ẽ) pucchyá cuff you! 74 get cuffed! For exasperation, Ø pucchyá cuff me or (Ø’ngo) dã pucchyá cuff my balls!. Very colloquial and low register, just pussh! .ũch. v. be clear, be transparent; be translucent. .uchn. v. be clever. .ud. 1. v. be divided be separate. rately, tudøngó they went out separately. 2. v.adv. sepa- .ũd. 1. v. exceed (a limit); be too much. too. 2. v.adv. .udd. v. be clever; (interesting). ũdũdũ adv. utterly, lit. “too, too.” .ugg. 1. v. come out (of), emerge from; Yal pẽba ngo tyã renn hlãbyuggó the Yal fell out of the mouth of the ditch. 2. v. stand out; .ugr. v. be permanent; be eternal. .uj. 1. v. be certain; be indisputable. 2. v.adv. cer- tainly; Chomma hlujaunlén o yu jan hlowayá he’s convinced himself that Chomma will certainly forget. .ujj. v. be luxurious. .ujm. v. like, have a preference for; roì zen dujmė I prefer men. .ukk. v. hate; despise; abhor. .ul. v. see; ggii zen tunn hliidoì roì zen dulė I see a man who is reading a book. .ulhl. v. be odd; be strange. .ull. v.ref. depart; leave (a location); may take either zen or renn for the location; Pyom renn nyulla zen tepiimmlìrén they will never allow us to leave Pyom; Pyom zen lyulla pepiigghló We’ve all be forbidden to leave Pyom. .ullp. v. control. v. .ulr. argue; dispute; pemla jan sìppra si- ing yulrawa we argumed about this decision among the management. pemla’sh sìppra mar diimmh- lulró I argued with management about this decision (and likely got the decision reversed); depamrìrũ, zonnu nemlo’ yu zen dubrulrá “I will oppose your decision ’til my dying day!” v. please (sense of like); Dulyau. Tanya llyã .uly. daryonnreddė? Please. Could I select again? .umm. we’ll chat with Trann tomorrow. v.ref. chat, go’ttyang Trann nyummén .umr. v. be employed; have work. .un. 1. v. come; pwed tũ renn unén the craft will come from the horizon; iilsoì chyẽ yø iid tanlunó two hounds ran out at us. 2. in telling time, be, al- ways in the perfective for the pres. and fut., tunn donrõ’nu’nó what time is it now? (< donrõ’nu unó); Kelta hluwén o yan, donrõ’nu’nó? What time will it be when Kelta returns? v. be a problem; be problematic; cause trouble; .ũn. wãj iiyũnė (it’s) just a little problem. ũna n. problem; ũna zen dẽliidén I will analyze the problem. .und. v. rush; hurry. .unl. v. be worthy. ũnng n. set, collection. .unngch. v. crush. .unnr. v. bother; burden. .ũnt. v. be cold. a. .iiy.ũnt. v. be chilly, be cool. .uny. v. be five 5. .up. v. throw. .upch. v. vomit. v. .uppy. explode, burst open; ló, dẽzìramdũ, pyøda iilsa ona mamm, zawsã ona uppyó I’m tellin’ ya, dude, the robot itself exploded before my very eyes. .ur. 1. v. close, shut. a. yã pura n. phial. 2. v. tie up, seal. .ũr. v. collapse; fall apart; hlìmnawũrén he’s on the verge of work-collapse. .urd. v. bend, curve; be flexible. .urn. v. remove; take out; delist. 75 .urr. v. be in charge. .urrg. v. be funny; amuse. .urrj. v. learn, study. .urt. v. be blue. .ury. v. convert (into something else). .us. v. lack; be missing. .ushr. to comprehension. v. comprehend, grasp; singly, it only refers v. .on.ushr. catch, especially of some- a. thing fleeing or about to escape, koìhlan zen lonushroyá y’all caught whatever it was flying around! .usn. 1. v. run out, be used up, be gone. 2. v.gov to be exhausted (due to), nadawusnatyá you look really exhausted (from work). usnod’ yesterday (see usnottyang). (stress final usnod’) adv., n., colloquial, usnottyang adv., n. yesterday; (see usnod’). .uss. v. repeat. v. .ũt. be bad; tantang tunngem Ø’sh noìta adũtũ, nn tyiil derrdė even though everything is hor- rible for me right now, I’m not going to lose who I am. .utr. v. happen, occur; hlo ngo pyø’sh yannu dde zonnu utró when and how did that happen to his eye? tantang nepettũ, nn zwĩ yauta onũ utrén even though you’re completely opposed to it, the deal will go through; dro utra zen duló I saw something. .uw. v. return, go/come back; Senn nrawa iid tunn hluwė Senn is returning to the manufactory now. .uy. v. be ten, 10. .ũy. v.ref. have sex with. .aut.ũy. v. a. jje sõsuya n. homosexual female. b. roì sõsuya n. homosexual male. c. engage in prostitution; tantang dautũyũ, nn Ẽ la o mauta wė dantìra ngo jẽ’nubrayá! I may be a prostitute, but at least I’m not a sell-out like you! • c.i. sõnautũya n. prostitute. • c.ii. sõnautũyan n. prostitution. .uz. v. be next. .uzr. v. save (from harm). .uzy. v. be thirsty. .uzzy. paint. v. trembel; shake, violently, as in mixing uzzyasã earthquake; uzzyasã iiyera mild earthquake. n. mixing machine. uzzyasã era n. w · W · w · W · w wã n. hair, fur. wãcha n. scruff, whiskers. weng n. fabric, cloth. wenge n. cloth material. adv. wãj minutes. just; only; wãj nrõzad enchó just a few wengey adj. made of cloth, fabric. wang n. infant; Chyii Yopa rã o wang hlẽjyó Chyii had Yopa’s baby. waud n. corpse; dead body. waunn n. bottom; sole (of the foot). wenn n. model. wė part. predicate marker; usually elided to w’ before vowels; may be omitted altogether when the context is clear; sõga wė hlanta ìradė he’s not really a spy; gem gen’nu w’antyá? what is all this?! wii n. nucleus; core. wiir n. right; permission; confined to Mizemmian contract law. 76 a. wiir .er. v. grant formal privileges for, MngR Shoì ngo Bbed prã Abem ngo Yuzz ye o zwan ngo sekna zen wiir abreró MngR has (officially and beneficently) granted to Bbed Shoì transfer of employ- ment to the world of Yuzz. wo n. off world; foreign; unfamiliar; gemoì roì, wo ngo taucchẽ prã o sõga wė hlonantė this man is un- deniably a spy for a foreign corporation. wo see o. wooõ interj. oooh! wøm part. across, crossing (directional, see nnau). wul n. medication; drug; medicine. a. wul .er. v. take/use drugs, wul dalerìssyó I only started doing drugs once. n. wulìchra poison; wulìchra zen pomjoboì ddyod ya’netũ hleshmó’ yun, hlaugrausrìzzró the poisoned beast howled three time and then promptly died a miserable death y · Y · y · Y · y yā copula, it is certain that, preserved in the ar- chaizing story-telling style, as well as Ditchling, where it more closely approximates simple “to be.” Yanoppsã n. Polychronom, Yanoppsã ngo sed chĩ yauyamó we floated through the walls of the Poly- chronom. yã n. cup, vessel for holding liquid. yad n. dwelling. a. yad .er. v. dwell. yaj n. the top/upper (part or area or direction). yajũ adv. up, moving up yal n. Yal, a hive insect similar to an ant. 1. n. yan time; a point in time; kiimm tera ngo dyėn yan lyiichølmė whenever they sound the 2. n. times, contracted alarm we must all line up. with a number in adverbial form, so ya’netũ three times, as in wulìchra zen pomjoboì ddyod ya’netũ hleshmó’ yun, hlaugrausrìzzró the poisoned beast howled three time and then promptly died a miserable death a. o yan conj. when, as, clause-final temporal conjunction, Kelta hluwén o yan, donrõ’nu’nó? What time will it be when Kelta returns? yanìr (accent final, yanìr) adv. never (archaic); used mostly as an absolute rejection, Pan de- penìrén! Yanìr! I won’t do it! Ever! yannu adv. when (at what point in time); see also zranu; hlo ngo pyø’sh yannu dde zonnu utró when and how did that happen to his eye? yãud 1. n. personality. yãu’dadėkwė he’s really trashy. 2. n. character; hlo(’sh) yaumm n. sun, star. ye part. in, at, general locative; Ø’ngo so ye adlė it hurts in my arm. yėd n. (slang) cock, dick. yej n. female muscles, musculature; hlo’sh yej adãjė she’s very lithe. part. before, temporal; nomja yel jjir zen yel nøìmrau wash your hand before you eat. yeng part. during, while, when. yĩ n. anus. yĩntyã n. “bullshit,” in the sense of non-sense, etc. a. yĩntyã .er. v. talk BS. yìn part. with, by means of, instrumental; ggyo yìn nenauzau try doing it with a tool. a. triingey ggyo n. tool made of ceramic. b. triinge prã o ggyo n. tool for working ceramic material. c. trii’ngo ggyo n. tool related to ceramics. yìnnra adv. nowhere; tunn nerba zen yìnnra 77 dulìrė I don’t see what you’re talking about anywhere. yìr interj. no. yìrhlan prn. nobody, no one; hlwud Ttadda zen tedwũ, yìrhlan topìra nwayá hlepodyayá Ol’ Ttad there is such an utter moron that nobody wants him to belong to their team. yìyìr (accent final) idiom, isn’t it? ain’t it? right? when the speaker strongly expects you to agree; the register is somewhat low; Go’nngyo zen niilauzā. Nakkabbølmė, yìyìr? Try liftin’ that damn tool. It’s fuckin’ heavy, ain’t it? yõ n. ice. yõe n. ice material. yongwã n. pubic hair (see also shøngwã). yõnr’ersa n. igloo, lumitalo. yõì n. exoskeleton; shell; carapace. yø prn. we (exlcusive). yøì adj. upper, up high (see yaj). conj. yũ’ that, clause-final conjunction for re- ported speech and thought; gema zwi ̃ bbran wė antén yũ’ dapnė I think this is the night. The use of yũ’ is sufficient to imply a verb of speaking or cognition, with the main verb focusing on other el- ements, Yìr! yũ’ hlosyobesó “No!” he (said) with a sinister grin. yu’ssã (< yud.sã) n. interface. yud n. translation (see suryamda); tanya yud zen jĩ neró? did you analyze the translation? yun part. on (top of), on the surface of; touching; auja yun amma zen hliichwau connect the yellow one to the blue one. yuyũ’ hluhlũ (from yũ’) rude onomatopoeia for when people are talking to themselves oddly, often implying mental illness. a. yuyũ hluhlũ .er. v. mumble to oneself; Q: Gìd nranu’sh narė? A: Dro gal yuyũ’ hluhlũ hlauw- erė Q: Do you know where Gìd is? A: Probably off mum- bling to himself somewhere. z · Z · z · Z · z zã n. male muscles, musculature; hlo’sh zã’dìizyė he’s really built. jja Yanoppsã rã tunn pastė the phenomenon is being transmitted somehow or other from the Polychronom. zad n. part. zen part. direct object marker. zann adv. then (a distant point in time). ziimm n. information. zanngal n. another (distant) reality. zar n. surface. zaud n. wax. zawsã (some might spell it zausã, ignoring—or not recognizing—the verbal element .aw. work) n. robot; zẽ adv. already. zel n. situation; “the deal.” zìn n. hanging out, chilling, impromptu meeting or party. This is originally a Mizemmian term meaning roughly “invite/summons” for the context of being called to appear before a supervisor. The (ironic) meaning morphed into the current semantic range which has a legitimate neutral to positive conno- tation. Gal zìn yeng o parrba onndiinwayá that movie during the get-together was awesome! a. zìn .er. v. have an informal gathering. zon part. via, by way of; following. zelojja n. phenomenon; dro keng ìwũ zwĩ zelo- zonnu adv. how? hlo ngo pyø’sh yannu dde 78 zonnu utró when and how did that happen to his eye? zwansõ n. Role Maser (in the yal culture). zøbbenn n. ankle. zød n. foot. zødded n. toe. zøddõìd n. big toe. zøggyė n. sock(s). zøttal n. toenail (of person). zra n. time; continuum of time. zranu adv. when? (during which period of time); see also yannu; zranu Kana gem hlessén when will Kana be here? zra’ppa n. eon. zrãun n. illusion(s). zrenng n. nectar. zwẽ adv. might, may, used with -au in the present, zwẽ nõyau you may be correct; with normal tense marking for past and future, zwẽ yiibbrén we may go; zwẽ hliibbró he may have gone; zwẽ hliibbrawa he may have been going. A: Tanya Radá zwĩ sõga zwẽ hlantau? B: Pan auwìrė. Hlaryė yũ’ desnė A: Could Radá be the spy? B: Likely not. I believe it’s someone else. zwenng n. transaction; deal. art. zwĩ the previously discussed, reinforcing the definite nature of the discourse topic; zwĩ riimm asha dde dwad’w’antė the colors (we were discussing) are red and brown; tantang nepettũ, nn zwĩ yauta onũ utrén even though you’re completely opposed to it, the deal will go through. zwõ n. prize. zwõj n. male upper arm. zrẽ part. excepting, except (for), excluding. zzad n. hero. zrøn n. (personal) well-being. zũ n. currency; credit; dollars. zũj adv. somewhat. zwan n. role; professonal job. B Names zzẽ n. divison; group; unit (of people typically). zzran n. fate; destiny. zzur n. outer elbow. Female first names: Azé, Briil, Chyii, Etu, Giilya, Hlala, Jeya, Jjau, Kada, Kahla, Kaja, Kana, Kejja, Kelta, Kepa, Kerrda, Kili, Lassu, Llød, Lyã, Lyadii, Lyau, Nẽna, Ølla, Øwel, Pøm, Pri- inng, Radá, Ralya, Sriinya, Tallii, Trenna, Wanya, Womé, Yattíí, Yerra, Yiizii, Yìyii. Male first names: Aned, Azó, Bbed, Broì, Chomma, Ddiinng, Ddũd, Dwann, Etíímm, Eyád, Gìd, Gwarr, Gyann, Hlellod, Hlonng, Jobód, Joro, Krenn, Kyanng, Kyemm, Kyod, Ladda, Lann, Mẽnng, Ngol, Ngudo, Nronn, Pasro, Praled, Renn, Resh, Sann, Senn, Srom, Syomm, Tõl, Tonro, Trann, Uba, Wìmm, Wossa, Yopa, Yøtta, Yunn. Unisex first names: Ãnng, Iissya, Koyo, Noma, Pød, Yeng. Family names date back to the times of the original acquisition of Pyom by Royddin and were common terms for occupations and functional areas at that time. Some of these are still relevant terms in the language (pwed, jjuj, õ) and some are still close, such as denn algorithm, but most are purely names to residents of the Planet. The vast majority would not associate Bbrìd with robots for any reason. Acquired labor force members get Nrawa Manufactory as their family name. 79 • Bbrìd Robots • Chyønng Assembly • Ddar Runner • Ddenn Computers • Ėj Plumber • Hlwamm Miller • Jjuj Metal • Kyãunng Mold Maker • Kyiid Repair • Llyamm Technical/Systems • Mmẽj Clerk • Nremm Foreman • Õ Engineer • Pwed Vehicles • Rryãj Driving • Shoì Wood • Snaung Mechanic • Snėd Logistics • Srãud Construction • Ssød Human Resources • Ttad Maintenance • Ttiinng Saw/Cut • Ttred Loader • Ttũ Efficiency • Yurr Security In giving someone’s first name, the order is Family Name ngo First Name, with ngo often written without the vowel: Ddar ngo Resh, Mmẽj ng Kana. It’s somewhat rare for people’s last names to be used as a primary form of address. Using it typically indicates some kind of criminal reputation. 80 C Ditchling – pé `bámda “Proper” Siinyamda per se, is a thing of the past in many senses. But, it was characterized by In the area around Senn, a crisp accent somewhat akin to a French person speaking Italian. there are some management elites who still speak the Pyomian dialect of Mizemm (Corporate Standard). Although there are many direct loans in Siinyamda from Mizemm, the languages are not in any way mutually intelligible. And, at the far end of Siinyamda (technically speaking, Padnamda) there is the broad dialect known “officially” to Senn as Sumrìra ngo Pamda (The Speech of Unemployment), but everyone calls it Pẽbamda (Ditch Talk) or simply Pẽba (ditch, .ẽb. dig a hole or trench). In English the name is “Ditchling,” after the inhabitants themselves. To a speaker of the workplace dialect, Pẽbamda comes across similar to the gap between a French person speaking Italian and Brazilian Portuguese. It can be very difficult for them to understand each other. Here’s why: Standard Pẽbũ namdwìnn. Ẽ’sh eppũnob- Pẽba eddė. Pẹba namdirā. nireða. Efō gụna Ē’prẹ Don’t speak Ditchling. It can get you in much trouble. Don’cha talk Ditchling. Ye can bring a heap o’ that trub- ble on’ya. The dot under vowels marks a reduced vowel, with a raised pitch of the vowel in the following syllable. Other notworthy features of Ditchling — Obligatory g- on inanimate derived nouns (from ge’, go’, ga’, deictic markers). St.: ũna, Ditch.: gụna, trouble. If literate speakers of Siinyamda had occasion to write down Ditchling, they might spell these with g’. Derivation of plural animate nouns with t- and an absence of s-forms: St.: sõcchã, ghost, Ditch.: h.iw.a/t.iw.a, ghost/ghosts (< *s.iw.a/sọn.iw.a). Sparing use of .ant. or its being replaced entirely by a fixed form yā that is only used when the speaker feels certain of facts. Standard Summũ, gem sõcchã tantė. Pẽba Ge tiwa yun tumma. Wạsh todjumman, nn ge tiwa yā. is say this place They haunted. They gossip that (there are) ghosts here. They are just idly gossiping, but it’s definitely haunted here. There are many basic differences in vocabulary, St. jjiir hand vs. Ditch. tō, St. bãu pobbra “zombie,” someone brain-washed, vs. hāshāṛya “he meakly wanders.” Word order is rather strictly (S) O S.V in Ditchling and the particle zen is extremely rare for transitive verbs. The other most common particle is prẹ (a mixed dative/benefactive). Where 81 ~ Standard maintains a plethora of particles (cases) from Mizemmian origins, Ditchling often re- verts to native roots in the same context. Standard Jjiir zen nejwìnn. Ggyo yìn nen- Pẽba auzau. Tō nejiṛḷā. Gyho ejū nenāzā. Don’t use your hand(s). Try doing it with a tool. .ej. use, .en. do, .auz. try Standard Nomja yel jjiir zen nøìmrau. Pẽba Nomja ạwū tō nōmṛḷā. Wash your hands before you eat. .omj. eat, .ãw. precede, .øìmr. wash The standard language lacks a progressive tense and accomplishes it with tunn now, usually right before the verb. Ditchling has reanalyzed the -an ending (act of/process of X) as progres- sive. Standard Senn nrawa iid tunn hluwė. Pẽba Senn nṛl ̣awa ga huwan. Senn is returning to the man- ufactory (now). .uw. return, come/go back Words derived via -an in standard Siinyamda can only be used properly as nouns, but not so in Ditchling. A speaker of standard would likely hear Senn nṛl ̣awa ga huwan as Senn, y’all’s working (there?) [gibberish...].” In Ditchling, .uw. expects both a subject and a location (in that order). If the location were missing then the meaning “headed back (to where he normally is)” would be the default deduction. Factory workers, particularly males, also often attempt to emulate Ditchling in their cursing for an extra dose of testosterone. This has produced the male pseudo-pronoun ló (/loː/) which is a variant of Ditchling ṛl ̣ō (St.: roì male; man). It is comfortably translated as “dude” or Spanish “güey.” With the masculine diminutive -da added the vowel is often shortened to normal length producing Loda, in the atmosphere of “Bro.” So, Ló, pucchyá!; Lóda, púsh! (< p.ucch∅); and even G’adúsh, Loda that reall cuffs, Bro (cf. “that SUX ASS, Bro”) are common in speech among male friends. This also serves in the sense of “Busted!” with Ø’znn tucchó they’ve cuffed me. And Nucchén is common for “You’re gonna KILL me!” when casually asking for forgiveness in advance of explaining a confession. If threatening another with physical violence, Dìnnkucchén, Ló! I’m about to fuck (you) up, Man! 82 D Conversational Routines Nyey hello! (2 people meet) Lyey hello! (3+ people meet) Zo’nnoìta? How is everything? Much less common and “old fashioned:” Zo’nnoìkya?) Zo’nnaldė? Zo’nnaldwa? How are you, how have you been getting along? Ta’nnodwė? Tan’lodwė? Are you well (now)? Ta’nnubrodwa? Tan’lubrodwa? Have you been well (since we last met?) N/Latodwė or N/Lodwatė. You seem well. Danyė. I thank. Thank you. Danyá! thanks very much! For please you have to decide who should be pleased by the theoretical result of the proposal. Dulyau or Dulyũ, X. I would be pleased if X, (please do something for me.) N/L/Hl/Tulyau or N/L/Hl/Tulyũ, X. May it please you/him/her/them to/for X. Nulyau. Ẽ’prã gem pomja / (antė. / zen dassó / delló). (please, I’m offering something (up) to you (or your people). Pìnn zen zwẽ nebla’sh dadulyén. You could translate this as please do me the honor of accepting it. This would be for a thing that’s there. If you had made a proposal like marrying someone, then: Nulyau. Nyẽ meyedwa zen dadopė. (Ron) (Geng’ya’sh) zwẽ neblén o yun/yu’sh, (rang) depulyén. Please. I so want us to be married. (If) (This’thing/idea) you would accept, (then) I’ll be over the moon. There would not be two things in the topical/focus so: Geng’ya’sh zwẽ neblén o yun, depi- If and then are not as obligatory as they are in English. More used for emphasis in ijulyén. theoretical scenarios. Slang: Q: ’Nnagwa? ’N(u)lagwa? (X’nu n/l.ag.wa?) Wha’ss up? (What... have you been smuggling?) A: Ìwetla, Lō. Not much, Man. Epakketla, Lōda. Nothin’ the fuck at all, bro. Wã’cchud / Wã’ppã, Bbyodda. Same ’ol shit, Boss. Lō, nu’sh? / Lōda, nu’sh? How ’bou’chu? The REALLY illicit or extreme answer to this is yĩn’etla my ass is empty. It implies even that I’m not eating enough to need to take a dump. “I ain’t (even) got SHIT goin’ on.” Q: Ló, yėd/pong/bbyod zõn’aldwa / zõn hlaldwa? Dude, how’s it hanging? A: Hleppuggwa, Lód’, Dany’. Nnu’sh? He’s been “up” a lot lately, Bro, Thanx. How ’bout you? A. Dãudeddrė. Hlan pìtewė. Can’t complain. He’s gettin’ his fare share of suckin’ ’n’ lickin’. 83 Less vulgar: Q: Nyey, Lō, Cchìl purnó?! Hey, Man, still not delisted? A: Nyey, Lōda, Tã, cchìl tõsrā. Ddẽ nosũ, Sadiij’! Hey, Bro, Yeah, they still don’t know (about whatever I’m likely doing to get be delisted). And you too! Congrats! Farewells (depends on context of the goodbye): Nashtau. Lashtau. Be safe. Nodwau. Lodwau. Ne well. Nashtiibrau. Lashtiibrau. Go/travel safely. Nashtøngau. Lashtøngau “Go and come back safely” Nyìmney! Lyìmney!. “See you” (again) soon. Llyã nyeya’j / lyeya’j Until we’re together next together, until I see you (we see each other) again. Dãd! Bye! (said by the person who does not go.) Nãd! Lãd! Bye! (said by the person leaving.) Slang (on goodbye): Ølmė’rlìrė (< ølma erlìrė) or Ølmė’rlìryá or Ditch Nō’ṛḷme’ṛḷhiṛḷa (< noì ølma erlìrė) The obligations don’t wait (patiently), Ditch: All (of the) obligations don’t wait (pa- tiently). “Gotta go. Lots to do.” Gãgã memyìrā. Widges don’t assemble themselves. Ssì’nnén Well, it will be soon, “Catch’ya later!” Nō’tė’znn nucchā Cuff’em all, “Don’ let nobody mess wit’cha.” Names and introductions: Zonnu nondrė? Zo’nnondrė? What’s your name? Also just nondra’nu? in a very low register. Ddũd dondrė. Ddẽ (n)Ẽ nu’sh? (Ddẽ’Nẽ’nnu’sh?) My name is/I’m Ddũd. And what about you, what’s yours? Ø’sh Etíímm. Nyiijoyė. I’m Etíimm, Nice to meet you. Ẽ’sh zzẽ’nu antė? Nranu nersė? What’s your group? Where do you bunk/live? Ø’sh aunwuyonna (84a) pedwė. Abbasã derė. Dwu’sh (/Nr’ersa’sh) wezletoì llaung (or Nr’ezleta) y’antė. Cchu’ppẽba. I’m in Group 84 (more like “I belong to the 84th,” lit. “I’m owned by 84.”) I run a loader. (my) dorm is in section/area 103. (It’s a) shit hole. Ẽ’sh dwuj nrappã w’osantũ, g’epohla. What a surprise that your dorm is a toilet too. They don’t talk about the weather much, Ssa, ge’ttyang sennleddė. Well, one can breathe today. Tan. (Tã., Tang.) Ny/Lyiijeddė. Yes. (Yeah., Yep.) We can be happy. Tan. (Tã., Tang.) Ny/Lyanyeddė. Yes. (Yeah., Yep.) We can be grateful. 84 E Font and Script Variants nþ Amdol E\rdonra zon sinyamda pr~ a Ä Pátaca 85 86 87 88 Here are some names, handwritten. Yeng Wanya Hlellod he\lód Wanya Yev Praled Praléd Kiilii Kilí Srom Srom Tall Ta\l Pød Pød Sriinya Srinya 89Siinyamda image
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